The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-PRACTICE-1

April 18, 2019, 8:38 p.m.
Countries: Italy

"FGM/C was a problem in some immigrant communities... The Department for Equal Opportunities operated a hotline for victims and other affected parties who requested the support of authorities and NGOs" (P. 14).
April 11, 2019, 11:47 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire

"Act No. 98-757 of 23 December 1998 penalizing female genital mutilation has been enforced since 2012. Practitioners and sponsors of excision ceremonies have been sentenced in various jurisdictions" (6). "Since January 2012, seven persons have been convicted by the courts of Katiola, Danané, Séguéla, Odienné, Bouaké, Tabou and Man, following the adoption of Act No. 98-757 of 23 December 1998, which criminalizes female genital mutilation" (16). "A baseline survey for the 'Tracking Results Continuously' approach (TRaC) , to be used to monitor and evaluate the abandonment of the practice of female genital mutilation in Côte d’Ivoire, was conducted in 2013 by the National School of Statistics and Applied Economics and...more
April 8, 2019, 7:22 a.m.
Countries: Portugal

"The third action plan to prevent and eliminate FGM/C increased awareness of the problem and helped lead to 80 reports in 2016, all involving girls over 15 years of age" (p. 11).
April 1, 2019, 7:42 a.m.
Countries: Netherlands

"The Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport continued funding for the Pharos enter of Expertise on Health for Migrants and Refugees to run a project to prevent and counter FGM/C. Pharos also operated Focal Point, which functioned as a FGM/C knowledge hub for aid workers, law enforcement agencies, policy advisors, and others" (p. 11).
March 31, 2019, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: Russia

"Local NGOs in Dagestan reported that FGM/C was occasionally practiced in some villages" (47).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi

"The law does not specifically prohibit FGM/C. According to press reports from 2011, some cases of FGM/C were prosecuted as unlawful wounding" (para 84). "A 2014 UN Human Rights Committee report expressed concern regarding the existence of FGM/C in some regions of the country. A few small ethnic groups practiced FGM/C" (para 84).
March 25, 2019, 2:28 p.m.
Countries: Liberia

In Tapita, Nimba County, a court case charging negligent homicide, criminal solicitation, and criminal conspiracy was brought against four individuals after 16-year-old Zaye Doe died after she was forced to undergo FGM/C (while being forcibly initiated into the Sande society). The accused were arraigned, but the second hearing of the case was postponed because the prosecuting attorney was ill. The case was later suspended (23).
March 25, 2019, 2:20 p.m.
Countries: Liberia

"The most significant human rights issues included extrajudicial killings by police; police abuse, harassment, and intimidation of detainees and others; arbitrary arrest and detention; press harassment; official corruption; lack of accountability in cases of violence against women and children, including rape, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C); criminalization of same-sex sexual conduct; and trafficking in persons" (1). "No FGM/C perpetrators, however, were fully prosecuted" (23). "There was steady movement in prior years toward limiting or prohibiting the practice. Government officials routinely engaged traditional leaders to underscore the government’s commitment to eliminate FGM/C. The president, minister of internal affairs (as overseer of traditional culture), and the minister of gender, children,...more
March 22, 2019, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Maldives

"There were no data on the frequency of FGM/C, although religious leaders called for the practice to be revived in 2014. Local NGOs reported the practice persisted, but societal stigma restricted public discussion of the issue" (23).
March 22, 2019, 8:47 a.m.
Countries: Canada

"Refugee status may be granted on the grounds of threatened FGM/C that may be considered gender-related persecution. Provincial child protection authorities may intervene to remove children from their homes if they suspect a risk of FGM/C. Internal government reports obtained by media organizations asserted FGM/C practitioners travelled to a third country to provide the illegal procedure. The government instructed border services officers to monitor baggage for FGM/C equipment and to be aware of young female nationals returning from travel in regions where they may be subjected to the practice" (p. 10 - 11).
March 21, 2019, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Syria

"There is no law against FGM/C. Observers provided no reports of FGM/C" (para 188).
March 18, 2019, 7:25 a.m.
Countries: France

"In a November 2016 interministerial plan to combat violence against women, the government introduced new measures to prevent genital mutilation and support affected women and girls" (p. 18).
March 14, 2019, 3:31 p.m.
Countries: Norway

"Action plan entitled 'The Right to Decide about One’s Own Life — an Action Plan to Combat Negative Social Control, Forced Marriage and Female Genital Mutilation 2017–2020, in 2017, and other action plans, including: (i) On combating human trafficking; (ii) Against hate speech, aimed at preventing hate speech on all prohibited grounds of discrimination, including gender; (iii) To strengthen investigation and prosecution in the police and the prosecuting authorities, including in relation to cases of gender-based violence against women, in 2016; (iv) Against domestic violence, entitled 'A Life without Violence', for the period from 2014 to 2017" (2).
March 13, 2019, 7:37 p.m.
Countries: Colombia

"In Colombia, female genital mutilation is a form of violence that affects the lives and health of girls and women, specifically those belonging to indigenous peoples. Objective 7 of the 2014–2018 National Development Plan set out two strategies to address female genital mutilation and other harmful practices (Recommendation 14(c)). The first strategy calls for the requisite human and financial resources to be provided so that indigenous peoples and communities can undertake processes of intergenerational dialogue and provide care and follow-up in cases of cases of female genital mutilation, with a view to eradicating the practice, while the second calls for the development of agreed guidelines for the promotion of sexual...more
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania

"Discrimination against women, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C); early and forced marriage; political marginalization of southern-based (non-Arab) ethnic groups and of the Haratine caste of slave descendants; racial and ethnic discrimination; discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) persons and persons with HIV/AIDS; child labor; and inadequate enforcement of labor laws also occurred" (page 1). "The law states that any act or attempt to damage a girl’s sexual organs is punishable by imprisonment and a fine of 120,000 to 300,000 ouguiyas ($363 to $910). Nevertheless, authorities seldom applied the law, since the accompanying implementing law remained provisional. FGM/C was practiced by all ethnic groups to varying degrees and performed...more
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia

"Ministry of Health guidelines allowed the increasingly common practice, but only at government health-care facilities (…) The most common reasons cited for its practice were religious obligation, hygienic purposes, and cultural tradition" (23).
Feb. 26, 2019, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Colombia

"The law prohibits FGM/C, but isolated incidents were reported in several indigenous communities" (29).
Feb. 8, 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali

"Other human rights problems included . . . rape of and domestic violence against women and girls; female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C); human trafficking; societal discrimination against black Tuaregs, who were subjected to slavery-related practices; discrimination based on sexual orientation; and discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS and albinism. Authorities often disregarded workers’ rights, and exploitative labor, including child labor, was common" (page 1). "FGM/C is legal in the country and, except in certain northern areas, all religious and ethnic groups practiced it widely, particularly in rural areas. Although FGM/C is legal, authorities prohibited the practice in government-funded health centers. Parents generally performed FGM/C on girls between the ages of six months...more
Feb. 6, 2019, 2:48 p.m.
Countries: Liberia

"The law does not specifically prohibit FGM/C, although the government maintained that a 2011 law protecting children against all forms of violence also proscribes FGM/C. FGM/C is often performed during initiation into women’s secret Sande societies. Given the sensitivity of the topic, FGM/C surveys typically eliminate direct reference to FGM/C and instead ask respondents about initiation into a women’s secret society, making it difficult to ascertain actual prevalence rates. According to a 2013 demographic health survey, 49.8 percent of girls and women ages 15-49 had undergone the procedure. FGM/C was common and traditionally performed on young girls of northern, western, and central ethnic groups, particularly in rural areas and in...more
Feb. 4, 2019, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom

"Scotland’s National Action Plan, published 04 February 2016, to prevent and eradicate FGM, sets out an agreed range of actions and associated activities to be taken forward by Scottish Government and its partners to prevent and ultimately eradicate FGM" (38).
Feb. 1, 2019, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia

"With the existence of a legal and policy framework, and with a high level of political support to end FGM/C, the practice has declined, particularly among younger people, but still continues. In addition, the community-based and faith-based organizations play a key role in mobilizing communities against HTPs, including FGM/C" (316). "Awareness of FGM/C among women age 15-49 has remained about the same over the past decade (92% in 2005 to 93% in 2016)" (316). "More than 7 in 10 women (72%) and 77% of men believe that FGM/C is not required by their religion (Table 16.8). Seventy-nine percent of women and 87% of men believe that the practice should not...more
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:49 p.m.
Countries: India

"In India, the practice is most common amongst members of a sub-sect of Ismaili Shia Islam known as the Dawoodi Bohra community, though it is also practised by a sect of Sunnis in the southern state of Kerala. In Bohra communities, FGM is known as ‘Khatna’ or ‘Khafz’ and is usually performed on pre-pubescent girls by traditional practitioners called ‘Mullanis’" (para 2).
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso

"The procedure is one that is medically unnecessary and involves cutting and damaging a female’s genitalia to varying degrees and is rooted in the belief that a girl’s value lies in her virginity. FGM is a cultural practice — not a religious one — believed to preserve a female’s 'purity' and make her a more appealing marriage prospect and globally more than 200 million women and girls have undergone FGM, according to the World Health Organization" (para 3). "'For many years, from almost the 1960s up to early 1990s, Burkina Faso's fight against FGM was lauded and was seen as best practice. But as of late, the government has failed...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Belgium

"Reported cases were primarily filed by recent immigrants or asylum seekers" (9).
Oct. 29, 2018, 10:59 a.m.
Countries: Gambia

"Wearing a long black veil with her newly circumcised daughter on her lap, Aminata Njie vehemently gives her justification for having the two-year-old cut. 'Female circumcision is our religion and tradition,' says the tall, frail mother of five from her one-bedroom home. 'If Gambia is a democracy now, why should anyone stop us from practicing our religion and tradition?'" (para 1-3). "Three weeks ago, Njie, whose named has been changed to protect her from prosecution, travelled across the river to her husband's village to have her youngest daughter circumcised" (para 5). "Jammeh instated steep fines and jail sentences for those taking part in the ancient ritual, which many Gambians believe...more
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal

"While not commonly inflicted on adult women, almost all girls in the northern Fouta Region were victims of FGM/C, as were 60 to 70 percent of girls in the south and southeast. Sealing, one of the most extreme and dangerous forms of FGM/C, was sometimes practiced by the Toucouleur, Mandinka, Soninke, Peul, and Bambara ethnic groups. According to the NGO German Society for International Cooperation, excision, type II, was the form of FGM/C most frequently practiced According to 2012-13 survey data from the National Institute for Statistics, FGM/C had been performed on 18 percent of girls below age 14" (page 14-15).
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran

"Whether there were prosecutions for FGM/C during the year is unknown.The practice was reportedly most prevalent in Kurdish provinces in the northwest and the Persian Gulf province of Hormozgan. If individuals performed the procedure, it was usually performed on girls under the age of 10. A 2012 study on Kermanshah Province suggested that FGM/C was a common practice among women there, with more than 55 percent of girls circumcised before the age of seven. In July, Tehran University held the first publicized conference in the country on the subject" (para 150)
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia

"In urban areas, midwives performed the majority of FGM/C, while in rural areas, traditional birth attendants were the most common practitioners of FGM/C. The National Commission on Violence Against Women reported that midwives and traditional birth attendants often included female circumcision as part of a birth service 'package' and advocated for the procedure to their clients. In 2014 the Ministry of Health revoked a 2010 decree establishing guidelines for the safe practice of FGM/C. The 2010 decree overturned the ministry’s outright ban on FGM/C, which the Indonesian Ulamas Council (MUI) and other religious groups protested. The revocation transfers authority to regulate FGM/C to a health advisory body that includes religious...more
Oct. 4, 2018, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia

"Closer to home, the issue of FGM/C or berkhatan is fraught with silence in Malaysia as it is intermingled with cultural and ethnic demands alongside bodily autonomy" (para 6). "A more recent survey by Salleha Khalid et al in 2016 of 402 Malay-Muslim women revealed that a mere 4% – 16 out of 402 women – had not been “circumcised”. The same study also noted the practice was absent in other ethnic groups" (para 9). "The procedure was previously performed by the bidan or village midwives but with rapid urbanisation, it has moved to formal healthcare settings like clinics and hospitals. The 'medicalisation' of FGM/C, however, brought with it a...more
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:14 p.m.
Countries: Kenya

"Since Kenya banned the practice in 2011, FGM/C is now increasingly conducted underground, secretly in homes or in clinics by healthcare providers and workers" (para. 1). "She claims that FGM/C is still largely practiced in Kenya and is increasing due to medicalization. In Kenya, there is evidence that scrupulous medical personnel collude with parents to circumvent the law by cutting girls in their homes or in their private clinics away from public view" (para. 3). "The practice is especially prevalent in Kisii counties in Western Kenya where FGM/C is nearly universal... My research shows that parents are increasingly having their girls, some as early as 5 years old, cut by...more