The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-PRACTICE-1

July 29, 2019, 8:26 p.m.
Countries: Guinea

"The government also cooperated with NGOs in their efforts to eradicate FGM/C and educate health workers, state employees, and citizens on the dangers of the practice. More than 60 health facilities had integrated FGM/C prevention into prenatal, neonatal, and immunization services. A trend for medically trained staff to perform FGM/C under conditions that were more hygienic continued. While the “medicalization” of the practice may have decreased some of the negative health consequences of the procedure, it did not eliminate all health risks; it also delayed the development of effective and long-term solutions for the abandonment of the practice" (p. 17).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad

"The law prohibits FGM/C for girls and women, but the practice remained widespread, particularly in rural areas. By law FGM/C may be prosecuted as a form of assault, and charges may be brought against the parents of victims, medical practitioners, or others involved. Nevertheless, the lack of specific penalties hindered prosecution, and authorities prosecuted no cases during the year. The Ministry of Women, Early Childhood Protection, and National Solidarity is responsible for coordinating activities to combat FGM/C. The government, with assistance from the UN Population Fund, conducted public awareness campaigns to discourage FGM/C and highlight its dangers" (page 16).
July 19, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Guinea-Bissau

"Muslim preachers and scholars called for the eradication of FGM/C. The Joint Program on FGM/C of the UN Population Fund and UNICEF worked with the Ministry of Justice to strengthen the dissemination and application of the law by building the capacities of officials responsible for program implementation" (p. 8).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger

"The Committee remains concerned in particular that the practice of wahaya, characterized as a form of slavery, including sexual slavery, and female genital mutilation persists in the State party. It notes with concern the low number of prosecutions under the Criminal Code provisions prohibiting slavery (arts. 270.1-270.3) to criminalize perpetrators of wahaya and the low conviction rates in cases of female genital mutilation" (7).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia

"FGM/C reportedly occurred regularly, and no laws prohibit the practice. A February 6 UNICEF report, which reflected 2013 government data, estimated that 49 percent of girls age 11 and younger, or an estimated 60 million women and girls, have undergone some form of FGM/C, despite laws prohibiting medical professionals from administering it. The Ministry of Women’s Empowerment has been vocal about its opposition to FGM/C but has run up against conservative groups, including the Indonesian Ulema Council, who claimed a religious foundation for the practice. For more information, see" (Pg 27).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon

"The law protects the physical and bodily integrity of persons, and the 2016 penal code prohibits genital mutilation of all persons. Whoever mutilates the genitals of a person is subject to imprisonment from 10 to 20 years, and imprisonment for life if the offender habitually carries out this practice, does so for commercial purposes, or if the practice causes death. FMG/C remained a problem, but its prevalence remained low. As in the previous year, children were reportedly subjected to FGM/C in isolated areas of the Far North, East, and Southwest regions and in the Choa and Ejagham tribes, although the practice continued to decrease. For more information, see" (Pg...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand

"NGOs reported that FGM/C occurred in the Muslim-majority south, although statistics were unavailable" (page 29).
July 14, 2019, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia

"The penal code criminalizes the practice of clitoridectomy and provides for three months or a fine of at least 500 birr ($22) for convicted perpetrators. Conviction of infibulation of the genitals (the most extreme and dangerous form of FGM/C) is punishable by five to 10 years’ imprisonment. According to government sources, there has never been a criminal charge regarding FGM/C, but media reported limited application of the law" (p. 28).
July 14, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Brunei

"The Ministry of Religious Affairs declared circumcision for Muslim girls (sunat) a religious rite obligatory under Islam and described it as the removal of the hood of the clitoris (Type I per World Health Organization (WHO) classification). The government does not consider this practice to be FGM/C and expressed support for WHO’s call for the elimination of FGM and the call for member countries to enact and enforce legislation to protect girls and women from all forms of violence, including FGM/C" (p. 15).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8). "Prevalence of FGM/C demonstrates persistent gender inequality in Somalia. Although Article 15.4 of the PFC prohibits female circumcision, 98 percent of Somali girls are reported to have undergone the procedure. FGM/C is deeply embedded in the Somali culture: girls cannot get married without undergoing the procedure, due to widespread beliefs that it is a religious requirement, purifies women, and reduces their sexual libido to maintain...more
July 11, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea

"Government efforts to reduce FGM/C included public awareness campaigns at the local level targeting religious and community leaders. The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) worked with the government and other organizations, including the National Union of Eritrean Women and the National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students, on a variety of education programs to discourage the practice" (p. 18).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda

"The law and constitution prohibit FGM/C of women and girls and establish a maximum penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment for convicted perpetrators--or life imprisonment if the victim dies during the act of FGM/C. The government, women’s groups, and international organizations combated the practice through education and livelihood skills training. These programs, which received some support from local leaders, emphasized close cooperation with traditional authority figures and peer counseling. Nevertheless, the Sabiny ethnic group in rural Kapchorwa District and the Pokot ethnic group along the northeastern border with Kenya continued the practice; the Sabiny practiced types I and II, and the Pokot practiced type III" (Pg 27).more
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal

"The law provides criminal penalties for the perpetration of FGM/C on women and girls, but no cases were prosecuted during the year" (page 15).
July 7, 2019, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia

"FGM/C is a common practice, but data is very limited. Ministry of Health guidelines allow the practice but only at government health-care facilities" (p. 23).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo

"The law prohibits FGM/C for girls and women. It is usually perpetrated a few months after birth. According to 2015 data from the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), FGM/C had been performed on 3 percent of girls and women between ages 15 and 49 and on 1 percent of girls and young women ages15 to 19. The most common form of FGM/C was excision. Penalties for those convicted of FGM/C range from two months to five years in prison as well as substantial fines. The law was rarely enforced because most cases occurred in rural areas where awareness of the law was limited or traditional customs often took precedence over the...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan

"FGM/C was traditionally practiced in the country. The government launched a national campaign in 2008 to eradicate FGM/C by 2018. The government, with the support of the first lady, continued to prioritize the “Saleema” campaign, which raised public awareness about FGM/C throughout the year. Despite these efforts FGM/C remained a problem for women and girls throughout the country. No national law prohibits FGM/C. Since 2008, however, five states have passed laws prohibiting FGM/C: South Kordofan, Gedaref, Red Sea, South Darfur, and West Darfur. In its October report, UNESCO expressed concern that the provisions criminalizing FGM/C were removed from the Child Health Act" (Pg 64). "The government attempted to curb the...more
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan

"FGM/C is a criminal offense under the penal code, but little data existed to determine its prevalence. The law prohibits subjecting children to negative and harmful practices that affect their health, welfare, and dignity. Although not a common practice, FGM/C occurred in some regions, particularly along the northern border regions in Muslim communities. Several NGOs worked to end FGM/C, and the Ministry of Gender raised awareness of the dangers of FGM/C through local radio broadcasts" (Pg 35).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia

"Violence and discrimination against women and girls, including rape and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), were widespread" (Pg 1). "Although the provisional federal constitution describes female circumcision as cruel and degrading, equates it with torture, and prohibits the circumcision of girls, FGM/C is almost universally practiced throughout the country. UNICEF reported that 98 percent of women and girls had undergone FGM/C and that the majority were subjected to infibulation--the most severe form--which involves cutting and sewing the genitalia. At least 80 percent of Somali girls who have undergone FGM/C had the procedure performed when they were between the ages of five and 14. International and local NGOs conducted education awareness programs...more
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone

"FGM/C was a problem, with the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reporting in 2014 that nine of 10 women and girls had undergone the procedure and 13 percent of girls under age 14 underwent the procedure during 2013. Through the State of Public Health Emergency issued in August 2014 and by-laws issued in 2015 to control the spread of Ebola, the government continued to prohibit the activities of secret societies, including placing a moratorium on practicing FGM/C on women and girls. On August 19, Chief Executive Officer of the National Ebola Response Center Palo Conteh reiterated the ban on secret society activities had not been lifted and anyone violating the ban...more
June 24, 2019, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Mali

"Parents generally had FGM/C performed on girls between the ages of six months and nine years... Government information campaigns regarding the dangers of FGM/C reached citizens throughout the country, and human rights organizations reported decreased incidence of FGM/C among children of educated parents" (p. 22).
June 23, 2019, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Djibouti

"The law prohibits FGM/C, but it was a problem... The law sets punishment for FGM/C at five years’ imprisonment and a fine of one million DJF ($5,650) and NGOs may file charges on behalf of victims. In late 2014 the government convicted two women for the first time on charges of committing FGM/C. Both women, one the excisor (cutter) and the other the mother of the victim, received six-month suspended sentences. This was reportedly the only conviction. The law also provides for up to one year’s imprisonment and a fine of up to 100,000 DJF ($565) for anyone convicted of failing to report a completed or planned FGM/C to the...more
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"FGM/C was not a common practice in the country, particularly among the Saudi population, as the official government interpretation of sharia prohibits the practice" (Pg 37). "FGM/C was not a common practice for children in the country, particularly among the Saudi population, as the official government interpretation of sharia law prohibits the practice" (Pg 41).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda

"According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, FGM/C was not widely practiced in the country. The government ratified the Maputo Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (2003), which prohibits 'all forms of female genital mutilation, scarification, medicalization and para-medicalization of female genital mutilation and all other practices in order to eradicate them'" (Pg 31).
June 18, 2019, 8:29 p.m.
Countries: Greece

"On April 23, media reported an NGO employee’s allegation that in Athens there were Muslim girls forced by their families and communities to be subjected to female genital mutilation. The NGO employee said that such practices took place in apartments in central Athens and that there were major health risks. On May 3, the head of the Supreme Court ordered the Athens first instance court prosecutor to initiate a preliminary judicial investigation of the matter" (p. 20).
June 17, 2019, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Oman

"The law prohibits female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in hospitals and clinics but does not explicitly ban the practice in country. There were no reliable statistics on the prevalence of FGM/C, but some reports suggest it is practiced in the country to varying degrees. According to press reports, a 2010 Ministry of Health study on FGM/C found that men and women across all ages broadly accepted the practice, especially in rural areas. In the southern Dhofar region, FGM/C reportedly was performed on newborns and involved a partial or total clitoridectomy (Type I as defined by the World Health Organization). Throughout the rest of the country, FGM/C usually consisted of a minor...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria

"According to a 2008 World Health Organization study, 29.6 percent of girls and women ages 15 to 49 had undergone FGM/C, and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reported in 2013 that 14 percent of girls from newborn to age 14 had undergone FGM/C. The age at which women and girls were subjected to the practice varied from the first week of life until after a woman delivered her first child. Most victims were subjected to FGM/C before their first birthday. The highest prevalence among adult women was in the South (77 percent), followed by the Southeast (68 percent) and Southwest (65 percent), and was practiced on a smaller scale in...more
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger

"The law prohibits FGM/C, which is punishable by six months to three years in prison. If an FGM/C victim dies, the practitioner may be sentenced to 10 to 20 years in prison. There were no reports of FGM/C perpetrated on women age 18 and over. FGM/C was practiced on young girls, with clitoridectomy the most common form. Dangouria, a form of FGM/C found only in Niger, was also common. It consists of cutting away the hymen of newborn girls by traditional barbers known as wanzam. Certain ethnic groups practiced FGM/C, predominantly the Peuhl and Djerma in the west. According to the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the FGM/C rate nationwide decreased...more
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde

"This was operationalized end of 2014, through the 2nd PNVBG, which has a strategic pillar on information, awareness raising and data production, containing measures to promote gender equality and a culture of non-violence; address discriminating cultural and social norms, and deconstruct sexist stereotypes that legitimate inequality and GBV, including female genital mutilation (FGM). Both Education and Media are considered key sectors/actors by the Plan, as well as CSO and men and boys, as key motors for behavioural and attitudinal change. The Plan considers several forms of violence that had not yet been addressed in an integrated way, including FGM" (8). "Trainings on GBV and the GBV Law make reference to...more
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria

"Moreover, the African Women’s Organisation initiated several projects which focused on female genital mutilation and medical and social support and counselling for African women and girls" (17). "Another initiative is the Vienna Action Plan against FGM which focuses on prevention and medical care. In this context, seminars were held for 300 kindergarten teachers, 250 staff members from seven hospital delivery wards and 60 youth social workers" (17).
June 3, 2019, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Togo

"Most cases occurred in rural areas where awareness of the law was limited or traditional customs among certain ethnic groups took precedence over the legal system. The practice was most common in isolated Muslim communities in the sparsely populated Central Region" (p. 11).