The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-PRACTICE-1

Nov. 17, 2018, 1:49 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"In India, the practice is most common amongst members of a sub-sect of Ismaili Shia Islam known as the Dawoodi Bohra community, though it is also practised by a sect of Sunnis in the southern state of Kerala. In Bohra communities, FGM is known as ‘Khatna’ or ‘Khafz’ and is usually performed on pre-pubescent girls by traditional practitioners called ‘Mullanis’" (para 2).
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The procedure is one that is medically unnecessary and involves cutting and damaging a female’s genitalia to varying degrees and is rooted in the belief that a girl’s value lies in her virginity. FGM is a cultural practice — not a religious one — believed to preserve a female’s 'purity' and make her a more appealing marriage prospect and globally more than 200 million women and girls have undergone FGM, according to the World Health Organization" (para 3). "'For many years, from almost the 1960s up to early 1990s, Burkina Faso's fight against FGM was lauded and was seen as best practice. But as of late, the government has failed...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Reported cases were primarily filed by recent immigrants or asylum seekers" (9).
Oct. 29, 2018, 10:59 a.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Wearing a long black veil with her newly circumcised daughter on her lap, Aminata Njie vehemently gives her justification for having the two-year-old cut. 'Female circumcision is our religion and tradition,' says the tall, frail mother of five from her one-bedroom home. 'If Gambia is a democracy now, why should anyone stop us from practicing our religion and tradition?'" (para 1-3). "Three weeks ago, Njie, whose named has been changed to protect her from prosecution, travelled across the river to her husband's village to have her youngest daughter circumcised" (para 5). "Jammeh instated steep fines and jail sentences for those taking part in the ancient ritual, which many Gambians believe...more
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-1

"While not commonly inflicted on adult women, almost all girls in the northern Fouta Region were victims of FGM/C, as were 60 to 70 percent of girls in the south and southeast. Sealing, one of the most extreme and dangerous forms of FGM/C, was sometimes practiced by the Toucouleur, Mandinka, Soninke, Peul, and Bambara ethnic groups. According to the NGO German Society for International Cooperation, excision, type II, was the form of FGM/C most frequently practiced According to 2012-13 survey data from the National Institute for Statistics, FGM/C had been performed on 18 percent of girls below age 14" (page 14-15).
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Whether there were prosecutions for FGM/C during the year is unknown.The practice was reportedly most prevalent in Kurdish provinces in the northwest and the Persian Gulf province of Hormozgan. If individuals performed the procedure, it was usually performed on girls under the age of 10. A 2012 study on Kermanshah Province suggested that FGM/C was a common practice among women there, with more than 55 percent of girls circumcised before the age of seven. In July, Tehran University held the first publicized conference in the country on the subject" (para 150)
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"In urban areas, midwives performed the majority of FGM/C, while in rural areas, traditional birth attendants were the most common practitioners of FGM/C. The National Commission on Violence Against Women reported that midwives and traditional birth attendants often included female circumcision as part of a birth service 'package' and advocated for the procedure to their clients. In 2014 the Ministry of Health revoked a 2010 decree establishing guidelines for the safe practice of FGM/C. The 2010 decree overturned the ministry’s outright ban on FGM/C, which the Indonesian Ulamas Council (MUI) and other religious groups protested. The revocation transfers authority to regulate FGM/C to a health advisory body that includes religious...more
Oct. 4, 2018, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Closer to home, the issue of FGM/C or berkhatan is fraught with silence in Malaysia as it is intermingled with cultural and ethnic demands alongside bodily autonomy" (para 6). "A more recent survey by Salleha Khalid et al in 2016 of 402 Malay-Muslim women revealed that a mere 4% – 16 out of 402 women – had not been “circumcised”. The same study also noted the practice was absent in other ethnic groups" (para 9). "The procedure was previously performed by the bidan or village midwives but with rapid urbanisation, it has moved to formal healthcare settings like clinics and hospitals. The 'medicalisation' of FGM/C, however, brought with it a...more
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:14 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Since Kenya banned the practice in 2011, FGM/C is now increasingly conducted underground, secretly in homes or in clinics by healthcare providers and workers" (para. 1). "She claims that FGM/C is still largely practiced in Kenya and is increasing due to medicalization. In Kenya, there is evidence that scrupulous medical personnel collude with parents to circumvent the law by cutting girls in their homes or in their private clinics away from public view" (para. 3). "The practice is especially prevalent in Kisii counties in Western Kenya where FGM/C is nearly universal... My research shows that parents are increasingly having their girls, some as early as 5 years old, cut by...more
Sept. 24, 2018, 10:50 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Many NGOs reported that the government was not enforcing the law and the practice persisted, particularly in rural areas" (para 245). "On February 6, in recognition of the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM/C, the Women’s High Council of the KRG, in collaboration with local NGO WADI and UNICEF, hosted a conference to raise awareness about the issue. Also in February WADI, with support from UNICEF, sponsored four television announcements to combat FGM/C" (para 246)
Sept. 15, 2018, 1:50 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Doctors in central Somalia say a 10-year-old girl has died after undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM)... the victim bled to death after undergoing FGM" (para 1-2). "The girl’s father Dahir Nur said he was distraught but accepts that his daughter died due to the procedure and believes she was 'taken by Allah'. Despite losing his daughter he defended the practice. 'The people in the area are content with it [FGM], her mother consented to it,' he said, adding, 'We have seen the effects but it’s a culture in the country we live in.' Nur says he holds no one responsible for the death of his daughter" (para 8-11).more
Sept. 15, 2018, 1:17 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“'The reason that this harmful practice has existed for so long is that people believe it is because our religion or culture dictates that we should do it,' said Ayan Mahamoud, Somaliland’s representative in Britain" (para 3). “'The fatwa is basically a message from the government to everyone in Somaliland that there is no religious or cultural basis for FGM,' she told the Thomson Reuters Foundation" (para 4). "Many families in Somaliland believe it is a religious obligation although it is not mentioned in the Koran. It is widely considered important for ensuring a girl’s purity and a prerequisite to marriage" (para 9).
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Faced with the new law against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), traditionalists have now shifted to circumcising married women with the consent of their husbands" (para 1). "Although the practice of circumcising young girls is slowly declining in Sebei, the trend has changed to circumcising married women. 'And this is being done in houses with the knowledge of husbands, in the villages and in the bushes even across the borders to Kenya. Wives claim that they are visiting relatives in Kenya but cross with local surgeons,' said Ms Chelangat. The statistics reveal that uncircumcised married women are undergoing pressure from their husbands and society because they are not allowed to serve...more
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"A 17-year-old girl from north England who was forced to marry an abusive middle-aged man just one day after meeting him... was raped daily and had previously been taken to Somalia as a child where she underwent extreme female genital mutilation. Her husband then ‘cut her open’ with a knife on their wedding night" (para 13-14).
Sept. 13, 2018, 7:56 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Colombia's Embera indigenous tribe is one of the few communities in Latin America known to practise female genital mutilation (FGM), which involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. Known among the members of the 250,000-strong Embera tribe as "curacion", the origins of FGM in Colombia are the subject of various theories.Some believe it was adopted from the slaves who were brought to the continent from Africa, others that it was introduced after the birth of a hermaphrodite by midwives who were worried that females could become males" (para. 1 - 3). "Patricia Tobon Yagari, a lawyer and campaigner for indigenous communities, says. 'Among...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Most of the cases were spotted by midwives and doctors working in maternity and obstetric units. The majority had originally had FGM done to them abroad and as a young child" (para 7-8).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Prosecutions were rare. Many police officers and communities were unaware of the law, victims were often reluctant to testify, and some witnesses feared reprisals from FGM/C supporters. Some villagers reportedly bribed local leaders not to enforce the law in order to carry out FGM/C on their daughters" (22).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"It also expresses concern at the persistence of harmful practices based on discriminatory social attitudes, in particular in rural and remote areas, such as female genital mutilation among Muslim communities in the southern border provinces and bride kidnapping" (5).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"In October the Federal Council tasked the Federal Office of Health and State Secretariat for Migration with establishing and cofinancing a counseling and preventive activities network for raising awareness of FGM/C among potential victims and health specialists...Several federal offices, in collaboration with NGOs and academic institutions, implemented educational and preventative measures aimed at vulnerable communities and relevant authorities, including a mediation service. The cantons of Geneva, Neuchatel, Vaud, and Fribourg carried out cantonal awareness strategies and campaigns, while other cantons engaged in similar awareness raising activities" (15).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The government continued initiatives to eradicate the practice, including national research and sensitization workshops where FGM/C was prevalent" (32).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"A 2014 UN Human Rights Committee report expressed concern over the existence of FGM/C in some regions of the country. A few small ethnic groups practiced FGM/C. In most cases FGM/C was performed on girls between 10 and 15 years old" (16).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Health prepared the EDHS in partnership with UN Population Fund, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and other international partners. On June 14, the government launched a new National Strategy for the Abandonment of FGM/C, led by the population ministry in partnership with the United Nations and other international partners. The law criminalizes FGM/C, except in cases of 'medical necessity,' with penalties of three months to two years in prison or a fine of LE 5,000 ($650). Rights groups pointed to the “medical necessity” exception as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue. According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce this...more
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee expresses concern that harmful practices, such as child and forced marriage, polygamy, female genital mutilation and other forms of excision, humiliating and degrading widowhood practices, force-feeding, levirate and sororate, remain prevalent and unpunished in the State party" (page 6). "[The Committee] notes that no claims under article 213 of the Criminal Code have been registered to date to prosecute practitioners of excision. The Committee is also concerned about the increasingly young age at which excision is performed (average of 4.3 years). It notes with concern that the prohibition on health-care professionals practising excision has reportedly pushed the practice underground, thereby exacerbating the serious health complications for girls and...more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is, however, concerned about: (a) The continued prevalence of female genital mutilation in some regions, especially in rural and traditional communities; (b) The weak enforcement of the law prohibiting female genital mutilation; (c) Reports that very young girls, including babies, and women giving birth are increasingly being subjected to female genital mutilation; (d) The fact that it remains legal for women above 18 years of age to be subjected to female genital mutilation" (page 6).
June 9, 2018, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"The Committee commends the State party on the enactment of the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act of 2011. It remains concerned, however, that this harmful practice continues to be common in some communities" (5)
June 9, 2018, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee...remains concerned, however, about... harmful practices, such as...female genital mutilation" (5)
June 3, 2018, 5:28 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"FGM/C is not specifically prohibited in the criminal code. Local NGOs in Dagestan reported that FGM/C was occasionally practiced in some villages in the republic," (53).
May 31, 2018, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"FGC/M prevalence in rural areas is more than double that in urban areas. The highest percentages of circumcised women are in Manyara and Dodoma regions (58% and 47%, respectively) . . . Girls are more likely to be circumcised if their mothers were circumcised. Among the 86% of women who have heard of FGC/M, 95% believe that the practice is not required by their religion and that the practice should not be continued . . . The Tanzanian Special Provision Act, a 1998 amendment to the penal code, specifically prohibits FGC/M (National Legislative Bodies, 1998). However, while the practice has been outlawed for almost two decades, it is still prevalent...more
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"A range of FGM education initiatives have been funded, including community based education workshops, continuing professional development for health workers and an online national resource centre" (Pg 37).
April 14, 2018, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Girls living in the State party, often from migrant families, who have undergone or are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation and other harmful practices. Information on harmful practices not being readily available, in particular for ethnic minority and migrant women owing to language and cultural barriers, and the lack of a national comprehensive strategy, in particular to eliminate female genital mutilation, along with limited training for relevant professionals. Insufficient support for intersex persons who have undergone involuntary and medically unnecessary disfiguring surgical procedures when they were babies and children, often with irreversible consequences, resulting in significant physical and psychological suffering. The pressure placed on parents of...more