The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-LAW-2

Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"draft laws on implementation of gender quotas have been introduced for several times in recent years during the sessions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, in particular, with regard to the members of parliament of any level" (33).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

“The following temporary special measures are in place: Act No. 22/10 of 3 December, the Political Parties Act, whose article 20 (m), on statutes and programming, provides that the statutes of political parties must mandatorily include rules that encourage the promotion of equality between men and women and ensure that women make up at least 30 per cent of their governing bodies at all levels. The Act also provides that electoral processes must ensure the reservation of parliamentary seats for women in order to ensure parity or representative percentages in terms of women’s right to participate in public and political life in Angola” (pp. 24). “With regard to the participation...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"A group of 10 Liberal Democratic women in Parliament wrote a letter to the three candidates for prime minister urging them to support a minimum threshold of 30 percent female representation among national lawmakers" (para 21).
Dec. 23, 2020, 3 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The much debated Women’s Reservation Bill proposes to reserve a third of all legislature seats for women, at national and State levels in India. If passed, this Bill would uplift the general mood of the nation which has been engulfed by a heightened sense of gender inequality over the last year" (para 3). "India has experimented with women’s reservation at the level of the panchayat or village councils since the mid-1990s" (para 15).
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"As per a directive by HH Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the UAE, Emirati women must occupy 50 % of the Federal National Council’s (Parliament) seats, 20 seats for men and 20 for women April 2019" (para 4). "Men and women have the right to hold cabinet post (29.5 % female ministers)" (para 5`).
Dec. 3, 2020, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

“[T]he Municipalities Act in 2013…introduced a 30 per cent quota for women’s representation in all municipal councils” (4).
Oct. 6, 2020, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The under-representation of women in leadership and decision-making positions in both public and private sectors continued during 2019 despite the existence of the 2018 Election of Women Act, designed to fulfill the constitutional requirement for quotas for the representation of women and marginalized groups in parliament" (para 10).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"Article 15 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men states that no public company board or government council or committee may have less than 40% gender equality" (para 13).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"So, despite the existing institutional structure for gender equality promotion at all levels of government, it is not happening. Even gender quotas are ignored. They were first adopted in 1998 and last updated in 2013. National legislation, Article 20 (1), requires equal representation of women and men in all branches of government, including legislative power, setting the minimum representation of at least 40 percent" (para. 17).
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Following the November release of the draft constitution, an additional group convened under MOWA and made up of members of national and international women’s groups, UNIFEM, the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission, the Afghan Supreme Court and Attorney General’s Office and legal experts successfully lobbied to have the proposed size of the women’s quota for parliament doubled" (pg 8). "Ratified on 26 January 2004, the constitution guaranteed women the right to vote, and decreed that 'at least two females from each province' would occupy the Wolesi Jirga (“House of the People”; the country’s lower house of parliament)" (pg 8-9). "This [the constitutional stipulations] clarified that the 68 seats in parliament...more
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Law on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Women stipulates that all women have rights to hold public office, and public institutions shall employ as many women as possible and ensure them good working and living conditions (art. 14). In particular the Cabinet decision adopted in December 2009 required that the prescribed quota of women in ministries and national institutions should be fully ensured. Accordingly, the Education Commission, Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Foodstuff and Daily Necessaries, Ministry of Finance and Central Bureau of Statistics in which women officials already made up more than 20 per cent has seen a 5-6 per cent...more
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Organic Law No. 10/20/2013/OL of 11 July 2013 governing political parties and politicians, which prohibits any form of discrimination based on gender, sex, race and religion in political parties" (2). "Law No. 27/2010 of 19 June 2010 relating to elections, which requires that at least 30 per cent of candidates for parliamentary elections on the lists of political parties be women" (2).
March 4, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The quota system enforced guarantees 25% of seats for women in district and provincial councils, as well." (7).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The draft law on parity is still pending adoption" (16). "The quota reserved for women candidates in legislative and local elections rose from 15 per cent to 30 per cent with the Electoral Act of 2014 (para. 3, new arts. 61 and 67). This was not applied to the legislative elections of June 2012 but was in force for the 2014 local elections" (16). "In the political field, the Electoral Act of 2002, as amended and supplemented in 2014, establishes a quota system of at least 30 per cent for women in order to narrow the gaps that discriminate against women compared to men in the parliamentary and local elections"...more
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Prior to the outbreak of conflict, the agreed-upon provisions at the 2014 NDC included a 30 percent quota for women in all branches of government" (26).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The detailed implementation rules of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women and the Electoral Law adopted by various places across China all include explicit provisions on the proportion of women candidates to local people’s congresses. The state has formulated a special plan that defines the goals of and requirements for training and selection of women officials, and has taken concrete measures to increase the number and proportion of women officials at various levels. The Organic Law of the Village Committees of the People’s Republic of China rules that 'female villager representatives should make up more than one third of the village committee.' The Program for...more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The countries that were able to achieve some measure of gender parity all have one thing in common: They initially or continue to rely on quotas to increase representation of women in parliament. Rwanda’s post-genocide constitution requires that 30 percent of all decision-making bodies be made up of women" (2).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In Somalia, the Electoral Implementation Team—a donor-supported body that has devised and will be implementing the rules under which the 2016 election will occur—promised that 30 percent of all the seats in the incoming parliament would be reserved for women" (2-3).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Article 27(8) of the Kenyan constitution requires that no more than two-thirds of the legislature be made up of either gender" (2). "This is the male-dominated space that could generate two bills—both introduced by men—to defer the implementation of Article 27(8). The MP from Ainabkoi, Samuel Chepkonga, proposed a bill that would ignore the implementation deadline and defer the enactment of the two-thirds rule until 2037. Then, House majority leader Aden Duale championed a bill that he called the 'top-up approach,' which would allow parties to nominate women to parliament after the election, corresponding to the number of seats won by the party at the election. Both of these bills...more
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution calls for a minimum of 30 percent of public officials to be women" (16).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2014 the president signed a law requiring that women make up 30 percent of each party’s slate of candidates for local or legislative elections. The 2015 constitution granted parity for women in political positions and mandated the creation of a national advisory council for women, but it did not specify whether the promotion of parity related to pay, benefits, appointment to political positions, or other issues" (21).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2013 former king Abdullah issued a royal decree changing the governance of the Consultative Council, the 150-person royally appointed body that advises the king and may propose but not pass laws. The changes mandate that women constitute no less than 20 percent of the membership of the Consultative Council. In accordance with the law, in 2013 the council inducted 30 women as full members" (36).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

""The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption or establishment of the following: (a) Plan of action on gender balance among candidate judges, in 2015" (2). "The Committee notes the electoral quota adopted by the State party and the recent amendment to the Electoral Code in 2016, increasing the minimum quota for women’s representation to 25 per cent for the 2017 elections and to 30 per cent for subsequent national elections" (8).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Act No. 2014-64 of 5 November 2014 amending the Quota Act (No. 2000-008 of 7 June 2000) to raise, from 10 to 15 per cent, the quota for both sexes in elected office" (2). "The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts in applying special measures with regard to women’s political participation and representation in national government bodies through the Quota Act (No. 2000-008) (amended in 2014), raising the quota for both sexes in elected office from 10 to 15 per cent" (9).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution mandates that at least one third of all members of the lower house of the federal parliament must be women and requires inclusion of various minority groups in the list of candidates in the 40 percent of seats chosen through a proportional representation system. The constitution also stipulates representation requirements for the upper house of the federal parliament. For the 56 members chosen by an electoral college, the eight members from each of the seven provinces must include at least three women, one member of the Dalit caste, and one person with a disability or member of a minority group. Additionally, of the remaining three members of the...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

""No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. A law on political parties mandates that women make up at least 30 percent of the founding membership of a new political party. The general election law passed prior to the 2009 national elections includes a requirement for parties to nominate women for at least 30 percent of the candidate slots on their party lists. During the regional elections held in seven provinces women accounted for 7.3 percent of the total number of candidates. The number of women in parliament fell after the 2014 elections, however, from 18 to 17 percent of...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, VOTE-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Five of the 34 cabinet members were women, as was the senior presidential advisor for national reconciliation. There were 12 women among the 140 members of parliament. Some observers believed traditional attitudes and cultural practices limited the ability of women to participate in political life on the same basis as men. In November 2016 the National Assembly passed a gender equality law. The law outlaws gender discrimination and establishes quotas for women’s representation in elective offices, and public and private institutions. It also establishes an independent National Observatory for Male/Female Equality to...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The precoup constitution encouraged political parties to consider a “close proximity of equal numbers” of both genders. Neither the interim constitution nor the 2017 constitution contains such a provision" (page 25-26).
July 14, 2019, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The notable exception was the national parliament since the 2015 election, where the ruling EPRDF party decided that 38 percent of seats, 211 of 547, would be held by women" (p. 25).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

There's any quota for improving women participation (JSM - Coder comment).