The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-LAW-2

Sept. 15, 2018, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Last month Holyrood passed a law to ensure women make up at least half the board members for all public authorities by 2022. The Scottish Parliament voted by 88 to 28 in favour of the Gender Representation on Public Boards (Scotland) Bill, with opposition from the Conservatives" (para 15-16). "Equalities secretary Angela Constance told The Scotsman... 'Today, on the centenary of some women winning the right to vote, I am delighted the First Minister has announced a £500,000 fund to increase women’s representation in politics and in public life. Getting women and girls interested in politics will be a key part of this work'" (para 18-19). These funds will surely...more
Sept. 12, 2018, 4:18 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The women victorious in May who spoke to Al-Monitor agreed that the absence of a gender-based quota system is a primary reason for women’s under-representation... Yacoubian stated, 'I will propose to set a mandatory, temporary gender-based quota of at least 30% in any electoral law.'...(Jamali) said. 'Based on that, we will be working on many draft laws, including a women's quota in all public and private institutions, government and the public domain'" (para. 10, 14, 15).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:24 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"While commending the State party’s effort to strengthen female political leadership through the establishment of the “600 women leaders for Chile” Programme, the Committee is concerned about the low participation of women in Government, in both chambers of Parliament, the diplomatic service and the judiciary, as well as in the function of mayor and municipal councillor" (6).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Although woman’s empowerment has been at the top of Egypt’s priorities during the past decade, with legislative changes and a large number of initiatives – for example, anti-trafficking and anti-harassment laws, and the women’s quota in the Egyptian parliament - still girls and women face enormous challenges in the country" (para 1). The article does not indicate what the quota limit is but only states that there is one currently in place (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:20 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"French President Emmanuel Macron has unveiled a gender-balanced cabinet in accordance with an earlier pledge, with 11 of 22 posts taken by women" (para 1). While this is not in accordance with any known law about a quota, the fact that the party in power had made a pledge to create a more gender-balanced cabinet indicates that gender-issues are a topic of discourse within the society and the parties are taking it seriously, with or without official legal quotas in effect (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee notes that, in section 90 (3) of the Constitution, it is stipulated that due regard should be given to gender equality in the process of preparing the list of candidates by political parties and that an organic bill on political party is currently being prepared to provide further guidance. It remains concerned, however, that no temporary special measures have been adopted to date to increase the representation of women in political and public life" (9).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2013 parliament passed a law creating five reserved seats for women on the Port Vila Municipal Council (PVMC) as a temporary special measure to increase women’s political participation. In January 2014, 43 women contested unsuccessfully for general seats in the PVMC elections; reserved seats went to the top five vote getters. Women interested in running for public office received encouragement from the Vanuatu Council of Women and the Department of Women’s Affairs, which also offered training programs" (8).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:43 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The ruling-party-dominated CNE made decisions that affected the political opposition adversely, including affirming the comptroller general’s administrative disqualification of at least five candidates for the December 6 National Assembly elections and the sudden proclamation of a new rule requiring political parties to field at least 40 percent female candidates after the political opposition had already chosen its candidates" (25). This new law appears to be mostly a political blockade against the opposition party. It is unclear if the law will remain in place following this election cycle (AA-CODER COMMENT). "In June the CNE announced a new regulation that required political parties to put forth gender-balanced slates of candidates for legislative...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:39 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"During its spring legislative session, the National Assembly passed a law on elections to the National Assembly and People’s Councils that went into effect June 1. The new law requires quotas for the percentage of final candidates for election to the National Assembly who are ethnic minorities (18 percent) and women (35 percent) and to the People’s Council who are women (35 percent)" (34). "The new law on elections to the National Assembly and People’s Councils requires 35percent of final candidates for these two bodies to be women and 18 percent of final candidates for the National Assembly to be from minority groups" (36).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Government measures to increase the number of women in politics, including the Political Parties Integrity Law, had so far not delivered the desired result" (7). The report does not indicate exactly what the measures entail, but most likely it is some form of incentive or quota that is meant to encourage women's participation in goverment positions (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The new constitution mandates that at least one third of all members of the lower house of the federal parliament must be women and requires inclusion of various minority groups in the list of candidates in the 40 percent of seats chosen by a proportional representation system. The new constitution also stipulates that in the upper house of the federal parliament, for the 56 members chosen by an electoral college, the eight members from each province must include at least three women, one Dalit, and one person with a disability or member of a minority groups. Additionally, of the remaining three members of the upper house chosen by the president,...more
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"This increase was due in part to a 2011 law that mandates a 20-percent quota for female candidates proposed by each political party or coalition" (12). "The law sets mandatory quotas for the inclusion of women within the government and political parties" (18).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The House of Representatives law outlines the criteria for the electoral lists which provided that the House of Representatives must include at least 56 women and 24 Christians" (33).
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Act No. 2015-052 of 18 December 2015, instituting measures to promote gender equality in access to nominated and elected positions by providing for a minimum 30 per cent quota for the representation of each gender" (page 2). "The Committee notes that the implementing decree for Act No. 2015-052 of 18 December 2015, instituting measures to promote gender equality in access to nominated and elected positions by providing for a minimum 30 per cent quota for the representation of each gender, has not yet been adopted" (page 5). "The Committee welcomes . . . the adoption of a national strategy, covering the period 2012-2015, and an action plan for the participation...more
Aug. 25, 2018, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, GP-DATA-2

"The Committee is nevertheless concerned about the very low number of women police officers and the underrepresentation of women on the Supreme Court and in decision-making positions in the foreign service (ambassadors) and in local government" (7).
Aug. 24, 2018, 12:29 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee is concerned at the State party’s lack of understanding of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating substantive equality between men and women. In particular, it is concerned at the absence of temporary special measures, including statutory quotas, to address the underrepresentation of women, including women from ethnic and other minority groups, in decision-making positions in the public and private sectors an in political life" (page 6). "The Committee remains concerned, however, at: . . . (b) The lack of temporary special measures, including statutory quotas, aimed at guaranteeing and accelerating substantive equality of women and men in political and public life" (page 10).
Aug. 20, 2018, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"With reference to its general recommendation No. 25 (2004) on temporary special measures, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Expedite the adoption of the pending bills referred to in paragraph 21 above to implement temporary special measures, including a statutory quota for the representation of women as candidates in elections, in appointed positions in the Government and among the beneficiaries of scholarships and training opportunities for government officials; (b) Implement those temporary special measures provided under sections 11 (a) and (b) of the Magna Carta of Women that do not require legislation for implementation, in particular in relation to women’s representation on development councils at all levels ....more
Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Amendments to the Law on Election of Counsellors and MPs from 2011, for the first time in Montenegro introduces the quota system on electoral candidate lists — whose aim is to enhance women participation in the bodies of representative government. The Law stipulates that an electoral list needs to have at least 30 per cent of candidates of a less represented sex, in order for it to be approved by the State Electoral Commission. Apart from this, there were no other guarantees, such as order on the list, by which higher percentage of women in the national and local parliaments would be ensured . . . The campaign resulted...more
July 11, 2018, 8 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee regrets that Act No. 18.476 of 3 April 2009, which provides for the equal political participation of women and men in elected bodies, was applied only once during the elections of 2014" (page 9).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Political Participation Act contains special temporary measures (Act No. 18476, appendix); these were covered in the 2012 follow-up report. They will be applied during the 2014–2015 electoral process, which is a very short deadline for generating changes in women’s political participation. A bill to extend the applicability of the law has been tabled and is being debated. Act No. 19122 and its Regulatory Decree No. 144/014 establish special temporary measures for 15 years, including a provision that 8 per cent of jobs be filled each year by persons of African descent in all branches of the State, the Court of Accounts, the Electoral Court, the Court of Claims, departmental...more
June 28, 2018, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2007, the ACT Government set a target of achieving and maintaining 50 per cent representation of women on its boards and committees. In 2012, ACT Government boards and committees achieved 47 per cent female membership" (G).
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the constitutional requirement that women comprise 40 per cent of the Zanzibar House of Representatives and 30 per cent of the National Assembly. It notes that the Village Land Act (1999) requires that three of the five or seven members of village land councils be women" (page 5). "The Committee welcomes the successful implementation of temporary special measures (through reserved seats) at the parliamentary level, which resulted in a significant increase in the representation of women in the National Assembly (36.6 per cent) following the recent elections. It also notes with appreciation the high representation of women in the Government (32.3 per cent) . . . The...more
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Councils are actively working to support diversity within their organization to better reflect the communities they serve. As part of this, they are carrying out specific initiatives to increase the representation of women at senior levels within council and to increase the diversity of the boards of council-controlled organizations . . . In 2014 the Government Women’s Network (GWN) was established to increase the impact of gender diversity action across government. GWN connects employee-led diversity and inclusion initiatives across government and also connects organizational development efforts linked to diversity, leadership and workforce" (page 12). "Government has an aspirational goal of 45 per cent participation of women on State sector boards....more
June 25, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Under the National Action Plan the ministries and departments concerned and public organizations will be involved in the process of reviewing the need for quotas aimed at accelerating women’s equal representation in all spheres of public, political and professional life, including the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development strategies and public projects" (15).
June 9, 2018, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee is concerned that, seven years after the adoption of the new Constitution, the rule that no more than two thirds of representatives of elective public bodies are to be of the same gender (the two-thirds gender rule), is still not being implemented" (4)
May 15, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to ensure substantive equality of women and men by, among other things, seeking to implement the national gender policy through its strategic implementation framework and plan, which set the objective of having a 35 per cent quota for women occupying appointed and elected positions. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned: That the 35 per cent quota and other measures, including the 'Community Services, Women and Youth Employment” and “Growing Girls and Women in Nigeria' projects, lack a legislative basis that would ensure their enforcement" (6). "The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to ensure substantive equality of women and men by, among other things,...more
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2009 of the State party's combined initial to seventh periodic reports...in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of: (a) The Electoral Decree of February 2015, establishing a minimum quota of 30 per cent for female candidates on voting lists for municipal and local elections, and providing for financial incentives for political parties to encourage compliance with such quota...(d) The constitutional amendment to article 17.1 establishing a minimum quota of 30 per cent for women’s representation at all levels of political and public, particularly in public services, in 2011" (1-2). "The Committee welcomes the constitutional amendment of 2012 adopting a...more
May 5, 2018, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The Committee acknowledges the successful implementation of mandatory quotas for national, local and European elections, which resulted in a significant increase in the representation of Slovenian women in the national parliament (35.6 per cent), local councils (31.8 per cent) and the European Parliament (50 per cent)" (8).
May 2, 2018, 9:29 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Neither Japan nor the Philippines has a quota for female representation in national politics" (para 6).
May 2, 2018, 9:28 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Of all East Asian societies, the Philippines is the most advanced in integrating women’s rights and development through legal codes and administrative practices. For example, the Local Government Code of 1991 deepened democratisation by decentralising power and by requiring all local and provincial governments to include women, and other underrepresented groups, in governance" (para 4). "Neither Japan nor the Philippines has a quota for female representation in national politics" (para 6).