The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-LAW-2

Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The detailed implementation rules of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women and the Electoral Law adopted by various places across China all include explicit provisions on the proportion of women candidates to local people’s congresses. The state has formulated a special plan that defines the goals of and requirements for training and selection of women officials, and has taken concrete measures to increase the number and proportion of women officials at various levels. The Organic Law of the Village Committees of the People’s Republic of China rules that 'female villager representatives should make up more than one third of the village committee.' The Program for...more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The countries that were able to achieve some measure of gender parity all have one thing in common: They initially or continue to rely on quotas to increase representation of women in parliament. Rwanda’s post-genocide constitution requires that 30 percent of all decision-making bodies be made up of women" (2).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In Somalia, the Electoral Implementation Team—a donor-supported body that has devised and will be implementing the rules under which the 2016 election will occur—promised that 30 percent of all the seats in the incoming parliament would be reserved for women" (2-3).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Article 27(8) of the Kenyan constitution requires that no more than two-thirds of the legislature be made up of either gender" (2). "This is the male-dominated space that could generate two bills—both introduced by men—to defer the implementation of Article 27(8). The MP from Ainabkoi, Samuel Chepkonga, proposed a bill that would ignore the implementation deadline and defer the enactment of the two-thirds rule until 2037. Then, House majority leader Aden Duale championed a bill that he called the 'top-up approach,' which would allow parties to nominate women to parliament after the election, corresponding to the number of seats won by the party at the election. Both of these bills...more
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution calls for a minimum of 30 percent of public officials to be women" (16).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2014 the president signed a law requiring that women make up 30 percent of each party’s slate of candidates for local or legislative elections. The 2015 constitution granted parity for women in political positions and mandated the creation of a national advisory council for women, but it did not specify whether the promotion of parity related to pay, benefits, appointment to political positions, or other issues" (21).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2013 former king Abdullah issued a royal decree changing the governance of the Consultative Council, the 150-person royally appointed body that advises the king and may propose but not pass laws. The changes mandate that women constitute no less than 20 percent of the membership of the Consultative Council. In accordance with the law, in 2013 the council inducted 30 women as full members" (36).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

""The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption or establishment of the following: (a) Plan of action on gender balance among candidate judges, in 2015" (2). "The Committee notes the electoral quota adopted by the State party and the recent amendment to the Electoral Code in 2016, increasing the minimum quota for women’s representation to 25 per cent for the 2017 elections and to 30 per cent for subsequent national elections" (8).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Act No. 2014-64 of 5 November 2014 amending the Quota Act (No. 2000-008 of 7 June 2000) to raise, from 10 to 15 per cent, the quota for both sexes in elected office" (2). "The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts in applying special measures with regard to women’s political participation and representation in national government bodies through the Quota Act (No. 2000-008) (amended in 2014), raising the quota for both sexes in elected office from 10 to 15 per cent" (9).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution mandates that at least one third of all members of the lower house of the federal parliament must be women and requires inclusion of various minority groups in the list of candidates in the 40 percent of seats chosen through a proportional representation system. The constitution also stipulates representation requirements for the upper house of the federal parliament. For the 56 members chosen by an electoral college, the eight members from each of the seven provinces must include at least three women, one member of the Dalit caste, and one person with a disability or member of a minority group. Additionally, of the remaining three members of the...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

""No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. A law on political parties mandates that women make up at least 30 percent of the founding membership of a new political party. The general election law passed prior to the 2009 national elections includes a requirement for parties to nominate women for at least 30 percent of the candidate slots on their party lists. During the regional elections held in seven provinces women accounted for 7.3 percent of the total number of candidates. The number of women in parliament fell after the 2014 elections, however, from 18 to 17 percent of...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, VOTE-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Five of the 34 cabinet members were women, as was the senior presidential advisor for national reconciliation. There were 12 women among the 140 members of parliament. Some observers believed traditional attitudes and cultural practices limited the ability of women to participate in political life on the same basis as men. In November 2016 the National Assembly passed a gender equality law. The law outlaws gender discrimination and establishes quotas for women’s representation in elective offices, and public and private institutions. It also establishes an independent National Observatory for Male/Female Equality to...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The precoup constitution encouraged political parties to consider a “close proximity of equal numbers” of both genders. Neither the interim constitution nor the 2017 constitution contains such a provision" (page 25-26).
July 14, 2019, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The notable exception was the national parliament since the 2015 election, where the ruling EPRDF party decided that 38 percent of seats, 211 of 547, would be held by women" (p. 25).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

There's any quota for improving women participation (JSM - Coder comment).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution reserves 30 percent of positions in the National Assembly, Senate, and Council of Ministers for women" (p. 28).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the commitment of the State party to reserving 50 seats in Parliament for women" (7).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law states that for municipal and parliamentary elections, one in three candidates must be a member of the sex least represented on the list" (page 18).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"During the December 2014 parliamentary elections, in accordance with the law, slightly more than 30 percent of candidates were women" (Pg 25).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law requires elections for seats reserved for special interest groups: 112 for women, five for organized labor, five for persons with disabilities, five for youth, and 10 for the UPDF" (Pg 21).
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the constitutional quota of 30 per cent representation of women in the Government, Parliament and the Senate (arts. 129, 164 and 180) and the resulting increase in the participation of women in political life" (9).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2010 the government passed a gender parity law requiring the candidate lists of political parties to contain equal numbers of men and women for elected positions at all levels, from city councils to the National Assembly" (page 12-13).
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law governing the Assembly election requires that 30 percent of candidates be women and that they occupy 30 percent of appointed and elected positions" (page 15).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution provides for 55 of the 65 seats in the House of Assembly to be popularly contested and for the king to appoint the remaining 10 members. The constitution provides for five of the 10 to be women and for the other five to represent “interests, including marginalized groups not already adequately represented in the house.” In addition the constitution stipulates that if less than 30 percent of assembly members are women, four additional women shall be selected on a regional basis. The king appointed only three women to the House of Assembly following the elections, in which only one woman was elected, and although less than 30 percent...more
July 2, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law requires that at least 40 percent of a political party’s candidates be women" (p. 16).
July 1, 2019, 8:44 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law provides that either gender must have a minimum of 40 percent of candidates on the party lists of candidates for parliamentary and local elections" (p. 22).
July 1, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law requires parties to ensure that at least 30 percent of the candidates on their electoral lists are women" (p. 24).
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The transitional constitution requires at least 25 percent female participation in the legislative and executive branches of government at the national and state levels" (Pg 30).
June 26, 2019, 7:37 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The election code requires the names of male and female candidates be intermixed on party lists and that no more than 70 percent of candidates on a party list can be of the same gender. By law women must be represented in all branches of government and constitute no less than 30 percent of state bodies and local authorities. The law does not specify the level of the positions at which they must be represented" (p. 18 - 19).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The roadmap signatories agreed that, prior to the transition to a permanent government, the federal parliament should consist of at least 30 percent women, but women held only 14 percent of 275 seats in parliament" (Pg 29).