The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Amendments to the Law on Election of Counsellors and MPs from 2011, for the first time in Montenegro introduces the quota system on electoral candidate lists — whose aim is to enhance women participation in the bodies of representative government. The Law stipulates that an electoral list needs to have at least 30 per cent of candidates of a less represented sex, in order for it to be approved by the State Electoral Commission. Apart from this, there were no other guarantees, such as order on the list, by which higher percentage of women in the national and local parliaments would be ensured. Political parties applied this provision in...more
Aug. 6, 2018, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

“the Law for the Election of Councillors and Representatives, providing for a 30 per cent quota for women candidates on the electoral lists of political parties, does not require that every third place on such a list be given to a woman candidate” (9)
July 23, 2018, 11:52 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2013 parliament passed a law creating five reserved seats for women on the Port Vila Municipal Council (PVMC) as a temporary special measure to increase women’s political participation. In January 2014, 43 women contested unsuccessfully for general seats in the PVMC elections; reserved seats went to the top five vote getters. Women interested in running for public office received encouragement from the Vanuatu Council of Women and the Department of Women’s Affairs, which also offered training programs" (8).
July 23, 2018, 11:04 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Although some traditional practices discouraged women from engaging in political participation, the government prioritized women’s participation and running for office in the October FNC elections. Women constituted 40 percent of the electoral pool appointed by the emirates’ rulers and 22 percent of FNC candidates" (19). "The government took some steps to advance the rights of women and promote their role in all sectors of society such as encouraging their participation as candidates in the October FNC election" (20).
July 18, 2018, 8:36 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Observers commented that some female politicians served as “placeholders” when male members of their dynastic political families had to leave office due to term limits. Media commentators also expressed concern that political dynasties limited the opportunities for female candidates not connected to political families to seek nomination" (21).
July 11, 2018, 8 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned about the underrepresentation of women in political and public life, including in the parliament and in high-level decision-making positions in the Government, and the absence of measures designed to promote and support women candidates for elected bodies. Uruguay is below the regional average data with regard to the participation of women in parliament. The Committee regrets that Act No. 18.476 of 3 April 2009, which provides for the equal political participation of women and men in elected bodies, was applied only once during the elections of 2014" (page 9).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"As was reported in depth in the 2012 supplementary report, the Act to promote participation in politics by persons of both sexes includes special measures and temporary special measures that will be implemented only once, during the national and municipal elections of 2014–2015. A bill was also tabled aiming to extend the quota law to the post-election period and is under study in Parliament. At the recent parliamentary elections of October 2014, no great progress was seen in the participation of women in the legislature, as those elected accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total. A comparison of the two periods shows that in 2014 more than twice as...more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the successful implementation of temporary special measures (through reserved seats) at the parliamentary level, which resulted in a significant increase in the representation of women in the National Assembly (36.6 per cent) following the recent elections. It also notes with appreciation the high representation of women in the Government (32.3 per cent)" (page 9).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Government has an aspirational goal of 45 per cent participation of women on State sector boards. As at December 2015, women made up 43.4 per cent of State sector boards and committees. This is a significant increase on 41.7 per cent in 2014. In 2015, 51.4 per cent of ministerial appointments to boards were women" (page 13).
June 9, 2018, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee regrets that, notwithstanding the constitutional two-thirds gender rule and the presidential decree on affirmative action of 2006, gender parity has not been achieved for elected or appointed offices. It is concerned about barriers that prevent women from participating in political and public life on an equal basis with men, including threats and violence at all levels of political and public life" (8)
May 15, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to ensure substantive equality of women and men by, among other things, seeking to implement the national gender policy through its strategic implementation framework and plan, which set the objective of having a 35 per cent quota for women occupying appointed and elected positions. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned: That the 35 per cent quota and other measures, including the 'Community Services, Women and Youth Employment” and “Growing Girls and Women in Nigeria' projects, lack a legislative basis that would ensure their enforcement" (6). "The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to improve women’s participation in political life, including through the trust fund...more
May 11, 2018, 12:35 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to increase the participation of women in political and public life, including an increase in the number of women in the parliament. It is concerned, however, that women remain significantly underrepresented at the decision-making levels in the parliament and that they are concentrated in the public administration at the middle and lower levels only" (pg 8).
May 10, 2018, 7:17 p.m.
Countries: Argentina
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The National Women’s Council’s goal is to build social awareness of the importance of gender equality in strengthening democracy by championing gender-orientated public policies that help to eliminate the various forms of discrimination against women and promote social conditions that guarantee them effective enjoyment of their rights. In pursuit of this goal, by Resolution No. 6 of 14 July 2009 the Council, which is subordinate to the National Council for the Coordination of Social Policies, established the institutional capacity-building programme for regional and municipal women’s offices and civil society organizations. The aim of this capacity-building programme is to contribute to the development of public policies that promote equality between men...more
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is, however, concerned that the [30 percent minimum] quota [for women at all levels of national life] has not been effective in accelerating the achievement of substantive equality of women and men, especially in appointed and elected decision-making positions, public administration, and in academia where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged" (6). "No woman has been elected into the Parliament since the introduction of [the 30 percent] quota" (9).
May 5, 2018, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The Committee acknowledges the successful implementation of mandatory quotas for national, local and European elections, which resulted in a significant increase in the representation of Slovenian women in the national parliament (35.6 per cent), local councils (31.8 per cent) and the European Parliament (50 per cent)" (8).
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"For example, SA’s Strategic Plan is targeting an increase in the percentage of women nominating to stand in local, state and federal government elections in the state" (Pg 23). SA stands for south Australia (EJ-Coder Comment).
April 23, 2018, 7:43 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The new law on elections to the National Assembly and People’s Councils requires 35percent of final candidates for these two bodies to be women and 18 percent of final candidates for the National Assembly to be from minority groups. Nonetheless, women continued underrepresented in political bodies. There were 122 women (approximately 24 percent) in the National Assembly; two female ministers in the 28-member cabinet; two women in the 16-member Politburo, one of whom was ethnic Thai minority; and one woman on the Supreme People’s Court" (36).
April 20, 2018, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"the Committee is concerned about the underrepresentation of women in senior positions in the Government as well as their representation in Parliament. It notes with concern that the proposed Quota Act was rejected by Parliament and no other measures have been undertaken to address the situation" (6)
April 14, 2018, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Women continue to be significantly underrepresented in the Council of States and the National Council, with the overall proportion of women in the Government continuing to be low following the most recent federal elections, in October 2015" (Pg 11).
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the legislative measures taken by the State party to promote women’s political participation, including the amendment of the Electoral Code in 2012 in relation to parliamentary elections establishing a minimum quota of 30 per cent of candidates from both sexes and the 2015 amendment establishing a 50 per cent quota for candidates for local elections. It also notes that the number of women in political and public life has increased, albeit without attaining the quota required under the Gender Equality Law, in particular for decision-making positions in both the public and private sectors. The Committee is concerned, however, that women belonging to disadvantaged or marginalized groups, such...more
April 11, 2018, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The will to promote the participation of women led to the adoption of Act No. 010-2009/AN of 16 April 2009, which establishes quotas for legislative and municipal elections and marks a significant change in the legal framework for women’s political rights. It aims to promote their full participation in political life by ensuring that any political party’s candidate lists effectively include at least 30 per cent of persons of either gender (see section on article 4). However, the above Act has shortcomings. Thus, the proposed quotas do not go far enough towards gender parity on candidate lists and the penalties are not dissuasive enough. Surveys conducted in 2012 on the...more
April 10, 2018, 4:23 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation that the State party has re-established a minimum quota of 30 per cent for women candidates on the electoral lists of political parties in parliamentary elections. The Committee is concerned, however, about the lack of implementation in practice of temporary special measures in the State party" (Pg 4). "While welcoming the increased participation of women in public service and in the judiciary, the Committee remains concerned at the low percentage of women in political and public life, in particular in decision-making positions, including in the parliament, notwithstanding the 30 per cent quota for women candidates on party lists and in public administration, owing to persistent...more
April 6, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Act no. 17 (2005), which gives women the right to vote and stand as candidates in all elections and referendums, has helped greatly to promote women’s participation in political, social and economic life and given women the opportunity to take part in all elections. As such, discrimination against women’s political participation has been eliminated and they have begun to exercise a natural and constructive role in society" (15)
April 5, 2018, 9:17 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about the gross underrepresentation of women in public and political life and the lack of capacity-building for political party and labour union representatives with regard to women’s rights, and regrets that the bill that would have provided for a 30 per cent minimum quota for women’s representation on the candidate lists of political parties for parliamentary elections was not adopted. It is concerned about the strong political resistance to the adoption of temporary special measures to effectively promote the equal participation of women in public and political life. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Take all appropriate measures to increase the number of women...more
April 4, 2018, 11:54 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the efforts of the State party to increase the representation of women in political and public life, which have steadily reaped results. However, the Committee is concerned that the parity law of 2006 establishes a minimum quota of 33.3 per cent for candidates of each sex on electoral lists for European, national and local elections, whereas parity may be seen as meaning equal (50-50) representation. In addition, the Committee notes that the parity law has had a limited effect at the local level and that its effectiveness is hampered by the leniency of the sanctions applied in the event of failure to comply with the quota. The...more
April 3, 2018, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned at the low representation of women in decision-making positions, in particular in the diplomatic service (ambassadors: 0 per cent) and in other international organizations, as well as at the community level (regional heads: 0 per cent; elected mayors: 5 per cent; heads of fokontany assemblies: 2.6 per cent). It is particularly concerned that past efforts to introduce measures, including temporary special measures, to remedy the unequal participation of women in political and public life have not succeeded before the National Assembly. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Amend its electoral law by introducing statutory quotas, including sanctions for non-compliance, for increased representation of women...more
March 30, 2018, 5:08 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to ensure de facto equality of women and men by, among other things, amending the Elections Law, which now provides that lists of candidates fielded by political parties should contain a minimum of 30 per cent of each gender. The Committee is, however, concerned that the legislation does not provide for sanctions to enforce the quota" (6).
March 28, 2018, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"While noting the slight increase in the number of women elected as heads of mahalla, the Committee remains concerned at the low percentage of women in political and public life, in particular in decision-making positions, including the decline of women’s representation in the Oliy Majlis (from 22 to 16 per cent), notwithstanding the 30 per cent quota for women candidates on party lists, and in the public administration (27 per cent), the civil service (19 per cent), the judiciary (13 per cent) and the diplomatic service (only 3 per cent of ambass adors are women), owing to persistent traditional and patriarchal attitudes, the lack of effective temporary special measures and...more
March 23, 2018, 1:50 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Significantly, progress was reflected in women taking up at least 30% of the positions in all elective bodies, with the exception of the hillside communities in which, on average, women hold 20% of the elected positions" (7). If women are holding at least 30% of elected positions, that indicates that the quotas are working without limiting women's involvement (CODER COMMENT-BCT). "Women’s participation in the general elections of 2010 (five polls: elections of the members of the communal councils; of the Head of State; lower house members of parliament; senators; and members of the hillside community councils) was greater than men’s, as shown in the following Table, which indicates that on...more
March 21, 2018, 5:20 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1, GP-DATA-1, GP-DATA-6

"The Committee commends the State party for its achievements in attaining 47 per cent representation of women in Parliament during the presidential and parliamentary elections held in 2014. The Committee is concerned, however, that those achievements were based on voluntary commitments of political parties to increase the participation of women in politics and that proposals to amend the electoral law, with the aim of having more prescriptive measures to accelerate the participation of women in political life, were rejected. The Committee is particularly concerned at the low representation of women in the judiciary, ministerial positions and senior positions in the diplomatic service, and at the regional and local levels of...more