The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

July 29, 2019, 8:26 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1

"The electoral code requires at least 30 percent of candidates for any party competing for seats in the National Assembly to be women. Not every party adhered to this rule, which was not enforced" (p. 14).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee nevertheless remains concerned about: (a) Persistently low levels of participation of women at the highest levels of decision-making, such as in the National Assembly, the Government, regional and local municipalities, the judiciary and the foreign service, as well as in mechanisms for the prevention, management and resolution of conflict; (b) The lack of awareness-raising campaigns on the importance of the participation of women in political and public life and engagement of women for such campaigns" (8).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts in applying special measures with regard to women’s political participation and representation in national government bodies through the Quota Act (No. 2000-008) (amended in 2014), raising the quota for both sexes in elected office from 10 to 15 per cent. It is concerned, however, about the weak implementation of the Act, women’s low representation in the parliament (16 per cent) and as regional, municipal and town councillors (12 per cent) and the absence of women governors or prefects" (9).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Tradition and relative socioeconomic disadvantage limited the participation of women, some castes, and some ethnic groups in the political process, including as elected officials. The larger political parties had associated women’s wings, youth wings, trade unions, and social organizations. Women, youth, and minorities complained that party leaders, mostly upper-caste men from the central hills, prohibited meaningful political participation despite the existence of certain quotas for participation" (Pg 22).
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"On the domain of political rights, the Representation of the People Order, 1972 (RPO) may appear somewhat ‘justifiable’ in the context of Bangladesh but its practice and translation in reality is altogether a different matter. There are few elected women representatives in the national parliament, the 50 reserved seats for the women in it may barely amount to more than tokenism. Successive elections of the parliament remain the testimony in this regard. The so-called ‘strides’ of women’s representation in the lower tier of the local governments (i.e. Union Parishad and Upazilla Parishad) with special reservation for women, have indeed increased the number of the women elected representatives over the recent...more
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Constitution ensures the equal rights of women and men to participate in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation (Article 35 (...) The government continues to implement affirmative actions that designate at least one woman in a leadership position at (i) the municipal, provincial, city, district and khan level, (ii) the Committee for Women and Children at the commune/sangkat level, and (iii) the village level" (38). "The number of women in leadership positions has increased through incentives and appointments. In 2015, there was one female Deputy Prime Minister (10 per cent), three female Ministers (10.7 per cent), 38 female Secretaries of State (20.5 per cent) and...more
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the commitment of the State party to reserving 50 seats in Parliament for women. Nevertheless, it notes with concern that only a few women have reached the highest level of the political pyramid and that women, in general, are underrepresented in Parliament, the judiciary and the Administration and in the private sector" (7).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the increase in the representation of women in Parliament and the legislative initiatives to introduce statutory quotas. Nevertheless, it is concerned at: (a) The continued low representation of women in Parliament and in the national, regional and local governments, in particular the low number of women mayors; (b) The lack of effective measures to implement chapter 4 of Act No. 202/2002 on equal opportunities and treatment for men and women and thus ensure the balanced participation of women and men in leadership and decision-making positions in the public administration; (c) The fact that the initiative currently before Parliament does not ensure that women are not consistently assigned...more
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, it notes that the representation of women at the provincial and district level is very low and there is no comprehensive strategy to address the obstacles faced by women to participating in decision-making, which include the prevailing patriarchal political culture based on gender stereotypes and the limited skills, education and lack of economic independence of women in the State party" (9).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In the July legislative election, all lists of candidates fully complied with the parity law. While the number of women in elected positions has increased, the law has not significantly expanded their role in exercising political authority since it does not apply to party leadership positions or to other important decision-making bodies such as the cabinet and the judiciary" (page 13).
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law governing the Assembly election requires that 30 percent of candidates be women and that they occupy 30 percent of appointed and elected positions. According to the OSCE preliminary report on the elections, however, the largest parties did not always respect the mandated 30 percent quota in their candidate lists. The Central Election Commission fined these parties but nonetheless accepted their lists" (page 15).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution provides for 55 of the 65 seats in the House of Assembly to be popularly contested and for the king to appoint the remaining 10 members. The constitution provides for five of the 10 to be women and for the other five to represent “interests, including marginalized groups not already adequately represented in the house.” In addition the constitution stipulates that if less than 30 percent of assembly members are women, four additional women shall be selected on a regional basis. The king appointed only three women to the House of Assembly following the elections, in which only one woman was elected, and although less than 30 percent...more
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1

"There are no laws that prevent women or minorities from participating in political life on the same basis as men or majority citizens. Some cultural and social barriers to women’s participation include financial constraints and the sometimes violent nature of local politics. There was no provision for, or allocation of, a set number or percentage of political party positions for women or minorities" (Pg 24).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The roadmap signatories agreed that, prior to the transition to a permanent government, the federal parliament should consist of at least 30 percent women, but women held only 14 percent of 275 seats in parliament" (Pg 29).
June 25, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Three-year plan for the social and political participation of women, covering the period 2016–2018, in 2015" (2). "The Committee notes the submission of a bill on democratic parity to the Senate, the initiatives taken under the three-year plan for the social and political participation of women and the training for women who are members of political parties. The Committee is concerned, however, about the delay in the adoption of the bill, and that, 20 years after the introduction of quotas for elections, the representation of women in the parliament and in other areas, including ministerial positions, remains low" (8).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Cultural and traditional practices in the northern areas of the country prevented women from holding office as paramount chiefs (a parallel system of tribal government operated in each of the 149 chiefdoms)" (Pg 14).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution provides for 55 of the 65 seats in the House of Assembly to be popularly contested and for the king to appoint the remaining 10 members. The constitution provides for five of the 10 appointed members to be women… the constitution stipulates that if less than 30 percent of assembly members are women, four additional women shall be selected on a regional basis" (p. 15).
June 19, 2019, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"It is also concerned about the absence of temporary special measures to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality between women and men in political and public life, education and employment" (5). "The Committee is concerned that the principle of gender equality, parity and the alternation of men and women for the nomination of candidates within political parties were not included in recent amendments to the Elections and Political Parties Act, notwithstanding two favourable decisions by the Constitutional Court, and that women who stand for public office, including indigenous women and women of African descent, continue to face obstacles" (9).
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"There were eight female ministers in the 36-member cabinet (22 percent). Women held 16 of 113 National Assembly seats (14 percent)" (Pg 13). This is one percentage point below the quota mandated by law meaning that there is something ineffective about the quota (EJ - Coder Comment).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women and/or members of minority groups held few positions of significant influence in the government or CCP structure" (47-48)
June 11, 2019, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or minorities in the political process, and women and minorities did participate" (11).
June 10, 2019, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Cabinet of Parliamentary Women, also at the Assembly of the Republic — which aims at opening a space for the parliamentary women to handle their matters and establish linking mechanisms with women’s organizations in order to ensure that gender matters and fight against poverty are considered during the deliberations of the Assembly of the Republic" (10). "The regulation of the Law on Local State Bodies (LOLE) calls attention to the involvement of women in Local State Bodies (OLE) by stating in its article 118 the importance to secure the representation of women in the Local Consultative Councils. It was within this scope that a minimum quota of 30% was...more
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"Electoral laws require at least one-third of candidates on party lists be women" (p. 10).
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Human rights activists, however, cited cultural bias against women as an impediment to women participating in political life on the same scale as men" (26).
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Government Plan for the 9th Legislative term, prepared in 2016 after the elections, sets forth a clear commitment with the promotion of a Parity Law" (17). "As a result of Parliamentarian’s advocacy within their parties, the representation of women in party structures has increased significantly: in the case of Movement for Democracy, at its latest Caucus (January 2017), women’s proportion in the Caucus Board went up to 60 per cent, 43 per cent in the Jurisdiction Council, 42 per cent in the National Board and 30 per cent in the National Political Commission. The African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde has a proportion of 30 per cent...more
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"There are no legal requirements for minimum shares or rankings of nominations for elections to the National Council and provincial parliaments. Three out of six parties represented in the National Council voluntarily committed to achieve or maintain a certain share of women. One party committed to have a minimum share of 50 per cent women and the other two parties committed to a quota of 40 per cen" (10). "In order to strengthen women’s representation in political life, some provinces introduced quotas and specific outcome-oriented targets for budgeting. All provinces held seminars about education and vocational training and introduced mentoring programmes for future female politicians and women who are interested...more
May 28, 2019, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned, however, at the slight decrease in the percentage of women in the parliament during the past two elections and the insufficient representation of disadvantaged groups of women, including young women and women belonging to minority groups, in particular those of Roma, Sami and foreign origin, in decision making positions" (9).
May 28, 2019, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Czech Republic
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes that the Anti-Discrimination Act (2009) does not explicitly cover political participation and that a plan of action for the implementation of the recently adopted strategy for equality of women and men for the period from 2014 to 2020 (the ‘+1 Strategy’) is currently being developed. It notes with regret that the State party did not adopt the draft law on temporary special measures requiring a minimum quota for the representation of women on electoral lists of political parties. The Committee is concerned at the lack of specific goals, targets and time frames in the +1 Strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women, including Roma...more
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Thirty percent of delegates to the 2013-14 NDC were women, and women chaired many committees and working groups" (30).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women, members of minorities in, or both in the political process, and they did participate" (35). "Despite an increase in the number of female parliamentarians, political discussions often marginalized female members of parliament" (35).