The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-3

Sept. 14, 2020, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"In September, Karina García Sierra, who was running to be mayor of Suárez, Cauca, was attacked and killed. Authorities blamed a FARC dissident group" (para 8).
Sept. 2, 2020, 6:55 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, VOTE-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-2

"An April report by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems on violence against women in elections noted growing use of social media to discredit and humiliate women candidates; social barriers to women voters, particularly in rural areas; and high rates of sexual harassment and violence against women in Afghan public life" (para 14).
Aug. 26, 2020, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

“In my time working, campaigning, and blogging about UK politics I meet all sorts of talented and idealistic young women, but few of them stay in [politics]…for long. The issue has long been the lifestyle associated with politics” (para 1-2). “Over the years senior female politicians, role models that those younger could grab hold of and look up to, have been few and far between. Christine Quigley, Chair of London Young Labour, told me that she often felt frustrated growing up as someone interested in politics, because she didn’t ‘see many elected politicians that I could identify with as a young woman’…It’s fair to say though that the sisterhood hasn’t...more
Aug. 8, 2020, 9:18 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The Judicial Service Commission launched an investigation into sexual harassment in courts after a string of recent complaints against members of the judiciary" (para 14).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The Westminster Foundation for Democracy recently published a landmark survey that explores gender-based pressures faced by female politicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Among the respondents, two-thirds had won seats at a municipal, regional, or state parliament. The study revealed that 60 percent of the 83 participants said they had experienced some form of violence while engaged in politics, and that 46 percent of the politicians had experienced violence just because they are women. Perpetrators were both strangers or party colleagues and leaders. Prevalent psychological violence was mostly in the form of verbal and emotional abuse, as well as online violence, most commonly misogynistic and sexualized threats" (para. 19).more
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"In a potentially worrying development, President Karzai unilaterally modified the Law by decree in the spring of 2010. Among his changes was a stipulation that meant that should a woman’s seat be vacated during a parliamentary or provincial term it could be filled by man if there were no female candidates available to take over. This opened up the possibility of powerful male actors intimidating women out of their seats, especially in insecure provinces or those with fewer female candidates" (pg 9). "The registration of female candidates also saw a disproportionately high dropout rate compared to men. This was likely related to the fact that candidates working in government positions...more
May 19, 2020, 12:18 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Jayati Janta – a Sahariya tribal woman and a Jal Saheli was recently elected the head of Rajawan village council despite stiff opposition from men of higher castes. Only 2 months into office, Janta is already implementing the water security plan that includes building a percolation tank to recharge the ground water in the village. 'Every woman is donating labor for this,' she says. Others believe that Janta’s election will be a turning point. 'A Jal Saheli knows local women’s struggle for water. If we can have a few more ‘Jal Saheli’ in the public offices, we can change this region,' says Lalita Dube, a Jal Saheli in Bhadauna village"...more
May 6, 2020, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women, members of minorities, or both in the political process, and they did participate." (31).
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Women participated actively as political party members, but they were not always successful in securing leadership positions within parties, with the exception of women’s wings" (34).
March 30, 2020, 9:29 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Ardern, whose government has spearheaded a reformist agenda, drew worldwide attention in June last year when she became the second female leader in modern political history to give birth while in office" (para 8). The lack of female leaders giving birth while in office suggests that giving birth is a substantial impediment to women holding elected office (RAO-CODER COMMENT).
March 16, 2020, 4:12 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The informal justice system is most often resorted to by most of the people accessing justice. While this is a recognized venue for justice, it is flawed with cultural biases by male elders against women. The Civil Dispute Resolution Act (2015) was drafted by the MOJ to formalize the Jirgas and Shuras. The implementation of this law will dig a well for Afghan women at large, since women do not have the right to participate in the local Jirgas/Shuras and decisions are issued in their absence. It is also the case that most of the decisions are not taken in favour of women and their consent to the decisions is...more
Feb. 11, 2020, 3:52 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Politically, Iraqi women have very limited influence and power to contribute to decision-making. To some extent, this is a direct consequence of the re-emergence of political authoritarianism under Prime Minister Al-Maliki: all political actors experience the systematic side-lining of political opposition, the lack of rule of law and widespread political violence. However, women are particularly marginalized in a context where they are perceived as incapable of leading and strategizing, where social attitudes have shifted towards more conservative gender norms, and where armed violence, political intimidation, attacks on political opponents as well as rampant corruption are shaping politics" (para. 4). "It is important to stress that the situation in the Kurdistan...more
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"In October 2016 the Somali Religious Council released a press statement warning the government against advocating for women in politics, calling the 30 percent quota for women’s seats in parliament “dangerous” and against Islamic religious tenets and predicting the policy would lead to disintegration of the family. Several women electoral delegates were killed after the electoral process concluded." (33).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"This phenomenon is also prevalent across the border in Somalia, where conflict and the influence from more conservative Gulf nations have already constricted the space for women in public life. Negotiated democracy only aggravates this situation. Elections in Somalia are not by direct, universal suffrage but by nomination and quotas based on the country’s four major clans. Here, too, it is the council of elders who determines which candidates will be allowed to speak for the group, and again the councils rarely allow women to take up the mantle. In fact, on Oct. 2, a council of religious elders denounced the 30 percent parliamentary quota as a 'foreign-led initiative.' (5)....more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"When Bina Maseno was 23, she decided to run for Council Assembly in Nairobi City County and reached out to a few experienced female politicians for advice. She expected to hear suggestions for navigating party power dynamics or articulating campaign messages for a broader audience. But what she got was a primer in protecting herself from sexual assault by male politicians and putative voters. 'I was shocked,' she recalled. 'One woman told me that I had to dress in a matronly way, because voters always think that youthful looking women are sleeping their way through the party. Another woman advised that I should never go to a rally without wearing...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women, members of minorities, or both in the political process, and they did participate. Social and cultural barriers, however, limited women’s political participation and leadership in most political parties and some government institutions." (38).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Political life is male dominated, and observers commented that some female politicians served as 'placeholders' when male members of their dynastic political families had to leave office due to term limits. Media commentators also expressed concern that political dynasties limited the opportunities for female candidates not connected to political families to seek nomination" (22).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit women’s or minorities’ political participation as voters or candidates. Observers suggested cultural constraints might limit the number of women in government. Sexual harassment discouraged women’s participation in political activities" (21).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Some observers believed cultural and traditional factors prevented women from participating in political life to the same extent as men" (page 34).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Some observers believed that traditional and cultural factors prevented women from participating in political life on an equal basis with men" (page 7).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Gender discrimination excluded women from many aspects of public life. Women slowly but increasingly participated in political life, albeit at a disadvantage, in part due to guardianship laws requiring a male guardian’s permission for legal decisions, restrictions on women candidates’ contact with male voters in the 2015 elections, and the ban on women driving, which the government announced would be lifted in 2018" (36). "Women were routinely excluded from formal decision-making positions in both government and the private sector, although some women attained leadership positions in business and served in senior advisory positions within government ministries" (37).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or members of minority groups in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation" (page 14).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"Women and minorities generally participated in the political system without formal restriction, although significant cultural and social barriers largely excluded women from decision-making positions" (Pg 42).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Tradition and relative socioeconomic disadvantage limited the participation of women, some castes, and some ethnic groups in the political process, including as elected officials. The larger political parties had associated women’s wings, youth wings, trade unions, and social organizations. Women, youth, and minorities complained that party leaders, mostly upper-caste men from the central hills, prohibited meaningful political participation despite the existence of certain quotas for participation" (Pg 22).
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3, GIC-LAW-1

"Representation of women in public life, however, was very low. Women constituted 10 percent of members of parliament, and there were no female ministers. Only 13 percent of sub-cabinetlevel government state secretaries were women. In May 2016 the UN Working Group on the Issue of Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, in a statement following an official visit, noted 'pervasive and severe gender stereotyping of women which undoubtedly contributed to their low level of political participation.' The working group expressed concern over 'some public officials who legitimize and justify the low representation of women in politics'" (Pg 23).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, VOTE-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Five of the 34 cabinet members were women, as was the senior presidential advisor for national reconciliation. There were 12 women among the 140 members of parliament. Some observers believed traditional attitudes and cultural practices limited the ability of women to participate in political life on the same basis as men. In November 2016 the National Assembly passed a gender equality law. The law outlaws gender discrimination and establishes quotas for women’s representation in elective offices, and public and private institutions. It also establishes an independent National Observatory for Male/Female Equality to...more
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"it remains concerned that female candidates face gender stereotypes in the media and among politicians" (7).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Cultural and traditional factors, however, reduced women’s political participation compared to that of men. Women remained underrepresented at all levels of government, but their political participation continued to improve" (Pg 23).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Rural women… are not part of decision-making processes in the State party" (11).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, GP-DATA-3

"Legal status and rights under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws are the same for men and women. The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and the National Women’s Committee promoted the legal rights of women. Women historically have held leadership positions across all sectors of society, although they were not as prevalent as men, and cultural and religious practices limited their effectiveness. The government provided little data that could be used to determine whether women experienced discrimination in access to employment or credit or were paid less for substantially similar work. The labor code prohibits women from working in many industries open to men" (Pg 29).more