The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-3

Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Political life is male dominated, and observers commented that some female politicians served as 'placeholders' when male members of their dynastic political families had to leave office due to term limits. Media commentators also expressed concern that political dynasties limited the opportunities for female candidates not connected to political families to seek nomination" (22).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit women’s or minorities’ political participation as voters or candidates. Observers suggested cultural constraints might limit the number of women in government. Sexual harassment discouraged women’s participation in political activities" (21).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo

"Some observers believed cultural and traditional factors prevented women from participating in political life to the same extent as men" (page 34).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Some observers believed that traditional and cultural factors prevented women from participating in political life on an equal basis with men" (page 7).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Gender discrimination excluded women from many aspects of public life. Women slowly but increasingly participated in political life, albeit at a disadvantage, in part due to guardianship laws requiring a male guardian’s permission for legal decisions, restrictions on women candidates’ contact with male voters in the 2015 elections, and the ban on women driving, which the government announced would be lifted in 2018" (36). "Women were routinely excluded from formal decision-making positions in both government and the private sector, although some women attained leadership positions in business and served in senior advisory positions within government ministries" (37).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or members of minority groups in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation" (page 14).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria

"Women and minorities generally participated in the political system without formal restriction, although significant cultural and social barriers largely excluded women from decision-making positions" (Pg 42).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal

"Tradition and relative socioeconomic disadvantage limited the participation of women, some castes, and some ethnic groups in the political process, including as elected officials. The larger political parties had associated women’s wings, youth wings, trade unions, and social organizations. Women, youth, and minorities complained that party leaders, mostly upper-caste men from the central hills, prohibited meaningful political participation despite the existence of certain quotas for participation" (Pg 22).
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary

"Representation of women in public life, however, was very low. Women constituted 10 percent of members of parliament, and there were no female ministers. Only 13 percent of sub-cabinetlevel government state secretaries were women. In May 2016 the UN Working Group on the Issue of Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, in a statement following an official visit, noted 'pervasive and severe gender stereotyping of women which undoubtedly contributed to their low level of political participation.' The working group expressed concern over 'some public officials who legitimize and justify the low representation of women in politics'" (Pg 23).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Five of the 34 cabinet members were women, as was the senior presidential advisor for national reconciliation. There were 12 women among the 140 members of parliament. Some observers believed traditional attitudes and cultural practices limited the ability of women to participate in political life on the same basis as men. In November 2016 the National Assembly passed a gender equality law. The law outlaws gender discrimination and establishes quotas for women’s representation in elective offices, and public and private institutions. It also establishes an independent National Observatory for Male/Female Equality to...more
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore

"it remains concerned that female candidates face gender stereotypes in the media and among politicians" (7).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon

"Cultural and traditional factors, however, reduced women’s political participation compared to that of men. Women remained underrepresented at all levels of government, but their political participation continued to improve" (Pg 23).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Rural women… are not part of decision-making processes in the State party" (11).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan

"Legal status and rights under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws are the same for men and women. The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and the National Women’s Committee promoted the legal rights of women. Women historically have held leadership positions across all sectors of society, although they were not as prevalent as men, and cultural and religious practices limited their effectiveness. The government provided little data that could be used to determine whether women experienced discrimination in access to employment or credit or were paid less for substantially similar work. The labor code prohibits women from working in many industries open to men" (Pg 29).more
June 25, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee is concerned at acts of intimidation and harassment against women human rights defenders, as well as against teachers, journalists, lawyers and members of non-governmental organizations working on women’s rights, gender equality, violence against women and sexual violence. It is further concerned at reported abusive practices by security and law enforcement personnel against indigenous and rural women, such as the detention of women present at the Curuguaty massacre in 2012 in spite of the lack of proof of their effective involvement" (8).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Gender discrimination excluded women from many aspects of public life. Women slowly but increasingly participated in political life, albeit with significantly less status than men, in part due to guardianship laws requiring a male escort, restrictions on women candidates’ contact with male voters in this year’s elections, and the ban on women driving" (Pg 31).
June 20, 2019, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Women in public life, or women working outside the home, are subject to frequent threats and all too often assassinated by attackers, including the Taliban, opposed to women’s autonomy" (2). "Unfortunately, heads of the DoWA offices struggle to perform their crucial functions due to lack of government support including security assistance. In July 2012, Hanifa Safi, head of the DoWA in eastern Laghman province, was killed by a car bomb as she left for work one morning in the provincial capital of Mehtar Lam. In December 2012, gunmen killed Safi’s replacement, Najia Sediqi, as she travelled to work in a rickshaw in the absence of a replacement for the car...more
June 14, 2019, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Religious, cultural, and traditional practices and ideas prevented women from proportional participation in political office" (33-34).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria

"No laws prevent women or minority members from voting, running for office, or serving as electoral monitors, but cultural and traditional practices inhibited women’s ability to do so" (Pg 27-28).
June 13, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The constitution, however, requires a high school education for all elected officials, which had the unintended effect of disqualifying many female candidates from running for office" (p.15).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Meaningful participation by women at the national and local levels, even when elected, is sometimes constrained by traditional attitudes and stereotypes" (p. 10).
May 30, 2019, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee notes with appreciation that the two major political parties have made concerted efforts to increase the representation of women. It is concerned, however, that women remain significantly underrepresented at the decision-making level in Parliament, in the Government and in the diplomatic service, owing to patriarchal attitudes, a lack of effective measures such as statutory quotas or a parity system for political appointments, limited access to political networks and insufficient capacity-building for women on political leadership skills" (7).
May 16, 2019, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"We [also] have women as candidates of the next elections [in 2016], but it’s very difficult for women to have enough means to carry out a campaign. This is where we come up against the problem between what is said and what can be done. The organizations say, "Well women you should run for offices" and the women say, "but we don’t have the means – how can this come about if we don’t have the finances?" We are sensitizing the political parties so that they will put women on their list of electoral candidates as they promise, but they don’t carry them out. They don’t give equal assistance to...more
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of ethnic minorities in the political process, but cultural traditions limited women’s role in politics and government" (23).
May 11, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Fiji

"Cultural beliefs restricted participation of most indigenous women in political life" (14).
May 7, 2019, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Legally women and minorities can vote and participate in political life on the same basis as men and nonminority citizens, although women faced significant social and cultural barriers in both the West Bank and Gaza" (101). "Hamas generally excluded women from leadership positions in the de facto ministries in Gaza" (101).
April 25, 2019, 8:30 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women remained largely underrepresented in local and national politics, and men overwhelmingly held most senior positions in the public sector. Some observers believed that traditional and cultural factors limited the participation of women" (29). "According to a credible NGO, there were no official reports of rape being used as a political weapon during the year, but female political leaders were targeted physically or through threats and intimidation. On August 6, MDC-T supporters reportedly attacked MDC-T vice president Thokozani Khupe at MDC-T’s Bulawayo provincial headquarters, accusing her of convening an unsanctioned meeting. In...more
April 15, 2019, 9:10 p.m.
Countries: Honduras

"Women, however, suffered political violence, which ranged from harassment for voting against party lines to receiving death threats for their political participation" (p. 20).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"[Macau] There were no laws or practices preventing women or members of minorities from voting, running for office, serving as election monitors, or otherwise participating in political life on the same basis as men or nonminority citizens" (page 132).
April 10, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process" (32). "Although senior political and social leaders often came from among veterans of the predominantly male IDF officer corps, women participated widely in politics, including in leadership positions" (32). "Women faced significant cultural barriers in political parties representing conservative religious movements and the Arab minority, although the 2015 elections resulted in two female Arab MKs from the Joint List winning seats" (32).