The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-LAW-1

June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Women’s status is determined by the scope of their civil rights. Under current legislation, women and men have equal legal personality, in other words the ability to own, use and dispose of property, to conclude contracts and to exercise other civil rights" (6).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"All women enjoy, on the basis of equality with men, the rights to ownership, which constitutes the very basis of all civil rights. Women are accorded rights to conclude, in their own names, contracts for purchase or sale, bank deposit, life or property insurance, trust or loan in accordance with the Civil Law" (37).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"In that framework, FONTIERRAS determined that in the period between 2012 and 2025 women may be beneficiaries in the articles of incorporation of legal persons, as envisaged at article 3 (b) and (c). For its part, article 20 provides, ‘Guatemalan men and women peasant farmers, shall be beneficiaries, whether considered individually or having organized to gain access to land and agricultural/livestock, forestry, and hydro-biological production. In the framework of its projects it shall stimulate the participation of women peasant farmers both individually and collectively organized.’ Accordingly, it has facilitated access to land through its programmes ‘Access to land purchases and productive development’ and ‘Land regularization’. The names of both spouses...more
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"This is partly because cultural, religious and traditional values in Lebanon undermine women’s economic independence and contribute to their economic marginalization and dependence on husbands, and partly because Lebanese personal status laws do not recognize a wife’s economic and non-economic contributions to the marriage, including the value of her unpaid domestic labor, or the concept of marital property" (96).
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Law No. 43/2013 of 16 June 2013 governing land in Rwanda, which prohibits discrimination based on sex in relation to access to land" (2).
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1

"By law women may own property, but they often ceded control of it to male relatives due to cultural reasons and family pressure" (29).
Feb. 11, 2020, 2:29 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The Constitution provides for the right for men and women to own property individually or jointly. There is need for increased awareness of equal rights to property countrywide and establishment of institutions responsible for implementing land laws. Land tribunals which are already established by law could be used to decentralise the operations of the Administrator General." (para. 12-13).
Feb. 7, 2020, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: LO-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-2

"Laws related to marriage, ownership and inheritance rights remain ineffective because they often conflict with predominant social practices. For example, although the Constitution prohibits bigamy, polygamous marriages are very common in the southern region. Only the first wife is given the right to place her name beside her husband's on land registration and certification forms, while the right to land ownership for polygamous wives remains marginalized" (para 19)
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Only 11% of women and 16% of men have a bank account that they use" (pg 269).
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Women did not have the same rights as men and experienced systematic subordination to men, despite provisions in the federal constitution prohibiting such discrimination. Women experienced discrimination in credit, education, politics, and housing." (33).
Dec. 31, 2019, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"In the most significant reforms to Chinese land laws in more than 15 years, the Chinese government adopted several new amendments to its 2002 Rural Land Contracting Law (RLCL) late last year that will help strengthen the land rights of 240 million Chinese farm households. The amended RLCL includes key provisions that protect and strengthen women’s land rights, and responds positively to shifting demographic trends as China’s farming communities undergo rapid urbanization" (para. 1-2). "The new law strengthens and reaffirms the rights of rural households to use, manage, and leverage their land in four important ways. For the first time, women’s names will be registered on land certificates. Previously, only...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has implemented and improved laws and policies on protecting the land rights of women in rural areas, established various systems for managing rural collective funds, assets and resources, corrected any village regulations and folk conventions for villagers that are in conflict with statutory regulations and the principle of gender equality, so as to ensure that women in...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Land titles of farmers who kill themselves in an Indian state will be given to their widows, according to a government order, granting inheritance equality in a nation where their property rights are often denied" (para. 1).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Land titles of farmers who kill themselves in an Indian state will be given to their widows, according to a government order, granting inheritance equality in a nation where their property rights are often denied" (para. 1).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"The law makes it difficult for women to access formal credit. While the law allows women to own property, social and religious barriers strongly discouraged women’s ownership of land, a primary source of collateral in the banking system." (44).
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. Women did not enjoy the same social and economic status as men, despite the constitutional amendments recognizing the principle of 'at least 30 percent women’s participation in national life and notably in public service.' By law men and women have equal protections for economic participation" (19).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The law accords women the same property rights as men. In Muslim and indigenous communities, however, property ownership law or tradition grant men more property rights than women" (26).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Eager to preserve the stability of the family unit, the party has also done little to help women following a recent court ruling that weakened their claim to property in divorce proceedings. And with divorce numbers on the rise, millions of Chinese women have been cut out of the nation’s real-estate boom, experts say." (para 15). "Chinese law had previously recognized a family’s home as joint property in divorce proceedings. But the 2011 ruling held that real estate purchased before marriage, either outright or on mortgage, should revert to the buyer in a divorce — and that is usually the husband." (para 43).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"Although property and inheritance laws provide the same legal status and rights for women as for men, family law discriminates against women, and discrimination against and exploitation of women were widespread. Local leaders settled most inheritance disputes in favor of men, according to traditional practice" (page 16).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 14, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Secular civil law permits female citizens to own property and other assets, including business properties" (p. 16).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"While women legally have equal access to land, traditional practices made it difficult for women to purchase property in rural areas. Many women had access to land only through their husbands, and the security of their rights depended on maintaining the relationship with their husbands. In addition rural councils--where women often were underrepresented--allocated most land" (page 16).
July 7, 2019, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination against citizens based on gender, and gives men and women equal property rights" (p. 24).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"There are no restrictions on women signing contracts, opening bank accounts, or owning property. Women did not experience formal sector economic discrimination in access to employment (see section 7.d.), credit, or managing a business" (Pg 12).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"According to the World Bank report, Women, Business, and the Law 2014, women and men have equal ownership rights to property, although women owned significantly less property than men" (Pg 21).
July 1, 2019, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Women may own and inherit property and represent themselves in all public and legal matters" (p. 32).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LO-LAW-1, LO-DATA-3, IAD-LAW-1

"While formal law and sharia provide women the right to own and dispose of property independently, various legal, cultural, and societal barriers often obstructed women from exercising such rights. By law girls and women could inherit only half the amount of property to which their brothers were entitled. A 2010 report from a local women’s organization in Somaliland indicated 75 percent of women did not own livestock, land, or other property. Only 15 to 20 percent received inheritance from male family members" (Pg 35-36).
June 25, 2019, 7:34 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"The law provides the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. The law stipulates equal pay for men and women and provides for equal access to credit, pay, owning or managing a business, education, and housing. Despite legal provisions for equal pay, inequities still exist (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 12).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for men and women under family, labor, property, and inheritance laws. Although the Employer and Employee Act identifies 'discrimination as any distinction, exclusion or preference, including based on sex,… which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation,' the law does not mandate equal remuneration for equal work or prohibit discrimination based on gender" (Pg 20). "All women in the Western (Freetown) Area, which is governed by general law, have a statutory right to own property in their own names, but many women in the provinces, which are governed by customary laws...more
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women generally have the same legal status and rights as men under family law, property law, employment/labor law, and inheritance laws. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as employment, credit, pay, owning or managing businesses, education, and housing" (Pg 19-20).