The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-PRACTICE-1

July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"Although property and inheritance laws provide the same legal status and rights for women as for men, family law discriminates against women, and discrimination against and exploitation of women were widespread. Local leaders settled most inheritance disputes in favor of men, according to traditional practice" (page 16).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes that the State party has taken economic empowerment measures for rural women, supporting cooperatives and making credit and grant programmes available in rural environments" (11).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes the link between the disproportionately high number of women in the State party living in poverty and their restricted access to economic assets and social benefits, mainly owing to the application of customary law in matters of succession resulting in unequal land inheritance and land grabbing from widows, discriminatory criteria for allocating social benefits and laws restricting the legal capacity of married women, inter alia, to gain access to credit and exercise a profession, in contravention of article 8 of the Constitution" (12).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In a report published in April, AI stated the government’s reconstruction policies, which require persons to provide land ownership documents to qualify for assistance, have reinforced the marginalization of women, the disadvantaged, and landless groups" (Pg 17). "The Gender Equality Act adopted in 2006--along with more than 60 other laws-- contain discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The law encourages bigamy by allowing men to remarry without divorcing if the first wife is incapacitated or infertile. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of...more
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Officially, there is no bar for the women in Bangladesh to access to credit and bank loans. However, in practice this remains a formidable challenge. This is applicable more so in rural areas and for the poor women. The success of the government low-interest based credit programmes, targeted specifically for the small farmers and rural women, is severely compromised by systemic inefficiency, limited outreach and corruption" (15). "It is also universally acknowledged that the various micro-credit products from the NGOs large and small and organizations like Grameen Bank have genuinely contributed in boosting rural livelihood and re-invigorating the rural economy. However, what should be forcefully said is that the successful...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, CONST-LAW-1

"The formal law does not discriminate against women in inheritance and property rights, but a number of discriminatory customary laws often prevailed. Women’s statutory inheritance rights often were not respected, particularly in rural areas. Women experienced economic and social discrimination. Customary law does not consider single, divorced, or widowed women, including those with children, to be heads of households. By law men and women are entitled to family subsidies from the government, but several women’s groups complained about lack of access to these payments for women" (Pg 18).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men; however, in law women did not enjoy the same rights and privileges as men. Although local government officials including mayors claimed women had access to land in their constituencies, the overall sociocultural practice of denying women the right to own land, especially through inheritance, was prevalent in most regions" (Pg 27).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The MRD has expanded a micro-credit scheme with low interest rates to enable people in rural areas, especially women, to obtain loans for small businesses and agriculture activities. In 2017, the credit scheme released capital totaling 1.31 million USD to 6,035 clients (4,989 women or 82.7 per cent) in 15 provinces" (29). "In 2015, the government introduced the Land Policy ‘White Paper’ in response to socio-economic development and land reform, serving to support people’s livelihoods. The ‘White Paper’ (Points 5 and 7) includes key guidelines and activities for achieving gender equality in the land sector and equity between men and women in the land registration process. In addition, the aim...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In contrast to customary law, the constitution and statutory law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, and nationality laws. Nevertheless, the government did not adequately enforce the law, and women experienced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.), education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property. Women’s movements noted women lacked adequate access to credit to acquire land or property. Lack of collateral meant women in most cases remained dependent on their husbands or male members of their family to cosign for loans. A lower percentage of women than men owned their own homes or businesses" (Pg 23).more
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The absence of corrective measures to enhance women’s access to loans and credits" (11).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides women with the same legal status and rights as men. Discrimination against women, however, was widespread, especially in rural areas. Many customary laws discriminate against women in adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women may not own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygyny is legal under both customary and Islamic law. In some ethnic groups, men may “inherit” the widows of their deceased brothers. In June Transparency International Uganda released the report “Women, Land and Corruption,” which found women...more
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that most women continue to face barriers to their economic empowerment, given their poor socioeconomic condition and the stereotypes against them, in addition to their limited access to credit for failure to meet banks’ requirements and the right to land tenure owing to unequal inheritance rights" (12). "It further notes with concern that women encounter legal and administrative barriers in registering their land, contrary to article 36 of the Constitution, owing to the application of discriminatory customary rules whereby land is allocated exclusively to men" (13).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"While women legally have equal access to land, traditional practices made it difficult for women to purchase property in rural areas. Many women had access to land only through their husbands, and the security of their rights depended on maintaining the relationship with their husbands. In addition rural councils--where women often were underrepresented--allocated most land" (page 16).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Some customary practices discriminate against women, including traditional inheritance systems that tend to exclude women from land ownership. There have been complaints that the company registering land claims used forms that do not protect women’s rights to property or follow best practice as related to gender" (Pg 17).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"According to the World Bank report, Women, Business, and the Law 2014, women and men have equal ownership rights to property, although women owned significantly less property than men" (Pg 21).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Girls and women faced discrimination in rural areas by community elders and authority figures, who gave preference to boys in education. Women faced employment discrimination (see section 7.d.). While the constitution provides that women may open bank accounts, obtain passports, and take jobs without the permission of a male relative, these constitutional rights often conflicted with customary law, which classifies women as minors. Both traditional and Roman- Dutch civil law recognize women as dependents of their husbands or fathers. Although women routinely executed contracts and entered into a variety of transactions in their own names, banks often refused personal loans to married women without a male guarantor. The constitution provides...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-DATA-1

"In addition to housing and education discrimination, women experienced economic discrimination in access to employment, equal pay for substantially similar work, credit, and owning or managing businesses" (Pg 66).
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, LO-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for equal employment opportunity in the public sector. Women have equal rights under civil and criminal law. Adjudication of questions related to family law--including divorce, child custody, and inheritance-- varied according to the customary law of each ethnic or religious group, resulting in discrimination" (Pg 30).
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women also experienced discrimination in employment, pay, credit, education, inheritance, housing, and ownership and management of businesses or land. Although women have the right to own property and land under the transitional constitution, community elders often sought to prevent women from exercising these rights because they contradict customary practice, and the deceased husband’s family often usurped land. Traditional beliefs tended to discourage women from assuming leadership positions because of the belief this undermined fulfillment of domestic duties" (Pg 37).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women did not have the same rights as men and experienced systematic subordination to men, despite provisions in the federal constitution prohibiting such discrimination. Women experienced discrimination in credit, education, and housing" (Pg 35). "While formal law and sharia provide women the right to own and dispose of property independently, various legal, cultural, and societal barriers often obstructed women from exercising such rights. By law girls and women could inherit only half the amount of property to which their brothers were entitled. A 2010 report from a local women’s organization in Somaliland indicated 75 percent of women did not own livestock, land, or other property. Only 15 to 20 percent...more
June 25, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the training of vulnerable female heads of household on business planning by the National Labour Training System and the establishment of the Agricultural Loans Facility for the introduction of innovative loan services for women. It is concerned, however, at: (...) (b) Persisting barriers to equal access for women to financial credit, such as a lack of identity documents; (c) The concentration of initiatives for the economic empowerment of women on their engagement in microenterprises, and at their limited outreach" (12).
June 25, 2019, 7:34 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"The law provides the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. The law stipulates equal pay for men and women and provides for equal access to credit, pay, owning or managing a business, education, and housing. Despite legal provisions for equal pay, inequities still exist (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 12).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2, LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women did not have equal access to education, economic opportunities, health facilities, or social freedoms. In rural areas women performed much of the subsistence farming and had little opportunity for formal education. According to a 2008 government survey, 66 percent of women had never attended school, compared with 50 percent of men. Women also experienced discrimination in access to employment, and it was common for an employer to dismiss a woman if she became pregnant during her first year on the job. The law does not prohibit dismissal of pregnant workers on the basis of pregnancy. Further discrimination occurred in access to credit, equal pay for similar work, and the...more
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women generally have the same legal status and rights as men under family law, property law, employment/labor law, and inheritance laws. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as employment, credit, pay, owning or managing businesses, education, and housing" (Pg 19-20).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced some difficulties pursuing property claims due to lack of knowledge, procedural bias against women in inheritance matters, multiple spousal claims due to polygyny, and the threat of GBV" (Pg 33).
June 20, 2019, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"The housing law, which governs the government housing system, discriminates against women married to noncitizen men and against divorced women" (p. 15).
June 19, 2019, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"It is further concerned about the barriers that women face in accessing financial services, such as the requirement to provide proof of steady income or employment or of property ownership" (13).
June 14, 2019, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Many tribal land systems, including in Bihar, deny tribal women the right to own land" (42).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Women generally remained marginalized. No laws prohibit women from owning land, but customary land tenure systems allowed only men to own land, with women gaining access to land only via marriage or family. Many customary practices also did not recognize a woman’s right to inherit her husband’s property, and many widows became destitute when their in-laws took virtually all the deceased husband’s property" (Pg 36).