The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-PRACTICE-1

Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In light of the above, the Ministry of Labour has worked to improve women’s access to microcredit and to establish SMEs. In September 2013, it launched: the campaign “Re-starting from you. Being a woman: a nice business”; and a special Fund of 15 million euros for 2014 (20 million in 2015 and 2016). Under the European Year for Reconciliation, the project “LaFemMe” by developing training and counselling, focuses on female employment." (para 28).
Feb. 11, 2020, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The network is piloting a social tenure domain model in Uganda. It is using a survey, GPS system and a database to gather and analyse information, mapping community structures and facilities, family information, supporting documents and photos, and producing reports of the community and their land tenure situation. Part of the process is to build the capacity of the community in Uganda to input and update this system. The occupants are given a "certificate of residency" in recognition of their history within the space which gives them an address to access other services. Though it does not grant full land ownership, the certificate can be used to start a conversation...more
Feb. 11, 2020, 2:29 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Before colonial rule, land ownership and access took diverse forms, some were vested in lineages, clans and families, with males exercising day-today control. Historically, women had traditional protection that ensured continued access after separation, divorce or widowhood. There were also traditional means of arbitration which could be used if this access was contested. Subsequent colonial rule encouraged privatisation and subdivision of land, held under individual freehold titles. In some parts of Africa, land was left under communal ownership, managed by customary leaders. At independence some African governments such as Tanzania proclaimed state ownership of all land whereas in others like Uganda, private ownership existed alongside customary ownership. Overtime, factors such...more
Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"A higher proportion of women age 15-49 (28%) than men age 15-49 (19%)own a house alone or jointly with someone else. Sole house ownership is also more common among women (20%) than among men (14%). Among those who own a house, whether alone or jointly with someone else, 56% of women and 49% of men report that their name is on the house title or deed, while 5 of women and 2% of men say their name is not on the title or deed. A higher proportion of men than women who own a house report that they do not have a title or deed for the house (46% versus...more
Feb. 7, 2020, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights to land are sidelined despite the legal provisions that envisage joint ownership of husbands and wives. In practice, issues related to the rights of widows, divorced women and polygamous wives are ignored" (para 18)
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Only the women’s savings and credit funds have a specific policy for women. Other microfinance structures (CAPPED, FAM, etc.) are also available thanks to the facilitation of membership and the granting of financing with low interest rates" (18). "In the traditional context, women have access to land to cultivate as members of the owner clans (...) Since the destruction of some of the areas used by women for growing crops, together with the paths to these areas, many women have been abruptly forced to change their activities or remain idle. Furthermore, under the provisions of the new land law, women who have become accustomed to installing their activities on land...more
Dec. 31, 2019, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"For the first time, women’s names will be registered on land certificates. Previously, only the identified head of household (typically a male) was listed on a household’s land certificate. The change will reinforce women’s rights to land within households, creating an avenue for social empowerment and a stronger voice in decision-making" (para. 5). "Likewise, the amended law clarifies that both male and female household members enjoy equal rights to the household’s land. In China, where it is customary for a newlywed woman to move into her husband’s village, women are often at risk of being denied their rightful share of land in their new household. The equal rights amendment guarantees...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Widows often face difficulty in claiming their husband's property and in receiving government compensation and other benefits, human rights activists said. 'The land does not get automatically transferred to the widow. It is often the husband's male relatives who will take it,' said Nirja Bhatnagar, a regional head at advocacy group ActionAid India. 'Woman are not even recognised as farmers. So having the land title in their name is crucial to enable them to take bank loans and avail of government subsidies like crop insurance,' she told the Thomson Reuters Foundation on Friday" (para. 5-7). "India's constitution gives women equal rights but custom dictates that land is inherited by male...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Widows often face difficulty in claiming their husband's property and in receiving government compensation and other benefits, human rights activists said. 'The land does not get automatically transferred to the widow. It is often the husband's male relatives who will take it,' said Nirja Bhatnagar, a regional head at advocacy group ActionAid India. 'Woman are not even recognised as farmers. So having the land title in their name is crucial to enable them to take bank loans and avail of government subsidies like crop insurance,' she told the Thomson Reuters Foundation on Friday" (para. 5-7). "India's constitution gives women equal rights but custom dictates that land is inherited by male...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"The law makes it difficult for women to access formal credit. While the law allows women to own property, social and religious barriers strongly discouraged women’s ownership of land, a primary source of collateral in the banking system." (44).
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"By law men and women have equal protections for economic participation. In practice, however, women faced barriers to accessing economic inputs and securing collateral for credit, information on lending programs and resources" (19).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women in urban areas experienced less overt discrimination but did not enjoy pay or access to employment and credit on an equal basis with men" (21).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In Muslim and indigenous communities, however, property ownership law or tradition grant men more property rights than women" (26).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Eager to preserve the stability of the family unit, the party has also done little to help women following a recent court ruling that weakened their claim to property in divorce proceedings. And with divorce numbers on the rise, millions of Chinese women have been cut out of the nation’s real-estate boom, experts say." (para 15). "When Sharon Shao approached several divorce lawyers in the spring of 2013, they all had the same advice: Don’t bother taking your husband to court. You have no hope of getting the apartment." (para 36). "Ms. Shao asked her ex-husband to add her name to the deed several times, but he always talked her...more
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced economic discrimination with respect to employment, credit, equal pay, and owning or managing businesses" (24).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"Although property and inheritance laws provide the same legal status and rights for women as for men, family law discriminates against women, and discrimination against and exploitation of women were widespread. Local leaders settled most inheritance disputes in favor of men, according to traditional practice" (page 16).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes that the State party has taken economic empowerment measures for rural women, supporting cooperatives and making credit and grant programmes available in rural environments" (11).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes the link between the disproportionately high number of women in the State party living in poverty and their restricted access to economic assets and social benefits, mainly owing to the application of customary law in matters of succession resulting in unequal land inheritance and land grabbing from widows, discriminatory criteria for allocating social benefits and laws restricting the legal capacity of married women, inter alia, to gain access to credit and exercise a profession, in contravention of article 8 of the Constitution" (12).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In a report published in April, AI stated the government’s reconstruction policies, which require persons to provide land ownership documents to qualify for assistance, have reinforced the marginalization of women, the disadvantaged, and landless groups" (Pg 17). "The Gender Equality Act adopted in 2006--along with more than 60 other laws-- contain discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The law encourages bigamy by allowing men to remarry without divorcing if the first wife is incapacitated or infertile. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of...more
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Officially, there is no bar for the women in Bangladesh to access to credit and bank loans. However, in practice this remains a formidable challenge. This is applicable more so in rural areas and for the poor women. The success of the government low-interest based credit programmes, targeted specifically for the small farmers and rural women, is severely compromised by systemic inefficiency, limited outreach and corruption" (15). "It is also universally acknowledged that the various micro-credit products from the NGOs large and small and organizations like Grameen Bank have genuinely contributed in boosting rural livelihood and re-invigorating the rural economy. However, what should be forcefully said is that the successful...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, CONST-LAW-1

"The formal law does not discriminate against women in inheritance and property rights, but a number of discriminatory customary laws often prevailed. Women’s statutory inheritance rights often were not respected, particularly in rural areas. Women experienced economic and social discrimination. Customary law does not consider single, divorced, or widowed women, including those with children, to be heads of households. By law men and women are entitled to family subsidies from the government, but several women’s groups complained about lack of access to these payments for women" (Pg 18).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men; however, in law women did not enjoy the same rights and privileges as men. Although local government officials including mayors claimed women had access to land in their constituencies, the overall sociocultural practice of denying women the right to own land, especially through inheritance, was prevalent in most regions" (Pg 27).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The MRD has expanded a micro-credit scheme with low interest rates to enable people in rural areas, especially women, to obtain loans for small businesses and agriculture activities. In 2017, the credit scheme released capital totaling 1.31 million USD to 6,035 clients (4,989 women or 82.7 per cent) in 15 provinces" (29). "In 2015, the government introduced the Land Policy ‘White Paper’ in response to socio-economic development and land reform, serving to support people’s livelihoods. The ‘White Paper’ (Points 5 and 7) includes key guidelines and activities for achieving gender equality in the land sector and equity between men and women in the land registration process. In addition, the aim...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In contrast to customary law, the constitution and statutory law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, and nationality laws. Nevertheless, the government did not adequately enforce the law, and women experienced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.), education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property. Women’s movements noted women lacked adequate access to credit to acquire land or property. Lack of collateral meant women in most cases remained dependent on their husbands or male members of their family to cosign for loans. A lower percentage of women than men owned their own homes or businesses" (Pg 23).more
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The absence of corrective measures to enhance women’s access to loans and credits" (11).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides women with the same legal status and rights as men. Discrimination against women, however, was widespread, especially in rural areas. Many customary laws discriminate against women in adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women may not own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygyny is legal under both customary and Islamic law. In some ethnic groups, men may “inherit” the widows of their deceased brothers. In June Transparency International Uganda released the report “Women, Land and Corruption,” which found women...more
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that most women continue to face barriers to their economic empowerment, given their poor socioeconomic condition and the stereotypes against them, in addition to their limited access to credit for failure to meet banks’ requirements and the right to land tenure owing to unequal inheritance rights" (12). "It further notes with concern that women encounter legal and administrative barriers in registering their land, contrary to article 36 of the Constitution, owing to the application of discriminatory customary rules whereby land is allocated exclusively to men" (13).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"While women legally have equal access to land, traditional practices made it difficult for women to purchase property in rural areas. Many women had access to land only through their husbands, and the security of their rights depended on maintaining the relationship with their husbands. In addition rural councils--where women often were underrepresented--allocated most land" (page 16).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Some customary practices discriminate against women, including traditional inheritance systems that tend to exclude women from land ownership. There have been complaints that the company registering land claims used forms that do not protect women’s rights to property or follow best practice as related to gender" (Pg 17).