The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-LAW-1

July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"There are no laws against spousal rape" (Pg 44).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"In July parliament passed the new criminal code that will not come into effect until 2018. In the meantime the existing law requires prison sentences for rape that vary between five and 15 years depending on the victim’s age. The law also mandates five years’ additional imprisonment in the case of gang rape, rape of pregnant women, or rape of a woman with disabilities. The victim’s compensation depends on the degree of mental and physical abuse. Under the 2015 Act to Amend Some Nepal Acts to Maintain Gender Equality and End Gender-Based Violence, the sentence for marital rape is three to five years’ imprisonment and the statute of limitations for...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The legal definition of rape covers only forced penetration of sexual organs, and filing a case requires corroboration and a witness. Rape is punishable by four to 14 years in prison. While the government imprisoned perpetrators of rape and attempted rape, sentences were often light, and many convicted rapists received the minimum sentence. Marital rape is not a specific criminal offense under the penal code, but it is covered under 'forced sexual intercourse' in national legislation on domestic violence, and it can be punished with criminal penalties. Reliable nationwide statistics on the incidence of rape continued to be unavailable, although in June 2016, the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment announced the...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, although it does not specifically prohibit spousal rape. Rape is punishable by imprisonment with hard labor, but the law does not specify a minimum sentence. The government did not enforce the law effectively" (Pg 17).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men and women and provides penalties of between five and 10 years’ imprisonment for convicted rapists. Police and courts, however, rarely investigated or prosecuted rape cases, especially since victims often did not report them. The law does not address spousal rape" (Pg 26).
July 14, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"Islamic courts recognized assault as grounds for divorce" (p. 15).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, including rape of a “close relative,” but the criminal code does not specifically prohibit spousal rape, and the courts did not try any known cases. Cultural norms discouraged women and their families from speaking openly about rape, and the press rarely reported it" (Pg 28).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, which is punishable by life imprisonment or the death penalty. The penal code defines rape as “unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman or a girl.” Men accused of raping men are tried under section 145(a) of the penal code that prohibits “carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature.” The law also criminalizes domestic violence and provides up to two years’ imprisonment for conviction" (Pg 26).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape; it does not specifically address spousal rape, which was rarely reported for societal reasons and, if reported, was often ignored by authorities. The law provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for those convicted. A maximum prison term for conviction of 20 years applies if the victim is a child under age 14; is gang-raped; or if the rape results in pregnancy, disease, or incapacitation lasting more than six weeks. The government was diligent in investigating reports of rape and prosecuting suspects, but victims were reluctant to report incidents due to the social stigma associated with being raped and fear of reprisal. Although neither...more
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 20 years’ imprisonment. There was no separate statute for spousal rape. The government did not provide statistics on the number of cases or convictions. Law enforcement officials usually advised women not to file charges but registered cases at the victim’s insistence. Most observers believed the majority of cases were unreported because victims wished to avoid humiliation" (Pg 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, but no law specifically addresses spousal rape" (Pg 18).
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"The law does not address spousal rape" (Pg 63).
July 1, 2019, 8:44 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"The law also criminalizes spousal rape" (p. 26).
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape and domestic violence, but enforcement of the law was inconsistent. Sexual assault, rape, and spousal abuse remained pervasive societal problems. The law specifically addresses sexual abuse and exploitation and contains provisions in rape cases for equitable burden of proof and stringent punishments. The law considers marital rape an offense only in cases of legally separated spouses. An average rape case took six to 12 years to complete" (Pg 28).
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"Rape is punishable by up to 14 years’ imprisonment and a fine. The government did not effectively enforce the law, and rape was thought to be widespread. The law defines sexual intercourse within marriage as 'not rape.' No information was available on the number of persons prosecuted, convicted, or punished for rape, and convictions of rape seldom were publicized. According to observers, sentences for persons convicted of rape were often less than the maximum" (Pg 35).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-1, DV-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, providing penalties of five to 15 years in prison for violations. Sentences from military courts for rape included death. The government did not effectively enforce the law. There are no laws against spousal violence, including rape. Somali NGOs documented patterns of rape perpetrated with impunity, particularly of displaced women (see section 2.d.) and members of minority clans" (Pg 33).
June 25, 2019, 7:34 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-DATA-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1

"Rape, including spousal rape and domestic violence are illegal. The penalty for rape is one to 10 years in prison. SOS Helpline, an NGO that provided anonymous emergency counseling and services to victims of domestic violence, estimated that one in seven women was raped during her lifetime. Victims rarely reported spousal rape to authorities. Police actively investigated accusations of rape and prosecuted offenders. There were 18 reported rapes and 23 other reported acts of sexual violence in the first half of the year. SOS Helpline estimated only a small percentage of rape victims sought assistance or counseling due to concerns about the impact on themselves and their children" (Pg 11).more
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. Rape was common and viewed more as a societal norm than a criminal problem. The law specifically prohibits spousal rape. Cases of rape were greatly underreported, and indictments were rare, especially in rural areas. A reluctance to use the judicial system on the part of both victims and law enforcement, combined with women’s lack of income and economic independence, helped perpetuate violence against women and impunity for offenders. Despite the establishment of family support units and the existence of applicable legislation, reports of rapes, especially involving child victims, steadily increased. NGOs reported a rise in rape and...more
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"Rape is a criminal offense under sharia with a wide range of penalties from flogging to execution. The law does not recognize spousal rape as a crime. The government enforced the law based on its interpretation of sharia, and courts often punished victims as well as perpetrators for illegal “mixing of genders,” even when there was no conviction for rape. Victims also had to prove that the rape was committed, and women’s testimony in court is worth half the weight of that of a man. Consequently, due to these legal and social penalties, authorities brought few cases to trial. The government did not maintain public records on prosecutions, convictions, or...more
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"There was no separate statute for spousal rape" (p. 22).
June 20, 2019, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-3, LRW-LAW-4, LRCM-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-1

"A particularly glaring example is the Shia Personal Status Law, signed by President Karzai in 2009, which includes provisions that strip Shia Afghan women of the women's rights enshrined in Afghanistan's constitution. The law gives a husband the right to withdraw basic maintenance from his wife, including food, if she refuses to obey his sexual demands. It grants guardianship of children exclusively to their fathers and grandfathers. It requires women to get permission from their husbands to work. It also effectively allows a rapist to avoid prosecution by paying 'blood money' to a girl who was injured because of the rape" (6).
June 17, 2019, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1

"Campaigners argue Saudi Arabia profoundly discriminates against women – with women’s marital rights being effectively non-existent and marital rape not explicitly defined as a crime" (para 15).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"The law does not safeguard same-sex couples or victims of marital rape" (52). "The law [in Macau] criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and domestic violence, but same-sex couples were not covered by the domestic violence law. The government effectively enforced these laws" (102). "[In Hong Kong] The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape" (125).
June 11, 2019, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"Rape of men or women is illegal, but the law does not protect against spousal rape, except if the couple is separated or in the process of divorce, or if there is a restraining order in place" (11).
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, but does not criminalize spousal rape because the law states that a woman may not refuse sexual relations with her husband" (34).
May 12, 2019, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law" (11).
May 7, 2019, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"Rape is illegal under PA law, but the legal definition does not address spousal rape" (103).
April 29, 2019, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"It also criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, for men and women" (30).
April 23, 2019, 7:19 a.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-1

"Rape of men or women, including spousal rape, is illegal and punishable" (p. 12).