The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-LAW-2

Sept. 12, 2017, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2, LRCM-DATA-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-1, MARR-LAW-4, GP-DATA-1, GP-DATA-6

"Women in Iran are subject to pervasive discrimination both in law and practice, including in areas concerning marriage, divorce, child custody, freedom of movement, employment, and access to political office. Women and girls are inadequately protected against domestic and other violence, including early and forced marriage and marital rape"(para 17)
Aug. 31, 2017, 9 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Spousal rape and domestic abuse are not recognized as separate crimes. A case of spousal rape could be prosecuted as 'rape,' 'causing injury,' or 'indecent assault,' but such charges were rare" (p 161)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The Committee further notes the ongoing efforts at the State level to reform its legislation, policies and procedures in order to ensure better protection of human rights, including the right not to be subjected to torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, in particular the adoption of: ...The Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence Protection of Victims, in 2005, including criminalization of marital rape" (2)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 20 years' imprisonment, but does not specifically prohibit spousal rape" (p 129)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape is a crime. Although there were prosecutions during the reporting period; no official statistics were available on the number of rapes during the year. Article 417 of the Penal Code punishes rape with five to 10 years' imprisonment. Human rights associations reported that rape occurs frequently. There is no explicit mention of spousal rape in the law, and there have been no recent court cases" (p 60)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:52 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2, LRCM-DATA-1

"Rape was a crime, although there were no statistics on rape. There is no explicit discussion of spousal rape in the law, and there have been no recent court cases" (p 75)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is a crime punishable by 8 to 10 years' imprisonment; however, men who killed, sexually assaulted, or committed other crimes against women were unlikely to be brought to trial. The law allows a convicted rapist to escape punishment if he marries his victim or if the victim marries a third person and does not request or require an investigation or criminal proceedings" (p 168)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is a crime punishable by eight to 10 years' imprisonment; however, men who killed, sexually assaulted, or committed other crimes against women were unlikely to be brought to trial" (p 134)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"It should be pointed out that marital rape and rape involving persons of the same sex are offences under the Act of 4 July 1989 which amended certain provisions relating to the offence of rape" (20)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:48 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal, and the government prosecuted such cases" (p 55)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:47 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"While welcoming the recognition of marital rape as a sexual offence, CEDAW noted with concern that, under the Sexual Offences Act, marital rape was recognized as a crime only after the issuance of a decree of divorce, a separation order or a separation agreement, or where the husband was subject to a non-molestation order" (7)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Existence of variations in definition and recognition of violence against women were reported. For instance, police definition was found to be very narrow. Marital rape was not recognized in law and culture. Incest was a taboo topic. Wife-abuse (battering) was widely condoned and tolerated" (8)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"No government policies or laws explicitly addressed violence against women. Rape is illegal; however, because marital relations are governed by Shari'a, spousal rape is not illegal" (p 126)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The Committee urges the State party to revise relevant provisions of the Penal Code so as to ensure that all forms of domestic violence, including marital rape, are criminalized and that marriage to the victim does not exempt perpetrators of rape from prosecution" (5)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The delegation stated that Bahamian law does not recognize marital rape if a marriage subsists and the couple cohabit in a marital home. Bahamian law recognizes rape as a crime where a married couple are separated but where the marriage has not been dissolved. Sexual harassment and discrimination are illegal and punishable, and apply to all persons equally, regardless of sexual orientation and gender" (4)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Marital or spousal rape is not considered a crime" (p 3)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:36 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Criminal Law Amendment Act 2004 – Marital rape: Reflecting the recent pronounced increase in sensibility towards the personality of the individual and his/her right to sexual self-determination, the privileged treatment previously applicable to rape and sexual coercion inside marriage/cohabitation was completely abolished" (29)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The Armenian Criminal Code does not specifically criminalize domestic violence, sexual harassment or marital rape…According to the UN, as a result of 'traditional notions of marriage and of men as superior' marital rape occurs with impunity" (p 2)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:34 p.m.
Countries: Argentina
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"In April 1999, the Argentine congress amended penal code provisions on 'crimes against sexual integrity' to bring them more in line with international legal standards, but did not explicitly criminalize marital rape...note 68: Historically, in Latin America as in the United States the 'good' that laws addressing sexual violence most often aimed to protect was the 'honor' of the victim and not the victim herself. This notion finds it most explicit form in laws that exonerate the perpetrator of a rape if he marries the victim of the rape, under the reasoning that the honor would be restored. This was the case in Argentina until the reform in 1994 (and ...more
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:32 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Human Rights Watch (HRW) indicates that no laws prohibit marital rape and the Penal Code specifies 'lenient' penalties for sexual crimes" (p 3)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:29 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law does not specifically criminalize domestic violence and marital rape" (2). If marital rape is not specifically criminalized, it feels safe to assume that it cannot be used as grounds for divorce (RNP-CODER COMMENT)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:22 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law on rape does not exclude spousal rape, but in its Operational Guidance Note: Albania for 2008, the United Kingdom Home Office’s Border & Immigration Agency reported that spousal rape incidents were not reported or prosecuted, as many citizens and government authorities do not consider it a crime" (p 8)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:21 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"There is no explicit prohibition of marital rape, although articles relating to rape do not specifically exempt a husband from prosecution" (p 169)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:21 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Few women admit being raped by their husbands, partly because of the shame in making such an admission, but also because the concept of marital rape is not established, nor is it yet an offence in law. Indeed, even among some women's NGOs working with survivors of domestic violence, Amnesty International found a resistance to the introduction of such legislation" (p 112)
Aug. 31, 2017, 8:15 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The issue of marital rape is never considered or reported, since women have no choice in terms of consenting to sexual intercourse with their spouse" (21)
Aug. 31, 2017, 4:22 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"In its report entitled Profil de l'égalité des sexes : Cameroun (mars 2002), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) indicated that, in Cameroon, [CIDA English version] "domestic violence against women is common" (Canada Mar. 2002). Quoting women's rights advocates, this report also indicated that, in Cameroon, [CIDA English version] 'the law does not impose effective penalties on men who commit acts of domestic violence. There are no gender-specific assault laws, despite the fact that women were the predominant victims of domestic violence. Spousal abuse is not a legal ground for divorce'" (p 1)
Aug. 31, 2017, 4:20 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Two sources indicate that spousal rape is not criminalized" (p 5)
Aug. 31, 2017, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, as sexual assault, and the government enforced the law effectively" (p 68)
Aug. 31, 2017, 2:05 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, although it does not specifically prohibit spousal rape. Rape is punishable by imprisonment with hard labor, but the law does not specify a minimum sentence. The government did not enforce the law effectively" (p 210)
Aug. 31, 2017, 1:54 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, and rape remained a problem. The law does not specifically prohibit spousal rape. Rape is punishable by imprisonment with hard labor, although the law does not specify a minimum sentence, and judges decided on the length of a prison term to be served by a perpetrator" (p 180)