The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-PRACTICE-1

July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"In some cases the government did not effectively or fully enforce these laws or protect victims. The law prohibits violence against women, but human rights organizations claimed the government did not effectively enforce it . . . Women’s NGOs asserted there were not enough shelters to meet the needs of the increasing numbers of women applying for assistance and that shelter staff did not provide adequate care and services" (page 49).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape is illegal, although the government did not always enforce the law effectively. The law permits authorities to prosecute spousal rape, and prosecutions occurred. The law specifies penalties for conviction of rape or forcible sexual assault ranging from four years’ imprisonment to the death penalty as well as fines" (page 28).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 40 years in prison. The government did not enforce the law effectively" (page 22).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Women’s lack of trust in the judicial system, their limited awareness about available remedies for obtaining redress and the stigmatization of victims, which leads to underreporting of cases of gender-based violence against women and girls, including psychological and economic violence, sexual harassment and marital rape" (3).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape; it does not specifically address spousal rape, which was rarely reported for societal reasons and, if reported, was often ignored by authorities. The law provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for those convicted. A maximum prison term for conviction of 20 years applies if the victim is a child under age 14; is gang-raped; or if the rape results in pregnancy, disease, or incapacitation lasting more than six weeks. The government was diligent in investigating reports of rape and prosecuting suspects, but victims were reluctant to report incidents due to the social stigma associated with being raped and fear of reprisal. Although neither...more
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not enforce the law effectively. Officials did not prosecute spousal rape. The concept of spousal rape was not well understood, and authorities often did not consider it a crime" (page 17).
June 25, 2019, 7:34 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-DATA-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1

"Rape, including spousal rape and domestic violence are illegal. The penalty for rape is one to 10 years in prison. SOS Helpline, an NGO that provided anonymous emergency counseling and services to victims of domestic violence, estimated that one in seven women was raped during her lifetime. Victims rarely reported spousal rape to authorities. Police actively investigated accusations of rape and prosecuted offenders. There were 18 reported rapes and 23 other reported acts of sexual violence in the first half of the year. SOS Helpline estimated only a small percentage of rape victims sought assistance or counseling due to concerns about the impact on themselves and their children" (Pg 11).more
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. Rape was common and viewed more as a societal norm than a criminal problem. The law specifically prohibits spousal rape. Cases of rape were greatly underreported, and indictments were rare, especially in rural areas. A reluctance to use the judicial system on the part of both victims and law enforcement, combined with women’s lack of income and economic independence, helped perpetuate violence against women and impunity for offenders. Despite the establishment of family support units and the existence of applicable legislation, reports of rapes, especially involving child victims, steadily increased. NGOs reported a rise in rape and...more
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with a maximum sentence of life in prison for violations. The government enforced the law effectively. Most convicted offenders received considerably less than the maximum sentence" (Pg 18).
June 17, 2019, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1

"Campaigners argue Saudi Arabia profoundly discriminates against women – with women’s marital rights being effectively non-existent and marital rape not explicitly defined as a crime" (para 15).
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law does not explicitly recognize spousal rape, and authorities seldom prosecuted it. Victims often sought to deal with the rape within the family or were pressured to do so, and many victims did not report spousal rape due to fear of retribution or loss of economic support" (Pg 16).
June 10, 2019, 6:59 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The issue sparked a renewed wave of outrage in February after an 11-year-old girl, identified under the pseudonym Raha, was repeatedly raped after being forced to marry a man 40 years her senior who already had a wife and seven children" (para 6).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Charges for spousal rape under the penal code and the domestic violence law were rare" (25).
May 13, 2019, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Jenny Teeson accused her husband of drugging and raping her while she slept two years ago. The Minnesota woman found videos of the incident on her computer, according to the Star Tribune newspaper. However, when the couple went to court, Teeson's husband agreed to a plea deal, was convicted of invading her privacy and received only a 45-day jail sentence. That's because until Thursday, a statute in Minnesota law referenced 'the voluntary relationship defense' for criminal sexual conduct crimes that essentially allowed for marital rape. The statute protected people from prosecution if the sexual misconduct they committed was against a partner in an 'ongoing, voluntary relationship.' Gov. Tim Walz made...more
May 12, 2019, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law. Most persons convicted received prison sentences of five to 12 years" (11).
May 11, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Rape (including spousal rape), domestic abuse, incest, and indecent assault were significant problems; there was a large increase in the reported number of rape cases this year, due at least in part to greater awareness that a spouse can be charged with rape of his/her partner" (15).
May 9, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The issue sparked a renewed wave of outrage in February after an 11-year-old girl, identified under the pseudonym Raha, was repeatedly raped after being forced to marry a man 40 years her senior who already had a wife and seven children" (para 6).
April 25, 2019, 8:30 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"While the law criminalizes sexual offenses, including rape and spousal rape, these crimes remained widespread problems. Spousal rape received less attention than physical violence against women. Almost a quarter of married women who had experienced domestic violence reported sexual violence, while 8 percent reported both physical and sexual violence" (33).
April 24, 2019, 8:54 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 40 years in prison. The government did not enforce the law effectively. Advocates believed that only a small percentage of rape victims reported their attacks because of fear of reprisal from their attackers or humiliation in court" (page 21).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

[Hong Kong] "The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and police enforced the law effectively. Through June police received 41 allegations of rape and 504 of indecent assault" (page 113).
April 10, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The government effectively enforced rape laws" (36).
April 8, 2019, 7:22 a.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The government generally enforced the law when the victim chose to press charges and the cases were not settled out of court through mediation" (p. 10).
March 31, 2019, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"According to NGOs, many law enforcement personnel and prosecutors did not consider spousal or acquaintance rape a priority and did not encourage reporting or prosecuting such cases. NGOs reported that local police officers sometimes refused to respond to rape or domestic violence calls unless the victim’s life was directly threatened" (46).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The government generally enforced the law effectively, and convicted rapists routinely received prison sentences" (para 81).
March 22, 2019, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law effectively" (8).
March 15, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law does not specifically criminalize spousal rape, but it can be prosecuted under related statutes that cover assault and domestic violence. Police, however, were frequently reluctant to intervene in what they considered domestic matters" (8).
March 7, 2019, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The judicial branch generally enforced the law" (10).
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The government regularly enforced the law, convicting 22 and sentencing two perpetrators to death. Nevertheless, as in years past, wealthy rape suspects reportedly avoided prosecution or, if prosecuted, avoided prison. Families of the victim commonly reached an agreement with the perpetrator for monetary compensation" (page 16).
March 6, 2019, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Challenges to the wider justice system generally resulted in poor conviction rates for rape" (12).