The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-PRACTICE-2

July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-3, LRCM-DATA-2

"Incest involving children remained a problem, although prosecutions remained minimal. The law provides prison sentences of up to five years for incest" (page 53).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

"The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers’ 2011 standard operating procedure for prevention of and response to GBV has led to the establishment of service centers in 17 districts, rehabilitation centers in eight districts, and hospital-based one-stop crisis management centers in 17 districts to provide treatment, protection, and psychosocial and legal support for survivors of GBV. Gender experts say the standard operating procedure has led to improved coordination among police, NHRC, National Women’s Commission, chief district officers, local authorities, community mediation centers, and NGOs working to address violence against women and girls" (Pg 26).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Domestic violence against women was a serious problem, and spousal abuse was widespread. According to a May 26 Afro Barometer survey on the prevalence of GBV, 90 percent of persons with no formal education approved of wife beating. The NGO Women in Law in South Africa (WLSA) observed that customary marriage values taught women sexual intercourse was a man’s right and discouraged reporting spousal rape. The WLSA also observed that women who revealed sexual violations to authorities often faced societal stigma, which in turn diminished future reporting. Customary laws in certain chiefdoms allowed for spousal battery. In addition fear of violence, abandonment, and divorce discouraged women from seeking HIV care...more
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, including rape of a “close relative,” but the criminal code does not specifically prohibit spousal rape, and the courts did not try any known cases. Cultural norms discouraged women and their families from speaking openly about rape, and the press rarely reported it" (Pg 28).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape; it does not specifically address spousal rape, which was rarely reported for societal reasons and, if reported, was often ignored by authorities. The law provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for those convicted. A maximum prison term for conviction of 20 years applies if the victim is a child under age 14; is gang-raped; or if the rape results in pregnancy, disease, or incapacitation lasting more than six weeks. The government was diligent in investigating reports of rape and prosecuting suspects, but victims were reluctant to report incidents due to the social stigma associated with being raped and fear of reprisal. Although neither...more
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. Rape was common and viewed more as a societal norm than a criminal problem. The law specifically prohibits spousal rape. Cases of rape were greatly underreported, and indictments were rare, especially in rural areas. A reluctance to use the judicial system on the part of both victims and law enforcement, combined with women’s lack of income and economic independence, helped perpetuate violence against women and impunity for offenders. Despite the establishment of family support units and the existence of applicable legislation, reports of rapes, especially involving child victims, steadily increased. NGOs reported a rise in rape and...more
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Law enforcement officials usually advised women not to file charges but registered cases at the victim’s insistence. Most observers believed the majority of cases were unreported because victims wished to avoid humiliation" (p. 22).
June 19, 2019, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"Pervasiveness of gender-based violence against women and girls in the State party, including the alarming and increasing rates of femicide, hate crimes against lesbian, bisexual and transgender women and intersex persons, domestic violence, and rape and incest resulting in forced pregnancy, and the absence of reliable disaggregated data and of effective preventive strategies" (6).
May 29, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

"There was a network of maternity homes, safe houses, and shelters for women and children who were victims of violence. The total capacity of this network was 450 beds. The police academy offered annual training on domestic violence" (p. 12).
April 25, 2019, 8:30 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"In the case of spousal rape, reporting was even lower due to women’s fear of losing economic support or of reprisal, lack of awareness that spousal rape is a crime, police reluctance to be involved in domestic disputes, and bureaucratic hurdles (...) A lack of adequate and widespread services for rape victims also discouraged reporting" (33).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-3, LRCM-DATA-2

"Child abuse remained a serious problem. The press regularly reported cases of sexual abuse of children, including arrests for rape, incest, sodomy, and defilement" (para 96).
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Incest also was a problem. The law provides for six to 20 years’ imprisonment and caning for individuals convicted of incest. A child’s testimony is acceptable only if there is corroborating evidence. This posed special problems for molestation cases in which the child victim was the only witness" (25).
Feb. 22, 2019, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"A cultural bias against reporting or acknowledging rape made it difficult to determine the extent of the problem" (18).
Dec. 14, 2018, 9:45 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"One in five Malawian girls is a victim of sexual violence, as is one in seven boys, according to the UN Children's Fund, UNICEF. Its survey found that most abusers are people that children trust and are related to, such as uncles, stepfathers and fathers" (para 24). "Some traditions promote sexual abuse within the family. If a girl's aunt or older sister falls sick, she can be sent to look after the household, and in some cases will be expected to have sex with her uncle or step-brother, according to one organisation working in the area, which asked to remain unnamed as Malawian authorities are not fond of such traditions...more
Nov. 26, 2018, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Incest involving children remained a problem, although official statistics were incomplete, and prosecutions remained minimal" (page 61).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-3

"The minimum age of consensual sex is 18. Due to social pressures and fear of embarrassment, incest remained taboo and often went unreported and unpunished" (page 18).
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-DATA-2

"Noura Hussein, 19, was forced to marry her cousin, and when she refused to consummate the marriage, she says he called his family to help him rape her" (para 2).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Kahtera states that: 'One day I locked myself in my room and telephoned the police. They arrested him [father who repeated raped her] at 1pm but he was back home by 4pm'" (1:18). "Subtitle states: 'After years of attempting to seek justice her father is finally in custody pending trial'" (1:34). "Kahtera reports according to the subtitles that: 'The judge acused me of lying' despite the signs of pregnancy" (2:19). It appears the judge is not keen on declaring that incest has actually occured and seeks to blame the victim instead (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 4, 2018, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Victims reported few cases of rape due to social stigma and societal perceptions that rape was simply a 'fact of life' that could not be challenged. A lack of services for rape victims also discouraged reporting. Victims reported even fewer cases of spousal rape because of fear of losing economic support, fear of reprisal, lack of awareness that spousal rape was a crime, police reluctance to be involved in domestic disputes, and bureaucratic hurdles. Most rural citizens were unfamiliar with laws against domestic violence and sexual offenses. Chiefs of local jurisdictions usually handled gender-based violence in trials applying customary law" (31-32).
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The Committee is deeply concerned that...families frequently hide cases of incest out of shame and that the Civil Code prohibits registrars from recording declarations of birth of a child resulting from incest" (7).
April 10, 2018, 4:23 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"While noting the establishment of a special police unit to prevent domestic violence and crimes against children, the Committee is concerned that there is only one State-run shelter for victims of violence. The Committee is also concerned that women and girls with disabilities do not have access to shelters for victims of violence or to adequate assistance and victim support services, and that there is no training for officers, social workers or medical personnel on the specific needs and vulnerabilities of women with disabilities who are victims of violence" (Pg 5).
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with prison terms of five to 10 years, or eight to 10 years under aggravating circumstances, such as use of a weapon. The government generally implemented criminal aspects of the law better than protection aspects of the law"(16)
Dec. 20, 2017, 7:42 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"One woman said that she has been locked up for a year inside the house after her mother learned that her father had raped her over three years. She now needs to be treated for depression as a result of the psychological damage she endured (para 3).
Nov. 27, 2017, 3:37 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-DATA-2

"But when we address the issue of incest, Iranians strongly condemn and discourage this practice. This is why in cases involving incest, with very few exceptions, families hide the incident in order to preserve their honour. Therefore it is not possible to find accurate statistics of such incidents" (para 6).
Jan. 4, 2017, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Georgia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2

“Authorities referred children who had suffered abuse to the relevant community and government services in coordination with stakeholders, including police, schools, and social service agencies. UNICEF reported that response by school professionals, police, and social workers to reported cases of violence against children was often inadequate due to cultural inclinations to avoid interfering in family affairs” (39).
Jan. 3, 2017, 9:59 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRW-DATA-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-DATA-2

“Abuse and neglect of children and adolescents were problems. Children and adolescents were victims of rape and molestation, and girls were impregnated by family members. The SDH oversaw a program that established nationwide strategies for combating child sexual abuse and best practices for treating victims” (15).
June 26, 2016, 1:06 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

Marital rape is not explicitly criminalized but a wife, or partner, is able to file a complaint (109).
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"There are eleven rape crisis centers throughout the country working to provide emotional support, practical advice, and other support for victims including the maintenance of hotlines, and the provision of educational services" (39).
March 3, 2016, 11:33 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The Committee is concerned that, under the Penal Code, the crime of sexual violence is prosecuted only upon complaint by the victim and is still considered to be a crime against morality. The Committee further remains concerned that the penalty for rape remains low and that incest and marital rape are not defined explicitly as crimes under the Penal Code. The Committee urges the State party to eliminate in its Penal Code the requirement of the victim’s complaint in order to prosecute crimes of sexual violence and to define sexual crimes as crimes involving violations of women’s rights to bodily security and integrity, to increase the penalty for rape and...more
Feb. 29, 2016, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

""Yes, these laws are enforced. However, this is such a common problem in Ukraine, especially in the rural villages, and most victims would never mention what happened. It is a very shameful experience to come forward when one has been sexually abused, especially in incest situations. It is highly discouraged and prevented by families, especially in the villages." Lada Usova" (4)