The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-LAW-1

Dec. 6, 2018, 12:25 p.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Committee is particularly concerned: . . . (c) That the Children Act (2012), while raising the minimum age of sexual consent to 18 years and criminalizing contraventions, also introduced exemptions under the Marriage Act, the Muslim Marriage and Divorce Act, the Hindu Marriage Act and the Orisa Marriage Act, thereby legitimizing child marriage" (page 6).
Dec. 1, 2018, 2:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"But scholars say Japanese women are far less likely to describe nonconsensual sex as rape than women in the West. Japan’s rape laws make no mention of consent, date rape is essentially a foreign concept and education about sexual violence is minimal" (para 10). "Japanese law describes the crime of “quasi-rape” as sexual intercourse with a woman by “taking advantage of loss of consciousness or inability to resist" (para 25). "Over the summer, Parliament passed the first changes to Japan’s sex crime laws in 110 years, expanding the definition of rape to include oral and anal sex and including men as potential victims. Lawmakers also lengthened minimum sentences. But the...more
Nov. 30, 2018, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape of a female by a male and physical spousal abuse, but the law excludes marital rape if the female is above 13" (25).
Nov. 30, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape of men and women is a crime" (10). "The criminal code and the law criminalize sexual harassment" (11). "The minimum legal age for consensual sex is 16. Sexual relations with a child under age 14 are considered a public crime and invoke mandatory reporting from anyone who becomes aware of the crime. Between ages 14 and 16, sexual relations are a semipublic crime and may be reported by any involved party (the minor or the minor’s parents or guardians)" (12).
Nov. 28, 2018, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The federal law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and imposes penalties of up to 20 years’ imprisonment. Twenty-three states and the Federal District have laws criminalizing spousal rape" (para. 19). "Federal labor law prohibits sexual harassment and provides for fines from 250 to 5,000 times the minimum daily wage. Sexual harassment is criminalized in 15 of 31 states and the Federal District, and all states have provisions for punishment when the perpetrator is in a position of power" (para. 20).
Nov. 28, 2018, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The federal law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and imposes penalties of up to 20 years’ imprisonment. Twenty-three states and the Federal District have laws criminalizing spousal rape" (para. 19). "Federal labor law prohibits sexual harassment and provides for fines from 250 to 5,000 times the minimum daily wage. Sexual harassment is criminalized in 15 of 31 states and the Federal District, and all states have provisions for punishment when the perpetrator is in a position of power" (para. 20).
Nov. 26, 2018, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Internet law allows the government to prohibit a website or remove content if there is sufficient suspicion that the site is committing any of eight crimes: . . . engaging in obscenity, prostitution, or gambling; encouraging suicide, sexual abuse of children . . . " (page 34). "The law prohibits sexual assault, including rape and spousal rape, with penalties of imprisonment for attempted sexual violation from two to 10 years, and for rape or actual sexual violation for not less than 12 years . . . The law covers all women, regardless of marital status, and provides for police and local authorities to grant various levels of protection and support...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 12:39 p.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The legal age of consent is 16 for both boys and girls" (14).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1

"Burma has an inadequate legal framework to protect female victims of violence. Since the transition to a quasi-civilian government in 2011, the Government has promised to enact a comprehensive PoVAW Law. No PoVAW Law has been passed, though for years draft laws have circulated within the Government. No draft law has been made available publicly for comment and the failure to prioritize passage of protections for women encourages repeat offenders, and deprives victims of confidence in the legal system. This failure is notable since the Government has amended, passed or revoked approximately 200 laws since 2011, including legislation to protect foreign investors and to curtail women’s rights to choose a...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape of men or women, including spousal rape, Is illegal, and the government prosecuted such cases" (9). "The minimum age for consensual sex is 16. Statutory rape carries penalties of imprisonment for up 30 years" (10).
Nov. 12, 2018, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape but does not specifically address spousal rape. By law rape is punishable by two to 15 years in prison and statutory rape (sexual intercourse with a child younger than 16) by five to 20 years" (para 107). "The minimum age of consensual sex is 16. Statutory rape is a criminal offense, which, depending on circumstances and the age of the victim, is punishable by five years to life in prison" (para 128)
Nov. 3, 2018, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is a felony punishable by 16 years in prison, or up to 20 years’ imprisonment for rape under aggravated circumstances or if the perpetrator rapes or commits a sexual offense against a relative" (para 137). "The law prohibits sexual exploitation of a minor and sets a penalty of seven to 20 years in prison for violators, depending on the circumstances. The law prohibits child pornography. The minimum age for consensual sex is 16. Consensual sexual relations with a minor between the ages of 14 and 16 constitute statutory rape punishable by five years’ imprisonment" (para 174)
Nov. 2, 2018, 9:21 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape. The punishment for rape, including spousal rape, ranges from three to 15 years’ imprisonment. Under the law a prosecutor may not initiate a rape case absent aggravating circumstances, such as gang rape, unless the victim files a complaint. Once a complaint is filed, the criminal investigation may not be dismissed if the rape victim recants or refuses to cooperate further with the investigation" (page 27). "Sexual harassment remained a problem. The law prohibits some forms of sexual harassment, but legal and gender experts regarded the legislation as inadequate. There were reports of incidents of harassment, but in no instance was the law used to protect the...more
Nov. 1, 2018, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Researchers even found the definition of 'rape' is different in North Korea - with a sexual assault only classed as such if violence is used" (para 5).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by five to 10 years’ imprisonment . . . The law does not address spousal rape" (page 14). "The law provides that convicted sexual abusers of children receive five to 10 years’ imprisonment. If the offender is a family member, the maximum is applied. Any offense against the decency of a child is punishable by imprisonment for two to five years and up to 10 years in certain aggravated cases . . . The minimum age of consensual sex is 18. Due to social pressures and fear of embarrassment, incest remained taboo and often went unreported and unpunished" (page 18).
Oct. 25, 2018, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape is illegal but remained a significant problem, and the government did not enforce the law effectively" (37). "If a victim is younger than 14, the law considers the sexual act statutory rape" (41).
Oct. 24, 2018, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"India's government on Saturday approved the death penalty for child rapists" (para. 1). "The cabinet approved the ordinance amending laws on sexual violence to allow for capital punishment for those convicted of raping children below the age of 12, the official said" (para. 7). "In recent months, four Indian states have already introduced similar legislation in local parliaments to approve the death penalty for child rapists" (para 13). "India previously introduced tougher laws in 2013 after the brutal New Delhi gang rape" (para. 18).
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law provides for the death penalty for murder, as well as 'attempts against the security of the state,' 'outrage against high-ranking officials,' 'enmity towards God' ('moharebeh'), 'corruption on earth' ('fisad fil-arz'), rape, adultery, drug possession and trafficking, recidivist alcohol use, consensual same-sex sexual activity" (para 8). "Rape and Domestic Violence: Rape is illegal and subject to strict penalties, including death, but it remained a problem, and the government did not enforce the law effectively" (para 147). "Sexual Exploitation of Children: The legal age requirements for consensual sex are the same as those for marriage, and sex outside of marriage is illegal" (para 170)
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, although the legal definition of rape covers only forced penetration of sexual organs, and filing a case requires corroboration and a witness" (para 144)
Oct. 17, 2018, 1:08 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"On March 14, 2018, the Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas, signed Law no. 5 of 2018, which repealed article 308 of the 1960 Penal Code enforced in the West Bank. Based on an assessment by the head of a women’s shelter, the law had allowed alleged rapists to escape prosecution and could allow convicted rapists to avoid imprisonment if they married their victims. The new law also amended article 99 to prohibit judges from reducing sentences for serious crimes, such as the murder of women and children" (para 2).
Oct. 12, 2018, 2:17 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"On February 14, the Moroccan parliament adopted a new law on violence against women that criminalizes harassment, aggression, sexual exploitation or ill treatment of women. In addition, the new law obligates public authorities to take preventive measures and provides new protection mechanisms for survivors" (para 2). "The law includes positive provisions, such as a definition of violence against women 'any act based on gender discrimination that entails physical, psychological, sexual, or economic harm to a woman' and it provides protection and safety orders for violence survivors" (para 4).
Oct. 8, 2018, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"An early draft of the bill had said that minors under 15 would be assumed not to have given consent to sex with an older person. But the new law states that sex between an adult and a person of 15 or under can be considered rape if the younger party was judged not competent to give consent. France's highest legal authority, the Conseil d'Etat, had advised that the previous version could be ruled unconstitutional. The legislation will also give underage victims of rape an extra ten years to file complaints, extending the deadline to 30 years from when they turn 18" (para 5-7)
Oct. 5, 2018, 5:56 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"That the current definition of rape is outdated and does not include rape committed by force or coercion or caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power and therefore cannot be applied to conflict-related cases" (Pg 5).
Oct. 4, 2018, 9:46 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Last week, the Swedish parliament passed a law that defines any sex without explicit consent as rape. Under the previous law, prosecutors needed to demonstrate that a perpetrator used force, threats, or was taking advantage of a person’s vulnerable situation in order for a case to qualify as rape... Sweden’s justice minister said the change represents 'modern legislation based on modern relationships'" (para 1).
Oct. 4, 2018, 1:01 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"MPs to approve law 103-13, also known as 'Hakkauoi law', after Family and Solidarity Minister Bassima Hakkaoui who promoted it" (para 1). "The legislation now extends the term violence to acts of aggression and abuse via text messages, vocal messages or photos, sexual exploitation, aggression and abuse in the workplace and harshens punishment in situations like pregnancy or in the event that violence is perpetrated by people who are known to the victim, like colleagues. However, the legislation does not contemplate spousal abuse, a controversial issue in civil society" (para 4). "Article 486 of the Moroccan criminal code punishes sexual violence but is ambiguous in its definition, according to experts"...more
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:31 p.m.
Countries: Honduras
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape was a serious and pervasive societal problem. The law criminalizes all forms of rape, including spousal rape" (para 100). "The legal age of consent is 18. There is no statutory rape law, but the penalty for rape of a minor under age 12 is 15 to 20 years’ imprisonment and nine to 13 years’ imprisonment if the victim is age 13 or older" (para 117)
Oct. 2, 2018, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"France plans to make 15 the age of sexual consent after a public outcry over two cases of sex involving 11-year-old girls, Equality Minister Marlene Schiappa said Monday" (para 1). "Any sexual act by an adult with a child younger than 15 can be prosecuted as a sexual offence under current French law. But prosecutors hoping to charge an offender with rape must prove the sex was forced" (para 4-5).
Sept. 24, 2018, 10:50 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law did not always adequately protect rape victims. The law criminalizes rape (but not spousal rape) and permits a maximum sentence of life imprisonment if the victim dies" (para 234). "The law prohibits sexual relations outside marriage, including rape or sexual solicitation that may occur during sexual harassment" (para 250). "Because sex outside marriage is always illegal, the age of consensual sex is effectively the minimum marriage age" (para 263)
Sept. 21, 2018, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"the Omani Penal Code (promulgated by Royal Decree No. 7/74) contains several articles penalizing rape offenses. Article 218 of the Code states 'Any person who has intercourse with an unmarried female without her consent through coercion, threat or subterfuge, or who abducts a person using the same means with the intent of committing fornication, or who commits fornication with a person under the age of 15 or with a person who has a physical or mental deficiency, shall be punished by imprisonment of 5 to 15 years, even if the act occurs without coercion, threat or subterfuge or if the perpetrator is a parent or guardian of the victim, or...more
Sept. 20, 2018, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"In a so-called Islamic state like Pakistan, rape is a punishable crime, with a zero conviction rate" (para 1).