The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-LAW-1

Sept. 29, 2020, 4:44 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Denmark also defines rape as involving force or a threat of violence, rather than looking at whether or not there was consent" (para 13).
Sept. 29, 2020, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Finland is facing calls from the Council of Europe to reform its rape laws to criminalise a lack of consent rather than just the use of violence" (para 1). "It said: 'Rape continues to be categorised according to the degree of physical violence used or threatened by the perpetrator or a requirement to show that the victim was in a state of fear or helplessness and unable to defend herself or to formulate or express her will. The problem with this approach is that it does not fully capture the realities of women experiencing sexual violence and how they respond to threat (ie flight, fight, freeze, flop or befriend)'" (para...more
Sept. 27, 2020, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"To date, no legal changes have been made" (para 5).
Sept. 26, 2020, 10:54 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands

“X and Y v. the Netherlands (no. 8978/80) (26 March 1985): A girl with a mental handicap (the second applicant) was raped, in the home for children with mental disabilities where she lived, the day after her sixteenth birthday (which was the age of consent for sexual intercourse in the Netherlands) by a relative of the person in charge. She was traumatised by the experience but deemed unfit to sign an official complaint given her low mental age. Her father (the first applicant) signed in her place, but proceedings were not brought against the perpetrator because the girl had to make the complaint herself. The domestic courts recognised that there...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Moldova

“I.G. v. the Republic of Moldova (no. 53519/07) (15 May 2012): The applicant alleged that, at the age of fourteen, she had been raped by an acquaintance (a twenty-three-year-old man who lived in the same neighbourhood as the applicant’s grandmother, whom she visited often). She complained in particular that the authorities had not investigated her allegations effectively. The Court held that the investigation of the applicant’s case had fallen short of the requirements inherent in the State’s positive obligations to effectively investigate and punish all forms of rape and sexual abuse, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention” (6). “I.P. v. the Republic...more
Sept. 23, 2020, 9:40 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Parliament also failed to pass a draft bill on sexual violence" (para 13).
Sept. 21, 2020, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Law on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (EVAW), made assaulting a woman punishable by three to five years in prison. It made child marriage a crime for the first time, making those responsible for such marriages subject to two to five years’ imprisonment. But the government has not taken meaningful steps to enforce the law" (2-3).
Sept. 11, 2020, 9:58 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Legal gaps and lack of political will continue to mar accountability for sexual violence, especially for victims from minority communities. A statute of limitations of one year on rape and sexual violence allegations prevents many cases from being brought to justice" (para 13).
Sept. 6, 2020, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-2

"In May, the government proposed changes to the law on rape and sexual assault to introduce a requirement for consent, and to criminalize sexual harassment, to bring Dutch law into line with the Istanbul Convention. At time of writing no legislation had been introduced" (para 3).
Aug. 13, 2020, 6:22 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"In August, the parliament amended the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012, introducing the capital punishment for aggravated penetrative sexual assault of anyone under 18 years, and increased the penalty for other sexual offenses. This was despite concerns raised by child rights groups that it could lead to a decrease in police complaints because in nearly 95 percent of reported cases, the perpetrator is known to the victim, in positions of authority, or family members" (para. 30).
Aug. 13, 2020, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Japan’s rape law requires that prosecutors prove that violence or intimidation was involved, or that the victim was 'incapable of resistance.' In one case, a court acquitted a father accused of raping his 19-year-old daughter, although the court recognized that the sex was non-consensual and that he had been physically and sexually abusing the victim since she was younger" (para. 7).
Aug. 12, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Mauritanian law does not adequately define the crime of rape and other forms of sexual assault, although a draft law on gender-based violence, which contains more specific definitions, was pending before parliament" (para 23).
Aug. 11, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

“In Bodhisattwa v. Ms. Subhra Chakraborty (AIR 1996 SC 922), the Supreme Court held that rape is a crime against basic human rights. The Supreme Court observed that rape was not only an offence under the criminal law, but it was a violation of the fundamental right to life and liberty guaranteed by Article 21 of Indian Constitution” (para 11). “In Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan (AIR 1997 SC 301), the Supreme Court took a serious note of the increasing menace of sexual harassment at workplace and elsewhere. It has been laid down in the judgment that it is the duty of the employer or other responsible persons in work...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:08 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

“In Afghanistan, the response to women who flee abusive husbands and rapists is to jail them. Up to 600 women are currently imprisoned for these ‘moral crimes.’ Any woman who flees is essentially charged with adultery” (para 6).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

“The alleged sexual assault of a teenager by a prominent lawyer and oil executive in China has sparked calls for the government to do more to address the sexual abuse of children and women, including raising the age of consent from 14” (para 1). “Xingxing said the abuse began shortly after she turned 14, the legal age of consent in China. “‘If the law sets the age of consent at 14, it tacitly grants sexual autonomy to minors over 14 and implies that they can freely decide to engage in sexual activity,’ Zhu Guangxing, an assistant professor of criminal law at China University of Political Science and Law, wrote in...more
Aug. 9, 2020, 12:35 p.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"In July [2019], the Piñera administration passed a law that removes the statute of limitations from sex crimes against children, following an increase in allegations of abuse by members of the Catholic Church. At time of writing, Chilean prosecutors were investigating more than 200 such cases" (para. 23).
Aug. 8, 2020, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Ecuador
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"All are considered pregnancies from rape, because 14 is the age of sexual consent" (para 20). "In a February 2018 referendum, voters overwhelmingly supported a proposal to remove a constitutional statute of limitations for sexual offenses against children under 12 and adolescents aged 12 to 18. At time of writing, the government had not presented legislation to enact the change" (para 24).
Aug. 5, 2020, 8:04 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

" Rape was only explicitly criminalized in 2005, by ministerial decree" (para 15).
June 28, 2020, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"All non-consensual sex will be treated as rape under new 'Only yes means yes' laws approved by the Spanish government following an outcry over the Wolf Pack case. Spain's left-wing government approved the bill today, acting on a pre-election promise to strengthen laws in defence of women's rights. The draft law, which faces months of debate in parliament, seeks to establish specialized courts for dealing with sexual offences and round-the-clock recovery centres for victims" (para 2-4). "The new law will abolish that distinction so that rape will instead by decided by the question of consent" (para 9). "The bill proposes to merge the crimes of sexual abuse and sexual assault...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, TRAFF-LAW-1, PW-LAW-1

"At present, the Criminal Code provides for punishment for the following acts of a violent nature: assault (art. 116), torture (art. 117), trafficking in persons (art. 130), recruitment of persons for the purpose of sexual or other exploitation (art. 132), rape (art. 138), sexual violence (art. 139), sexual coercion (art. 140), sexual intercourse or other sexual acts with a person under the age of 16 (art. 141), indecent acts (art. 142), bigamy or polygamy (art. 170), incitement to prostitution (art. 238), establishment or keeping of brothels, procurement or living off the earnings of prostitution (art. 239), among others" (8-9).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape is narrowly defined in the Penal Code and requires evidence that the act took place against the victim’s will, and of pain, physical abuse and/or damage to health and threat" (5).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The most important amendments to the Criminal Code concern the criminal offences against sexual freedom and the criminalisation of new offences. Punishments for some criminal offences against sexual freedom have been made more stringent. There is now a minimum prison sentence of five years (without the possibility of early release) for rape and sexual intercourse with a child (as well as for the criminal offence of sexual intercourse through abuse of power if the victim is a child), which put Serbia’s criminal legislation among the most stringent ones in Europe. Furthermore, the minimum prison sentence for the criminal offence of sexual intercourse with an incapacitated person has been increased from...more
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal and remained a serious and pervasive problem" (23).
June 1, 2020, 12:53 a.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"However, Amnesty say that Danish law's definition of rape is outdated and not based on lack of consent. Instead it uses a definition based on whether physical violence, threat or coercion was involved or if the victim is found to have been unable to resist" (para 4-5).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Criminal Law also provides for a penalty of reform through labour of not more than ten years for raping a woman (art. 279), the same penalty of not more than three years for forcing a woman who is his subordinate to have sexual intercourse with him and the same penalty of not more than five years for having sexual intercourse with a minor under fifteen years of age (art. 281)" (12).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"However, article 173 and 173 bis of the Criminal Code, which characterizes the offences of sexual assault and rape, remains in effect with respect to the punishments of between 8 and 12 years of prison for those who have sexual relations with minors (under 14 years of age)" (10). "Title IV of Decree No. 9-2009, Law on Sexual Violence, Exploitation and Trafficking in Persons, addresses ‘punishments for the offences of sexual violence, exploitation and trafficking in persons’ in articles 20 to 57, introduces amendments and repeals part of the legal framework, including the Civil Code, the Criminal Code and related laws approved by Congress. Most of the changes increase sentences...more
May 6, 2020, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men and women and spousal rape, and the government handled rape cases as a judicial priority. Penalties for conviction of rape range from five years’ to life imprisonment with fines of 500,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($592 to $1,183). Penalties for conviction of spousal rape range from two months’ to life imprisonment with fines of 100,000 to 300,000 Rwandan francs ($118 to $355)." (35).
April 28, 2020, 8:53 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape of men or women but does not explicitly address spousal rape or domestic violence. The courts may use a law against “forced sex with a materially dependent person” as grounds to prosecute spousal rape. Under the law, authorities may detain a person for up to five days for offenses related to domestic violence and spousal abuse. The penalty for rape is three to 15 years’ imprisonment. Sexual assault and rape continued to be significant problems." (36-37). "The law puts sexual harassment in the same category as discrimination and sets penalties from a fine up to three years in prison, but women’s rights groups asserted there was...more
April 24, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Violence against Persons Prohibition (VAPP) Act addresses sexual violence, physical violence, psychological violence, harmful traditional practices, and socioeconomic violence. The VAPP cites spousal battery, forceful ejection from the home, forced financial dependence or economic abuse, harmful widowhood practices, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), other harmful traditional practices, substance attacks (such as acid attacks), political violence, and violence by state actors (especially government security forces) as offenses. Victims and survivors of violence are entitled to comprehensive medical, psychological, social, and legal assistance by accredited service providers and government agencies, with their identities protected during court cases. Until adoption by the states, however, the provisions of the VAPP Act are only applicable...more
April 3, 2020, 5:29 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"One of the ruling Chinese Communist Party’s founding principles, after all, is that women and men are equal, and recent changes in legislation introduced harsher penalties for rapists and child abusers. In December 2015, China’s legislature passed a omestic violence law, although it does not directly address sexual violence" (para 4).