The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-LAW-1

June 28, 2020, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"All non-consensual sex will be treated as rape under new 'Only yes means yes' laws approved by the Spanish government following an outcry over the Wolf Pack case. Spain's left-wing government approved the bill today, acting on a pre-election promise to strengthen laws in defence of women's rights. The draft law, which faces months of debate in parliament, seeks to establish specialized courts for dealing with sexual offences and round-the-clock recovery centres for victims" (para 2-4). "The new law will abolish that distinction so that rape will instead by decided by the question of consent" (para 9). "The bill proposes to merge the crimes of sexual abuse and sexual assault...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, TRAFF-LAW-1, PW-LAW-1

"At present, the Criminal Code provides for punishment for the following acts of a violent nature: assault (art. 116), torture (art. 117), trafficking in persons (art. 130), recruitment of persons for the purpose of sexual or other exploitation (art. 132), rape (art. 138), sexual violence (art. 139), sexual coercion (art. 140), sexual intercourse or other sexual acts with a person under the age of 16 (art. 141), indecent acts (art. 142), bigamy or polygamy (art. 170), incitement to prostitution (art. 238), establishment or keeping of brothels, procurement or living off the earnings of prostitution (art. 239), among others" (8-9).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape is narrowly defined in the Penal Code and requires evidence that the act took place against the victim’s will, and of pain, physical abuse and/or damage to health and threat" (5).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The most important amendments to the Criminal Code concern the criminal offences against sexual freedom and the criminalisation of new offences. Punishments for some criminal offences against sexual freedom have been made more stringent. There is now a minimum prison sentence of five years (without the possibility of early release) for rape and sexual intercourse with a child (as well as for the criminal offence of sexual intercourse through abuse of power if the victim is a child), which put Serbia’s criminal legislation among the most stringent ones in Europe. Furthermore, the minimum prison sentence for the criminal offence of sexual intercourse with an incapacitated person has been increased from...more
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal and remained a serious and pervasive problem" (23).
June 1, 2020, 12:53 a.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"However, Amnesty say that Danish law's definition of rape is outdated and not based on lack of consent. Instead it uses a definition based on whether physical violence, threat or coercion was involved or if the victim is found to have been unable to resist" (para 4-5).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Criminal Law also provides for a penalty of reform through labour of not more than ten years for raping a woman (art. 279), the same penalty of not more than three years for forcing a woman who is his subordinate to have sexual intercourse with him and the same penalty of not more than five years for having sexual intercourse with a minor under fifteen years of age (art. 281)" (12).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"However, article 173 and 173 bis of the Criminal Code, which characterizes the offences of sexual assault and rape, remains in effect with respect to the punishments of between 8 and 12 years of prison for those who have sexual relations with minors (under 14 years of age)" (10). "Title IV of Decree No. 9-2009, Law on Sexual Violence, Exploitation and Trafficking in Persons, addresses ‘punishments for the offences of sexual violence, exploitation and trafficking in persons’ in articles 20 to 57, introduces amendments and repeals part of the legal framework, including the Civil Code, the Criminal Code and related laws approved by Congress. Most of the changes increase sentences...more
May 6, 2020, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men and women and spousal rape, and the government handled rape cases as a judicial priority. Penalties for conviction of rape range from five years’ to life imprisonment with fines of 500,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($592 to $1,183). Penalties for conviction of spousal rape range from two months’ to life imprisonment with fines of 100,000 to 300,000 Rwandan francs ($118 to $355)." (35).
April 28, 2020, 8:53 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape of men or women but does not explicitly address spousal rape or domestic violence. The courts may use a law against “forced sex with a materially dependent person” as grounds to prosecute spousal rape. Under the law, authorities may detain a person for up to five days for offenses related to domestic violence and spousal abuse. The penalty for rape is three to 15 years’ imprisonment. Sexual assault and rape continued to be significant problems." (36-37). "The law puts sexual harassment in the same category as discrimination and sets penalties from a fine up to three years in prison, but women’s rights groups asserted there was...more
April 24, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Violence against Persons Prohibition (VAPP) Act addresses sexual violence, physical violence, psychological violence, harmful traditional practices, and socioeconomic violence. The VAPP cites spousal battery, forceful ejection from the home, forced financial dependence or economic abuse, harmful widowhood practices, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), other harmful traditional practices, substance attacks (such as acid attacks), political violence, and violence by state actors (especially government security forces) as offenses. Victims and survivors of violence are entitled to comprehensive medical, psychological, social, and legal assistance by accredited service providers and government agencies, with their identities protected during court cases. Until adoption by the states, however, the provisions of the VAPP Act are only applicable...more
April 3, 2020, 5:29 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"One of the ruling Chinese Communist Party’s founding principles, after all, is that women and men are equal, and recent changes in legislation introduced harsher penalties for rapists and child abusers. In December 2015, China’s legislature passed a omestic violence law, although it does not directly address sexual violence" (para 4).
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape is a criminal offense, with punishment that ranges from a minimum of 10 to 25 years in prison and a fine to the death penalty. The penalty for gang rape is death or life imprisonment" (37). " In 2016 Parliament passed a new antirape law that provides for collection of DNA evidence and includes nondisclosure of a rape victim’s name, the right to legal representation of rape victims, and enhanced penalties for rape of victims with mental or physical disabilities" (37). "In 2016 the government updated its definition of statutory rape and expanded the previous definition, which was sexual intercourse with a girl younger than 16, to include boys"...more
March 30, 2020, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Spain has yet to change its rape laws, but it's in the process of doing so now. Under its current law a complainant needs to prove there was violence or intimidation in order for their case to be treated as a 'rape'" (para 27).
March 30, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"And Sweden, Denmark's neighbour and the top country in the EU's Gender Equality Index, only brought in a consent-based law last July" (para 26).
March 30, 2020, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Of those, Germany only changed to a consent-based definition [of rape] in 2016. Victims also used to have to prove that they physically resisted their rapists, but this was repealed that year too" (para 25).
March 30, 2020, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Crucially, it [the Danish law] defines rape as involving force or a threat of violence, rather than on whether or not there was consent. For this reason, the Danish National Police Guidelines say that officers should ask rape complainants about 'resistance to the perpetrator' - that is, whether or not they tried to physically fight them off" (para 15-16). "Denmark isn't the only European country to have drawn criticism for having a force-based definition of rape. According to another recent report from Amnesty released in November, out of 31 European countries they looked into, only eight have consent-based definitions of rape" (para 23). "Denmark only fully criminalised spousal rape in...more
March 4, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Adopted in 2009, the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) law criminalized practices which are harmful to women such as physical abuse and sexual assault." (7).
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape and the use of threats or violence to claim a marital right to intercourse'" (27).
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, but it does not criminalize spousal rape because the law states a woman may not refuse sexual relations with her husband" (28). "The law does not define statutory rape and does not impose an age limit for consensual sex" (31).
Jan. 29, 2020, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"A person who, through assault or intimidation, forcibly commits an indecent act upon a male or female of not less than thirteen years of age shall be punished by imprisonment with work for not less than 6 months but not more than 10 years. The same shall apply to a person who commits an indecent act upon a male or female under thirteen years of age... A person who, through assault or intimidation, forcibly commits sexual intercourse with a female of not less than thirteen years of age commits the crime of rape and shall be punished by imprisonment with work for a definite term of not less than 3...more
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, providing penalties of five to 15 years in prison for violations. Military court sentences for rape included death. The government did not effectively enforce the law. There are no federal laws against spousal violence, including rape..." (31). "Domestic and sexual violence against women remained serious problems despite the provisional federal constitution provision prohibiting any form of violence against women. While both sharia and customary law address the resolution of family disputes, women were not included in the decision-making process." (32). "There is no statutory rape law or minimum age for consensual sex." (35).
Dec. 14, 2019, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Justice was a long time coming for the young Spanish woman gang-raped during the Pamplona bull runs in 2016. On Friday, the Supreme Court in Madrid overturned a lower court's verdict and found the five men who attacked her guilty of rape rather than sexual abuse, and raised their sentences from nine to 15 years in prison" (para. 1). "According to Amnesty International, three-quarters of EU member states, including Spain, legally recognise an assault as rape only when physical violence, threats or coercion are involved. A victim must have demonstrated resistance" (para. 2).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, TRAFF-LAW-1

"The Amendment IX to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China approved in August 2015 strengthened protection of women, especially of girls under the age of 14, and specified harsher punishments for the crimes of raping girls under the age of 14 and abducting and trafficking in women and children" (para. 41).
Nov. 14, 2019, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal" (17). "The law prohibits sexual intercourse with children younger than 15" (19).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, prescribing criminal penalties of 15 to 25 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment for cases of rape involving armed abduction. Spousal rape is not illegal. The government did not effectively enforce the law. Civil society organizations reported police pressure not to pursue charges." (42). "The government prioritized efforts to address sexual harassment. The penal code defines sexual harassment as a crime, with penalties including fines and sentences of six months to five years’ imprisonment if convicted. Media and NGOs reported that sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints." (42). "On July 30, a Cairo...more
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"While the law prohibits rape of men or women, it does not recognize spousal rape as a crime" (18). "The minimum age for consensual sex is 18 years" (20).
Oct. 22, 2019, 6:25 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"In February 2015, an amendment to Artice 149 of the Criminal Code changed the definition of rape and added Article 151 (3) to criminalize the offense of sexual harassment. Under the new definition of rape, rape victim could no longer be prosecuted for adultery." (pg 41). "There is no minimum age for consensual sex or statutory rape law." (pg 44).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape is illegal… The law does not address spousal rape" (20). "The minimum age of sexual consent is 18" (21).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal" (25). "The minimum age for consensual sex is 12. The statutory rape law criminalizes sex with minors under 12 and sex with a child under 18 involving force, threat, or intimidation" (28).