The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-PRACTICE-1

Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions . . . Crimes of sexual violence were sometimes committed as...more
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"Authorities prosecuted perpetrators if victims filed charges. There were reports that families or village elders settled many allegations of sexual violence informally through traditional means and without recourse to the formal court system" (page 9).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities only occasionally prosecuted perpetrators of sexual violence. The judicial system did not provide consistent and predictable recourse or legal protection, and traditional legal systems were subject to ethnic variations. To fill the void, UNHCR enlisted the support of a local NGO to support the cases of refugees through the judicial process. The DPHR was unable to provide humanitarian escorts consistently due to lack of resources but was generally effective in providing protection inside refugee camps" (page 12). "Rape is prohibited and punishable by imprisonment. Nevertheless, rape--including rape of female refugees--was a problem (see section 2.d.). The law does not specifically address spousal rape. Police often detained alleged perpetrators, but...more
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Like everyone in Yemen, women in the country have been severely affected by the war. And as a subgroup of the population, they are vulnerable to gender-based violence. In September 2016, an OXFAM report indicated that women and girls in Yemen have been subjected to violence, abuse and exploitation — including sexual — by the different armed groups since the outbreak of the conflict, particularly at checkpoints" (para 4).
July 21, 2019, 5:01 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Tanzania has one of the highest adolescent pregnancy rates in the world, with widespread sexual violence and girls exchanging sex for school fees, food and shelter, according to the UN" (para 18). "Last December, Magufuli pardoned two child rapists who raped 10 primary school children, after serving 13 years of their life sentences" (para 19).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape is a felony, subject to punishment by at least 15 years in prison, but the government did not enforce the law...Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports by the SNHR, HRW,...more
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"It remains concerned, however, that gender-based violence against women and girls, including sexual and domestic violence, appears to be socially legitimized and accompanied by a culture of silence and impunity and that victims have limited means of assistance, protection or redress. It is further concerned that marital rape is not specifically criminalized and that no definition of statutory rape exists in the State party’s legislation owing to the absence of a legal minimum age of sexual consent" (7).
July 19, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Officials employed the tactic of countersuing individuals who alleged abuse. On August 10, in Izmir two women, 19-year-old Derya Kılıc and 22-year-old Seray Gurer, asked two police officers for help, claiming they were groped by two unidentified men on motorbikes. Security footage showed one of police officer starting to beat Kilic. According to Kilic’s formal complaint, the officer who hit her claimed the women were “dressed inappropriately.” A prosecutor in Izmir sought a prison sentence up to three and one-half years for the officer. The officer in the meantime filed criminal complaints against the women, alleging they had attacked him. The outcome of case and count remained unclear as of...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"In some cases the government did not effectively or fully enforce these laws or protect victims. The law prohibits violence against women, but human rights organizations claimed the government did not effectively enforce it . . . Women’s NGOs asserted there were not enough shelters to meet the needs of the increasing numbers of women applying for assistance and that shelter staff did not provide adequate care and services" (page 49).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"For rape cases that were reported, police and the courts were responsive in most cases. Human rights activists outside of Kathmandu, however, expressed concern that police frequently refuse to register cases of gender-based violence (GBV), including occasionally rape cases. These groups report that police often prefer to use mediation rather than criminal investigation to resolve conflicts. According to NGOs police frequently prioritized cases of sexual violence, and the District Court Regulations stipulates that judges should expedite cases of rape, human trafficking, and other violent crimes" (Pg 25).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

The law prohibits rape, although it does not specifically prohibit spousal rape. Rape is punishable by imprisonment with hard labor, but the law does not specify a minimum sentence. The government did not enforce the law effectively. In June the Rapid Reaction and Repression of Sexual Violence Mixed Unit received from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) two cars and three motorcycles to carry out its work. The unit, officially established in 2015, consisted of gendarmes, police, and medical and social service personnel whose objective is to reduce the number of incidents of sexual violence against women and children. MINUSCA, UNDP, and the Panel of Experts on the Central African...more
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men and women and provides penalties of between five and 10 years’ imprisonment for convicted rapists. Police and courts, however, rarely investigated or prosecuted rape cases, especially since victims often did not report them. The law does not address spousal rape" (Pg 26).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape is illegal, although the government did not always enforce the law effectively. The law permits authorities to prosecute spousal rape, and prosecutions occurred. The law specifies penalties for conviction of rape or forcible sexual assault ranging from four years’ imprisonment to the death penalty as well as fines , , , According to NGOs the government underfunded agencies tasked with addressing the problem, and victims often perceived police as incapable of bringing perpetrators to justice" (page 28).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Gangs used rape and violence against women as part of initiation" (p. 17).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Ensure the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) takes into account the needs of victims of sexual and GBV outside forced marriage: Due to the multitude and complexity of the crimes committed during the Khmer Rouge regime and the advanced age of victims and the accused, the ECCC selected crimes that were most representative of all other crimes. With regard to GBV crimes, the ECCC limited their investigation and hearings to forced marriage and rape, and only victims whose crimes fell under these categories were admitted to participate in judicial proceedings and were entitled to claim reparation. The Co-Investigating Judges did not investigate into rape outside the context...more
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Gender-based violence against women and girls, including... rape... continues to take place in the State party... Gender-based violence, including rape, against indigenous women in the Chittagong Hill Tracts relating to land grabbing is continuously being reported" (5).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 40 years in prison. The government did not enforce the law effectively" (page 22). "Mental Disability Rights Initiative of Serbia research from late 2016 showed that women with disabilities in residential institutions were exposed to various forms of violence, including physical, psychological, sexual, and genderbased violence. Results also showed that, due to their very specific position and isolation from the outside world, a majority of women accepted violence as an inevitable part of their daily lives in institutions" (page 26).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape, and courts have discretion to sentence convicted rapists to life imprisonment at hard labor. Rape was nonetheless widespread. The government increasingly enforced the law and obtained rape convictions with higher penalties...On July 15, the president pardoned singer Clifford Dimba who had served one year of an 18-year sentence for statutory rape of a 14-year-old girl. His pardon and subsequent appointment by the president as an ambassador in the fight against gender-based violence was denounced by Dubravka Simonovi, UN special rapporteur on violence against women, as “outrageous” decisions that traumatized “the victim all over again” and discouraged other victims from reporting similar offenses. UN officials called on...more
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-DATA-1

"Rape remained a serious problem throughout the country, and the government did not consistently enforce the law. Although the government arrested, prosecuted, and convicted persons for rape, the crime was seriously underreported, and authorities did not investigate most cases. Police lacked the criminal forensic capacity to collect evidence, which hampered prosecution and conviction. The UPF crime report through June listed 10,163 reported sexual offenses, of which 787 were rapes, 8,954 defilements, 308 indecent assaults, 56 incest, and 58 'unnatural offenses'" (Pg 26).
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Act No. 1/13 of 22 September 2016, on the protection of victims and the prevention and punishment of sexual and gender-based violence" (2). "The Committee is also concerned about reports of the lack of judicial independence resulting in impunity for perpetrators of acts of discrimination against women, including sexual and gender-based violence. It notes that, in practice, the justice system remains inaccessible to most women, owing to barriers such as a lack of knowledge about their rights and the limited availability of legal aid" (4). " Girls are often victims of sexual and gender-based violence on the way to and from school as well as on school premises and perpetrators...more
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by five to 10 years’ imprisonment. Nevertheless, the government rarely enforced the law, and rape was widespread . . . NGOs also criticized the government’s failure to permit associations to bring suits on behalf of victims and the lack of shield laws for rape . . . The Ministry of Justice is responsible for combating domestic violence, but did not made public any programs to address rape and domestic violence" (page 14-15).
July 7, 2019, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"According to the latest statistics from the Ministry of Home Affairs, approximately 16 percent of reported rape cases were taken to court, with a conviction rate of 2.7 percent of all reported cases" (p. 23).
July 7, 2019, 8:50 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The practice of “purification,” whereby a widow is obligated to have unprotected sex with a member of her deceased husband’s family, continued, particularly in rural areas, despite campaigns against it" (p. 15).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape; it does not specifically address spousal rape, which was rarely reported for societal reasons and, if reported, was often ignored by authorities. The law provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for those convicted. A maximum prison term for conviction of 20 years applies if the victim is a child under age 14; is gang-raped; or if the rape results in pregnancy, disease, or incapacitation lasting more than six weeks. The government was diligent in investigating reports of rape and prosecuting suspects, but victims were reluctant to report incidents due to the social stigma associated with being raped and fear of reprisal. Although neither...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"Gender-based violence remained a serious concern. Although rape, including marital rape, is a crime punishable by up to 20 years in prison, failures to investigate or prosecute cases of alleged rape and sexual abuse were common. The formal justice system addressed an increasing number of reported domestic and sexual abuse cases, but limited access to justice and cultural pressures led some communities to address rape and domestic violence through traditional law" (Pg 15).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 20 years’ imprisonment. There was no separate statute for spousal rape. The government did not provide statistics on the number of cases or convictions. Law enforcement officials usually advised women not to file charges but registered cases at the victim’s insistence. Most observers believed the majority of cases were unreported because victims wished to avoid humiliation" (Pg 19).
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not enforce the law effectively. Officials did not prosecute spousal rape. The concept of spousal rape was not well understood, and authorities often did not consider it a crime" (page 17). "Authorities generally enforced laws against the rape and sexual exploitation of minors effectively, but NGOs reported that they rarely enforced laws prohibiting child pornography. The government reported that, as of July, six children had been sexually exploited, but there were no cases involving pornography. A total of 39 child victims of trafficking and potential victims of trafficking were identified through October" (page 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-2, LRW-DATA-1

"Rape was common, and the government did not always enforce the law effectively. According to the Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse (SWAGAA), one in three girls and women between ages 13 and 24 had been the victim of sexual violence. Although rape is legally defined as a crime, many men regarded it as a minor offense. The number of reported cases was likely far lower than the actual number of cases, as many cases were dealt with at the family level. A sense of shame and helplessness often inhibited women from reporting such crimes, particularly when incest was involved. The maximum sentence for aggravated rape is 15 years in prison,...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual and gender-based violence continued throughout Darfur. In 2014 the ICC prosecutor noted an increasing pattern of gang rapes of women and girls. Authorities often obstructed access to justice for rape victims. IDPs reported perpetrators of such violence were often government armed force or militia members. Assailants assaulted, raped, threatened, shot, beat, and robbed women. In its 2015 report, Men Without Mercy, Human Rights Watch reported that rape and other abuses by the RSF were 'systematic'". In January human rights organizations reported that the RSF launched a wide-scale campaign of rape of civilians, including minors, in the villages of Golo and Bardani. The United Nations was not allowed access to...more
July 1, 2019, 8:44 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"According to the study, in many cases, rape was requalified as sexual intercourse with a person under the age of 16, which reduced the potential penalty, and victims’ statements on the lack of consent were not taken into account. In one in three cases, law enforcement officers initiated criminal investigations for less serious offenses than the ones reported by the victims. In 90 percent of the cases, the victims were not present at the preliminary hearings or the first court hearing on the case. Victims were commonly forced to confront their attacker in court" (p. 27).