The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-PRACTICE-2

Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions" (page 39). "Most survivors of rape did not pursue formal legal...more
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Due to these legal and social penalties, authorities brought few cases to trial. The government did not maintain public records on prosecutions, convictions, or punishments" (40).
July 30, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Rape victims had access to shelters and counseling offered by NGOs and government-funded programs" (p. 15).
July 29, 2019, 8:26 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

"Victims reported less than 1 percent of these crimes to police due to custom, fear of stigmatization and reprisal, and lack of cooperation from investigating police or gendarmes" (p. 16).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports by the SNHR, HRW, and other NGOs included interviews with female former prisoners, who reported that rape by guards and security forces was common in...more
July 19, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Guinea-Bissau
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-3

"The law permits prosecution of rape only when reported by the victim, which observers noted was rare due to victims’ fear of social stigma and retribution" (p. 8).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Women’s NGOs asserted there were not enough shelters to meet the needs of the increasing numbers of women applying for assistance and that shelter staff did not provide adequate care and services" (page 49).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

"The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers’ 2011 standard operating procedure for prevention of and response to GBV has led to the establishment of service centers in 17 districts, rehabilitation centers in eight districts, and hospital-based one-stop crisis management centers in 17 districts to provide treatment, protection, and psychosocial and legal support for survivors of GBV. Gender experts say the standard operating procedure has led to improved coordination among police, NHRC, National Women’s Commission, chief district officers, local authorities, community mediation centers, and NGOs working to address violence against women and girls" (Pg 26).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The government ran integrated service centers for women and children (P2TPA) in all 34 provinces and approximately 242 districts, which provided counseling and support services to victims of violence. The larger provincial service centers provided more comprehensive psychosocial services, while the quality of support at the district-level centers varied. Women living in rural areas or districts where no such center was established had difficulty receiving support services and some centers were only open for six hours a day and not the required 24 hours. Nationwide, police operated 'special crisis rooms' or 'women’s desks' where female officers received reports from female and child victims of sexual assault and trafficking and where...more
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"However, the Committee notes with concern: (b) The underreporting of violence against women by victims, the low numbers of prosecutions and convictions of perpetrators and the limited application of protection orders by the police, in particular in cases of sexual violence; (c) The lack of a coordinated system for preventive measures and victim assistance, including the provision of shelters and legal, medical and psychological assistance, in cases of gender-based violence against women" (5).
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The underreporting of cases of gender based violence against women, including domestic and sexual violence, owing to stigma and to the lack of understanding of gender based violence among both the population at large and law enforcement officials" (5).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men and women and provides penalties of between five and 10 years’ imprisonment for convicted rapists. Police and courts, however, rarely investigated or prosecuted rape cases, especially since victims often did not report them. The law does not address spousal rape" (Pg 26).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"NGOs asserted that rape was a serious problem, and noted a measure in the law allows offenders younger than 18 to avoid prosecution by choosing to marry their victim. They also maintained that victims underreported rapes and domestic assaults, in part due to a lack of understanding by authorities that impeded effective implementation of the law regarding violence against women. According to NGOs the government underfunded agencies tasked with addressing the problem, and victims often perceived police as incapable of bringing perpetrators to justice" (page 28).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Human Rights Watch reported there were five shelters for abused women in Port Moresby, which were often full and had to refuse women in need of counseling and shelter. The situation was worse outside the capital, where small community organizations or individuals with little access to funds and counseling resources maintained the shelters" (p. 18).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Credible observers stated many women were reluctant to report rape, in part due to fear of reprisal" (p. 34).
July 13, 2019, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Discussing rape remained taboo, and women often opted not to report it due to shame or fear of reprisal" (p. 16).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Fear of reprisal and stigma, compounded with a culture of impunity and dearth of appropriate medical and social services, often deter victims of sexual assault from seeking justice and medical care. Survivors who pursue legal action are usually subject to the finger test of virginity, threatened by authorities, and/or imprisoned, as in the case of Lul Ali Osman Barake" (8).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Extend the “Promoting Gender Equality and Improving access to justice for Female Survivors and Victims of GBV under the Khmer Rouge Regime” project: The Victim Support Section (VSS) of the ECCC received funding from the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women to expand the project from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018. The project includes the following activities: Outreach and awareness-raising on GBV during the Khmer Rouge regime, Access to legal" services, Provision of financial support for skills training to poor families of GBV survivors and Empowerment of survivors of GBV at ECCC" (9). "In 2015, the PDWA reported that relevant institutions intervened and facilitated support to...more
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Women domestic workers in the State party are subjected to violence, abuse... such crimes go unreported and that the victims have limited access to justice and redress" (10).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Women’s lack of trust in the judicial system, their limited awareness about available remedies for obtaining redress and the stigmatization of victims, which leads to underreporting of cases of gender-based violence against women and girls, including psychological and economic violence, sexual harassment and marital rape" (3).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, including rape of a “close relative,” but the criminal code does not specifically prohibit spousal rape, and the courts did not try any known cases. Cultural norms discouraged women and their families from speaking openly about rape, and the press rarely reported it" (Pg 28).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-DATA-1

"Rape remained a serious problem throughout the country, and the government did not consistently enforce the law. Although the government arrested, prosecuted, and convicted persons for rape, the crime was seriously underreported, and authorities did not investigate most cases. Police lacked the criminal forensic capacity to collect evidence, which hampered prosecution and conviction. The UPF crime report through June listed 10,163 reported sexual offenses, of which 787 were rapes, 8,954 defilements, 308 indecent assaults, 56 incest, and 58 'unnatural offenses'" (Pg 26).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The government-run Ginddi Center in Dakar provided shelter to women and girls who were survivors of rape or early and forced marriage, and to street children" (page 15).
July 7, 2019, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Many government hospitals had crisis centers where victims of rape and domestic abuse could make reports without going to a police station" (p. 23).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape; it does not specifically address spousal rape, which was rarely reported for societal reasons and, if reported, was often ignored by authorities. The law provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for those convicted. A maximum prison term for conviction of 20 years applies if the victim is a child under age 14; is gang-raped; or if the rape results in pregnancy, disease, or incapacitation lasting more than six weeks. The government was diligent in investigating reports of rape and prosecuting suspects, but victims were reluctant to report incidents due to the social stigma associated with being raped and fear of reprisal. Although neither...more
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 20 years’ imprisonment. There was no separate statute for spousal rape. The government did not provide statistics on the number of cases or convictions. Law enforcement officials usually advised women not to file charges but registered cases at the victim’s insistence. Most observers believed the majority of cases were unreported because victims wished to avoid humiliation" (Pg 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-2, LRW-DATA-1

"Rape was common, and the government did not always enforce the law effectively. According to the Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse (SWAGAA), one in three girls and women between ages 13 and 24 had been the victim of sexual violence. Although rape is legally defined as a crime, many men regarded it as a minor offense. The number of reported cases was likely far lower than the actual number of cases, as many cases were dealt with at the family level. A sense of shame and helplessness often inhibited women from reporting such crimes, particularly when incest was involved. The maximum sentence for aggravated rape is 15 years in prison,...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"UN Special Representative for the Secretary-General (SRSG) for Children and Armed Conflict Leila Zerrougui reported in May at least 60 girls were raped in 48 incidents in Darfur in 2014. The SRSG stated 15 were verified and attributed to the armed forces, 10 to the RSF, and 35 to unidentified armed men. In Darfur it was believed most rape victims did not report incidents, and the actual number of rapes was likely much higher" (Pg 28). "In most rape cases, courts made convictions a matter of public record. Observers believed sentences often were less than the legal maximum. Because there was no official tracking of rape cases, no information was...more
July 2, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Women victims of rape did not have regular access to free social support and assistance, and continued to confront prejudice and discrimination in their communities and from representatives of public institutions" (p. 19).
July 1, 2019, 8:44 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Sexual violence was the least recognized and reported form of violence. Police reportedly used poor investigative techniques and often mishandled rape cases, further discouraging victim cooperation" (p. 27).