The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for MARR-LAW-1

June 17, 2019, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The age of legal marriage for men and women is 18 years, although a judge may permit a person to marry younger when the judge or family deemed the marriage was in the minor’s interest. Child marriage occurred in rural communities as a traditional practice" (Pg 17)
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2, MABFC-DATA-1

"The law allows a girl deemed to be “sufficiently mature” to marry at 15. Some families entered into marriage agreements under which rural girls 12 or even younger were sent to their husband’s families to be under the “supervision” of their mothers-in-law. According to UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), 28 percent of women ages 20-24 married before age 15 and 76 percent married before age 18. According to the 2012 DHS, 36 percent of women 20-24 years old were first married or in union before they were 15 years old. Prevalence of child marriage was highest in the south, in the Diffa, Zinder, Maradi, and Tahoua regions. The Ministry...more
June 11, 2019, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits civil marriages before age 18 for both boys and girls. The Child Care and Protection Act prohibits customary marriage before age 18, but it did occur" (Pg 16).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18 in most cases, but persons as young as 16 may marry with the consent of a court if it finds them mentally and physically fit for marriage. Child marriage was a serious problem, particularly in the Romani and Balkan Egyptian communities. According to a survey by the NGO Center for Roma Initiatives, 70 per cent of the Romani population aged 12-18 entered into arranged marriages. Authorities considered such common law marriages illegal. Punishment for arranging forced marriages ranges from six months to five years in prison. Romani NGOs claimed that families paid dowries of 4,000 to 15,000 euros ($4,400 to $16,500) for...more
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"During the year the Supreme Judge Department issued new marriage regulations, including a 15-year maximum age difference between the husband and the wife, provided that the would-be husband is not married and that marriage would not prevent the girl from pursuing her education. Judges have the authority to decide if marriage of girls between 15 and 18 years old would be “in their best interest” and to adjudicate the marriage contract" (34).
June 7, 2019, 11:46 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Survivor statements indicate that traditional dispute resolution mechanisms are seen as offering families and survivors an easily accessible and quick system of informal and unregulated justice. However, UNAMA reiterates that such a system often leads to abuses of women’s rights. These rights include the right to freely choose a partner, the right to health and physical integrity, and the rights enshrined in the Child Rights Convention in relation to forced child marriages. For example, UNAMA documented a case from the eastern region in which local families referred the case of a girl, who had “run away” from her home for the purpose of marriage, to a Jirga for resolution. The...more
June 5, 2019, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: Georgia
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Conviction of forced marriage of an individual under age 18 is punishable by two to four years’ imprisonment" (35).
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The 2015 Act Amending the Penal Code introduced forced marriage as a stand-alone criminal offence. Coercion of entering into a marriage-like relationship (a ritual or religious marriage not recognised by the state) remains an act of grave coercion, since essential interests of the victim are violated. Potential punishment is the same for grave coercion and forced marriage. Moreover, a pre-offence of forced marriage was introduced. This means that it is punishable to force a person by means of violence, dangerous threat or threatening to end contact with the family or deprive the person of family contact or tempt that person by means of deceit to go to another country or...more
June 3, 2019, 10:48 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"In 1990, Pakistan ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Child, which prohibits child marriages. In addition, under the Muslim Family Law Ordinance, a girl must have attained the age of 16 and a boy must have attained the age of 18, and both need to consent before the marriage can take place" (Pg 32). "In 2011, the Pakistani legislature passed two landmark pro-woman bills aimed at protecting women from harmful traditional customs, including so-called marriage with the holy Quran and forced wedlock, and seeking severe punishments for the violators" (Pg 33).
June 3, 2019, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-LAW-1

"Under Nigerian civil law, forced marriage is illegal, and can carry a jail term of seven years. In addition, Nigeria's Marriage Act requires the parent or guardian's consent if either party to an intended marriage is under the age of 21.106 The country's National Policy on Population also discourages parents from arranging marriages for girls under 18 years of age. According to Country Reports 2004, however, the Nigerian government 'did not undertake any significant measures to stop customary practices harmful to children, such as the sale of young girls into marriage'" (Pg 29).
June 3, 2019, 9:31 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The leader of the Islamic revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, whose vision and words inspired the post-1979 Republic, has clearly written that sexual experiences, excluding intercourse, are permitted with girls of all ages. He stated: 'Anyone who has a wife less than nine years of age is not allowed to engage in sexual intercourse, whether she is his permanent or temporary wife. However, other forms of sexual pleasures are permitted, such as touching with lust, hugging, and rubbing penis between the buttocks and thighs; even if she is a nursing baby.' Three years after the establishment of the Islamic Republic in 1982, the legal age for marriage was lowered from 18 to...more
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law does not address other types of gender-based violence such as beatings, forced isolation, imprisonment, and early and forced marriage" (36). "Women cannot marry without permission of their male guardians; do not have equal rights in inheritance, divorce, or child custody; and have little legal protection" (38).
May 27, 2019, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law prohibits forced marriage and prescribes penalties of six months to two years in prison for violators, and a three-year prison term if the victim is under age 13" (p. 19).
May 27, 2019, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law makes conviction of “abduction to impose marriage or union without consent” punishable by six months to five years in jail" (p. 16).
May 25, 2019, 3:39 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The legal age for marriage under Afghan Law is 16 for girls and 18 for boys. A girl who is 15 years of age can be married with the consent of her father or a court of law,65 but under no circumstances may a girl under the age of 15 be married. Under the Law on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (EVAW, a national Afghan law), both forced and underage marriage are illegal and parents, relatives, or others who arrange forced or underage marriages are subject to prosecution and imprisonment. Underage marriage is prohibited by the EVAW law and is punishable by two to five years of imprisonment. Forced...more
May 24, 2019, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The Chinese Provisions for the Registration of Marriages requires that both partners consent to their marriage before a competent registration authority. In cases involving foreigners, this is done through provincial-level Foreign-Related Adoption and Marriage Registration Centers under the Department of Civil Affairs. An officer asks the two parties to confirm that they are applying for the marriage registration at their own will. However, many Foreign-Related Adoption and Marriage Registration Centers do not employ Cambodian-speaking staff, and even where they do exist other factors appear to prevent consent from being adequately verified. For example, an official at the Jiangxi Foreign-Related Adoption and Marriage Registration Center told the researchers, 'the mandate of...more
May 22, 2019, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The 'special circumstances' provision of the new Child Marriage Restraint Act 2017, which was passed on Monday by parliament, will now technically make child marriages legal" (Para 1). "The special provision proposes that underage females may be married off under 'special contexts' as long as it is conducted with the permission of her parents or guardians in conjunction with a magistrate. Such a marriage will no longer be considered an offence" (Para 6-7).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

The legal minimum age of marriage is 15 with parental permission and 18 without" (44).
May 16, 2019, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Girls are expected to marry young, often against their will, without legal recognition. Women are given less status and this creates an environment for marginalization and increasing vulnerability for them" (para 7). "During the Universal Periodic Review (UPR), Kyrgyzstan accepted recommendations to take further legislative and practical measures to eliminate violence against women, in particular bride-kidnapping of underage girls, polygamous unions, forced marriages and early marriage of girls" (para 9).
May 14, 2019, 2:38 p.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Even though that practice is now illegal, at least 40 percent of girls still marry before age 18, according to the United Nations Population Fund. But Article 17 of war-torn South Sudan's constitution supposedly guarantees women and girls the right to consent to marriage" (para 9-10).
May 14, 2019, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-PRACTICE-7, MARR-LAW-1, MARR-LAW-4

The customs noted in this article were for a Sufi Muslim family in Chechnya in Russia. The customs include brideprice (the groom gave the bride's father livestock), and that "The groom’s representatives also brought cash, to give directly to the bride, not her father. Religious authorities in Chechnya regulate the sum, to keep a check on bride payment inflation. Still, it went up last year, rising from the ruble equivalent of about $470 to $780." The article noted that the bride and groom do not attend the wedding: "each separately committed to the marriage in ceremonies a few hours apart . . . the bride in her father's home." Vows...more
April 27, 2019, 9:12 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since its consideration in 2009 of the State party’s third periodic report (CEDAW/C/CHE/CO/3) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following: a) Federal Act on Measures against Forced Marriages, in 2013" (2).
April 20, 2019, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law categorizes forced marriage as a crime punishable by from six months to three years and six months in prison. Forced marriage carries similar penalties as coercion" (p. 12).
April 9, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age of marriage for girls is 13, but girls as young as nine years old may be married with permission from the court and their fathers. (37).
April 5, 2019, 8:26 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Forcing a UK citizen into marriage anywhere in the world is a criminal offense in England and Wales" (p. 17).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1, LDS-LAW-1, MARR-LAW-1

"The law prohibits subjecting a child to any social or customary practice that is harmful to health or general development. Prohibited practices included child trafficking, forced labor, early and forced marriage or betrothal, and use of children as security for loans or other debts" (para 97).
March 25, 2019, 2:20 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: MARR-LAW-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The 2011 National Children’s Act sets the marriage age for all persons at 18, while the Domestic Relations Act sets the minimum marriage age at 21 for men and 18 for women. The Equal Rights of the Traditional Marriage Act of 1998 permits a girl to marry at age 16" (25).
March 19, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Forced marriages are illegal, invalid, and punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment" (p. 19).
March 18, 2019, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for men and women to marry is 18. There were no reported cases of forced marriage" (20).
March 18, 2019, 7:25 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law provides for the prosecution of forced marriage cases, even when the marriage occurred abroad" (p. 19).