The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for MARR-LAW-1

Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 18. According to UNICEF 17 percent of girls married before age 18, and 2 percent of girls were married by age 15. According to NCW statistics, nearly 36 percent of marriages in rural areas in the southern part of the country included a partner who was not yet age 18. Families reportedly sometimes forced adolescent girls to marry wealthy foreign men in what were known locally as “tourism” or “summer” marriages for the purpose of sexual exploitation, prostitution, or forced labor." (45).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Mao famously told women they held up “half the sky” and outlawed arranged marriage and the practice of taking concubines." (para 11).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The penalty for forced marriage between an adult and child is a prison sentence of three months to two years and a fine of 150,000 to 1.5 million CFA francs ($265 to $2,650)" (24, 25).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions" (page 39). "While the law prohibits marriage of boys and girls...more
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law does not specify a minimum age for marriage, although Ministry of Justice guidelines referred marriage applications to sharia courts to determine the validity of a marriage when the bride was under the age of 16. According to some senior religious leaders, girls as young as 10 may marry" (44).
July 30, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law makes forcing a child to marry punishable by a fine, one year’s imprisonment, or both" (p. 17).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: MARR-LAW-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The law sets the minimum age for marriage at 18. The law precludes invoking the consent of the minor spouse to justify child marriage and prescribes sentences of five to 10 years’ imprisonment and fines of 500,000 to five million CFA francs ($883 to $8,833) for persons convicted of perpetrating child marriage" (page 17).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1

"The legal age for marriage is 18 for men and 17 for women. A boy as young as 15 or a girl as young as 13 may marry if a judge deems both parties willing and 'physically mature,' and if the fathers or grandfathers of both parties consent. ISIS systematically abducted and sexually exploited Yezidi girls in Iraq and transported them to Syria for systematic rape and forced marriage (see section 1.g. and section 6, Women)" (Pg 48).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Domestic violence against women and girls remained a serious problem. Violence against women and girls, including early and forced marriage, was believed to be one of the major factors responsible for women’s relative poor health, livelihood insecurity, and inadequate social mobilization. Additionally, the practice of early and forced marriage, which remained prevalent, limited girls’ access to education and increased their susceptibility to domestic violence and sexual abuse. The 2009 Domestic Violence (Crime and Punishment) Act allows for settling complaints of domestic violence through mediation with an emphasis on reconciliation. Authorities usually pursued prosecution under the act only when mediation failed. The Nepal Police had women’s cells staffed by female officers...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The legal distinction between a woman and a girl was not clear. The marriage law sets the minimum marriageable age at 16 for women (19 for men), but the child protection law states that persons under age 18 are not adults. A girl who marries has adult legal status. Girls frequently married before reaching the age of 16, particularly in rural and impoverished areas. See also the Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report at www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/" (Pg 29).
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: IIP-LAW-2, MARR-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the launch of a national 24-hour helpline for women who are victims of violence and a series of amendments to laws that penalize stalking and forced marriage and give effect to the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse under national jurisdiction" (5).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The law establishes 18 as the minimum age for civil marriage. The practice of early marriage was more common in the Muslim community. There were reports during the year of forced marriages of young girls to ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka members. The government did not take steps to address forced marriage. (For more data, see UNICEF website.)" (Pg 19).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18. The law punishes anyone who compels another to marry with imprisonment for five to 10 years, and with fines of 25,000 CFA francs ($47) to 1,000,000 CFA francs ($1,865). When victims are minors, punishment may not be less than a two-year prison sentence, regardless of mitigating circumstances. The court may also take away custody from parents who give away their underage children in marriage. Despite these legal provisions, some families reportedly tried to marry their girls before age 18. (For data, see the UNICEF website.)" (Pg 28).
July 14, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age of marriage for both boys and girls is 14 years with parental and participant consent, unless otherwise stipulated by religion or custom under the law, which generally set a higher minimum age. The Islamic Family Act sets the minimum marriageable age at 16 years for Muslim girls and 18 years for Muslim men and makes it an offense to use force, threat, or deception to compel a person to marry against his or her own will. Ethnic Chinese must be 15 years or older to marry, according to the Chinese Marriage Act, which also stipulates sexual intercourse with an ethnic Chinese girl younger than 15 years...more
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Forced marriages are illegal and were rare" (p. 36).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an" (8).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 17 for women and 18 for men, although a district may lower the age by one year in exceptional cases. The Women’s Committee and mahalla representatives conducted systematic campaigns to raise awareness of the dangers of child marriage and early births. The committee also held regular public meetings with community representatives and girls in schools to emphasize the importance of education, selfreliance, financial independence, and the right to free choice. In some rural areas, girls as young as 15 occasionally were married in religious ceremonies not officially recognized by the state" (Pg 30).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"By law women have the right to choose when and whom they marry, but traditional practices restricted a woman’s choice. The law prohibits the marriage of girls younger than 16, but this law generally was not enforced in most communities where marriages were arranged. Under certain conditions a judge may grant a special dispensation to a man to marry a girl below the age of consent" (page 17-18).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The legal age for marriage is 18 for girls and 20 for boys, although both may marry under these ages with parental consent. According to a 2015 UNICEF report, 25 percent of women ages 20-24 were married or in a union before age 18, and 6 percent were married or in union before age 15. The practice significantly declined in recent years. Rates were highest in the Savannah Region at 61 percent, followed by the Plateau Region at 37 percent, Kara Region at 36 percent, Central Region at 31 percent, and the Maritime Region at 29 percent" (Pg 13).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"Although a marriage may not be registered until the youngest spouse is at least age 16, cultural, religious and civil marriages were recognized in the civil code. Cultural pressure to marry, especially if a girl or woman becomes pregnant, is strong. Underage couples may not officially marry, but are often married de facto once they have children together. Forced marriage rarely occurred, although reports indicated that social pressure sometimes encouraged victims of rape to marry their attacker or persons to enter into an arranged marriage where a bride price is paid According to the most recent information from UNICEF (2010), an estimated 19 percent of girls married prior to the...more
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Many of these polygynous marriages involved underage brides. Unofficial second and third marriages were increasingly common, with neither the wives nor their children having legal standing or rights" (Pg 22). "The legal minimum age for marriage of men and women is 18 years. Under exceptional circumstances, which a judge must determine, such as in the case of pregnancy, a couple may also apply to a court to lower the marriageable age to 17. Underage religious marriage was more widespread in rural areas. Many parents told their daughters to quit school after ninth grade, at which point parents considered their daughters to have obtained sufficient professional skills, such as sewing or...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 18 years for both boys and girls, but with parental consent and approval from the minister of justice, girls may marry at 16. The government recognizes two types of marriage, civil marriage and marriage under traditional law and custom. Under traditional law marriages are permitted for girls as young as 13. Although the deputy prime minister spoke out against this practice, civil law was generally not enforced to prevent it. According to the Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, however, 'A child has the right to refuse to be compelled to undergo or uphold any custom or practices that are likely to negatively affect the...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-DATA-2

"There were no reliable statistics on the extent of child marriage, but child advocates reported it remained a problem, especially in rural areas. According to UNICEF estimates, 12 percent of women ages 20 to 24 were first married or in a union before they were 15, and 34 percent were married before reaching 18. In October the first lady issued a statement during International Day of the Girl expressing concern about early and forced marriages and announcing a government initiative that would be launched to tackle the issue" (Pg 68).
July 1, 2019, 6:31 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law establishes fines of 3,000 to 4,000 manat ($1,750 to $2,340) or imprisonment for up to four years for conviction of the crime of forced marriage with underage children" (p. 31).
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18 for both men and women, although girls may marry at age 16 with parental consent. According to the 2006-07 Demographic Health Survey, 11 percent of women between the ages 20 and 24 reported being married or in a union before age 18. The Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs conducted programs in many districts to educate the public at the village level on the complications that may result from early marriage. In a 2013 study, Emerging Concerns and Case Studies on Child Marriage in Sri Lanka, the UN Children’s Fund documented a growing list of human rights concerns, especially for young girls,...more
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: LRW-LAW-4, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The law provides that every child has the right to protection from early marriage but does not explicitly prohibit marriage before age 18. Child marriage was common. According to the Ministry of Gender, nearly half of all girls and young women between the ages of 15 and 19 were married, and some brides were as young as 12 years old. Early marriage sometimes reflected efforts by men to avoid rape charges, which a married woman cannot bring against her husband. In other cases families of rape victims encouraged marriage to the rapist to avoid public shaming. Many abducted girls, often repeatedly subjected to rape (see section 1.g.), were forced into...more
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The provisional federal constitution does not specify a minimum legal age for marriage. It notes marriage requires the free consent of both the man and woman to be legal. Early marriages frequently occurred; 45 percent of women between the ages of 20 and 24 were married by age 18, and 8 percent were married by age 15. In rural areas parents often compelled daughters as young as 12 to marry. In areas under its control, al-Shabaab arranged compulsory marriages between its soldiers and young girls and used the lure of marriage as a recruitment tool. There were no known efforts by the government or regional authorities to prevent early and...more
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 18, but persons between the ages of 16 and 18 may marry, provided there are serious reasons justifying the marriage and their legal guardians provide written consent. A district court can also allow the marriage of persons between the ages of 16 and 18, if the parents unjustifiably refuse consent or in the absence of legal guardians" (Pg 20).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"There were reports during the year of child marriage; it was almost entirely limited to rural areas. Senior government officials, including officials from the governmental HRC and the quasi-governmental NSHR, spoke out against the practice and advocated the adoption of a minimum marriage age. The law does not specify a minimum age for marriage, but sharia suggests girls may marry after reaching puberty. According to some senior religious leaders, girls as young as 10 may marry. Families sometimes arranged such marriages to settle family debts, without the consent of the child. The HRC and NSHR monitored cases of child marriages, which they reported were rare or at least rarely reported,...more
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law expressly prohibits forced marriages of girls under age 18 or entering into a marriage contract with a girl under 18. Early marriage carries a fine orprison sentence of up to six months, while forced marriage is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment. Because couples may not register a marriage where one of the would-be spouses is under age 18, many simply have a local religious leader perform the wedding ceremony. Without a civil registration certificate, the bride has few legal rights" (p. 24).