The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for MARR-LAW-2

Aug. 25, 2017, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-3, MARR-LAW-2, CBMC-PRACTICE-1

"Other single women, and to a lesser extent single men, are increasingly choosing to adopt and raise a child in a one-parent household. ... in the United States it estimated that in the last few years approximately 25 percent of special needs adoption and 5 percent of adoptions were by single parents" (para 16).
Aug. 25, 2017, 1:35 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-3, MARR-LAW-2, CBMC-PRACTICE-1

"Other single women, and to a lesser extent single men, are increasingly choosing to adopt and raise a child in a one-parent household. In the United Kingdom 10 percent of all adoptions between 2012 and 2013 were done by single persons" (para 16).
Aug. 23, 2017, 12:46 a.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

Article 18: The de facto union of those who have the legal capacity to acquire it, with the requirements of uniqueness (meaning that neither of the cohabiting couple is cohabiting in another union) and stability and recognized by the competent court, shall retain all the same effects of legal marriage. If the relationship is stable but not unique, because one of them had a legally valid previous marriage, the union will take full effect by acting in good faith and for the children of the union. Article 22: In any civil, criminal or administrative proceeding where the existence of marriage cannot be proven, the following shall serve as evidence of ...more
March 20, 2017, 12:04 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: LO-LAW-1, MARR-LAW-2

"The law protects women’s property rights in common-law marriages" (12).
Feb. 15, 2017, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"The constitution states that the state shall promote matrimony as a union between a man and a woman; however, it does not define marriage to be exclusively between a man and woman" (35).
Feb. 13, 2017, 1:28 p.m.
Countries: Austria, Germany
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Germany recognises civil unions but not same-sex marriages, and has limited adoption rights for gay couples. (Angela Merkel, the chancellor, periodically faces embarrassing questions about this.) The situation in Austria is similar" (para 9).
Feb. 13, 2017, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"On May 11th the Italian parliament approved a law recognising same-sex civil unions, with 372 voting in favour, 51 against and 99 abstaining" (para 1). "The new law grants same-sex couples many of the same rights as married heterosexual couples. Partners in a civil union can apply for public housing as couples. (The law also makes this right available to unmarried heterosexual couples.) They can also inherit their partners’ pensions. Property inheritance rules will be the same as for married couples" (para 2). "But the new law falls well short of giving gay couples the same rights as heterosexual ones. To ensure passage in the Senate, the original version was ...more
Feb. 2, 2017, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"In April President Bachelet signed into law legislation recognizing civil unions of LGBTI persons. The measure, which went into effect on October 22, extends legal protections, including rights to inheritance and to health and pension benefits" (17).
Nov. 15, 2016, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Prior to this latest decision, Paragraph 5 of Article 230 of the Turkish Criminal Code dictated a sentence of two to six months in prison for individuals who lived together after a religious wedding without a civil marriage. In the same article, Paragraph 6 also gave two to six months' imprisonment to an individual (typically an imam) who carried out a religious wedding ceremony without verifying a civil marriage with official documents.But while last week’s decision annuls the above paragraphs by a majority 12-4 vote, the Constitutional Court had unanimously ruled the opposite in a 1999 case appealed by the Bursa Criminal Court. At the time, the court confirmed that ...more
Nov. 10, 2016, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Consensual same-sex sexual activity is illegal, but the law was not enforced" (32).
Aug. 30, 2016, 10:52 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Article 316. Within the respective rights and duties of spouses as enshrined in the Code, the wife must obey her husband, and the husband must protect his wife" (para 2)
Aug. 5, 2016, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Under article 40 of the Constitution, any individual has the right to marry a person of the opposite sex of his or her choice and to found a family" (20).
July 19, 2016, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-4, MARR-LAW-2

"The Cohabitational Relationships Act, 1998 (confers rights and obligations to common-law spouses with respect to interests in property and maintenance);" (12) "In recognition of the high prevalence of common law unions, the Cohabitational Relationships Act, 1998 was enacted to enforce the rights of common law spouses. Prior to this enactment, it was estimated that no fewer than 40,724 people lived in common law unions, without protection of their rights. Under this Act, common law spouses living in a cohabitational relationship for not less than five (5) years or who have a child arising out of that relationship, have the right to make an application for maintenance and adjustment of property, ...more
July 18, 2016, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"A major advance was achieved in 2004 with the passing of a new family law which guaranteed equality of the sexes in marriage" (232).
May 15, 2016, 7:55 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Religious rules and custom law are not a source of our family law. The criteria applied for the purpose of legal typology of families are the grounds for establishment and the scope of relatives included. According to the grounds for establishment, there are three types of families: the ones stemming from matrimony, the ones not stemming from matrimony and adoptive ones. A family stemming from matrimony is established by children being born in marriage, as legally regulated union of man and woman. Such a family is composed of the spouses and their offspring. A family not stemming from matrimony represents a factual union between man and woman in which children ...more
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"On November 21, 2006, the Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision concerning the rights of same-sex couples. It held that a wedding certificate from a foreign country in which same-sex marriages are recognized, could allow the couple to be registered as married by the Ministry of the Interior. Five gay couples who held wedding ceremonies abroad petitioned to the Supreme Court following the Ministry of the Interior’s refusal to register them as married...The Supreme Court determined that the Ministry of the Interior must not discriminate against same-sex couples who hold a wedding certificate from a foreign country that permits same-sex marriages. Nevertheless, the Supreme Court notes that by doing ...more
March 14, 2016, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"But as Azattyk has reported, the consequences for women without official marriage documents can be devastating if one day their husband abandons them." (28)
Jan. 27, 2016, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-4, MARR-LAW-2

"Canada legally recognized same-sex marriage in 2005 with the Civil Marriage Act. Since 2006, the number of same-sex married couples has increased nearly three-fold" (54).
Jan. 15, 2016, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-4, MARR-LAW-2

"The Committee is further concerned that the criminalization of same-sex relationship results in women being completely excluded from legal protection. It is also concerned about the information that the law enforcement officers are allowed to arbitrarily detain them" (5)
Jan. 8, 2016, 1:36 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"The vast majority of marriages in Lebanon go through religious courts, following a law from the era of the French mandate. This makes it difficult for civil unions to be enacted or mixed sect and religous marriages to be validated" (4). "Receiving a civil status for the marriage will also allow partners to register their child with the state without submitting a sect. Those unable to register their marriages cannot have their children legally recognised by the authorities. This ultimately means that they cannot obtain official documents that are needed for work, housing and travel. In the eyes of the state, they do not exist" (12-14).
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Though laws governing surrogacy have yet to be passed, the government outlined its position in an affidavit placed before the Supreme Court on Oct. 28. It said India 'does not support commercial surrogacy and the scope of surrogacy is limited to Indian married infertile couples only, and not to foreigners.' A previous order had already barred gay and unmarried couples and single people from hiring surrogates"(para 7). While this law does not answer the question of whether same sex couples can adopt children, it does state an inability to hire a surrogate. If same sex couples are not allowed to hire a surrogate it is possible their ability to adopt ...more
Nov. 26, 2015, 12:32 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"None of the legislation governing family law recognises de facto relationship rights (including same sex couples) on the same basis as marriage" (84)
Oct. 22, 2015, 5:01 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"If a man and a woman have de facto marital relations, for that situation to be recognized as legal marital relations, the marriage must be registered with the civil registry office. Otherwise, such relations will not be recognized under the law as the relations of husband and wife, and thus will not entail the established rights and responsibilities of spouses" (32)
Sept. 23, 2015, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

“With the Act to Revise the Registered Partnership Act, dated 15 December 2004 (Law Gazette I, p. 3396), in force since 1 January 2005, further forms of discrimination against homosexual partners were abolished. The goal of the act is to bring the laws governing registered partnerships more into line with similar provisions pertaining to married partners, particularly with a view to regulating maintenance payments, matrimonial property, the grounds for suspension, by introducing a process of distributing pension claims, survivors’ maintenance in the statutory insurance system, allowing registered partners to adopt stepchildren” (71)
Sept. 14, 2015, 10:42 a.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"Article Nr. 1577 of the Portuguese Civil Code, recently amended by Law Nr. 9/2010 of 31st May, established that 'marriage is a contract between two people who intend to form a family through full communion of life, regardless of sex'" (34)
Aug. 25, 2015, 11:59 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"A consensus-based draft reform was prepared and promoted by the Ministry of Women and the Women’s Forum for Constitutional Reform...The law also recognizes a de facto marital union, formed by two persons eligible to contract marriage who have lived together for at least two years in a committed, stable and publicly recognized relationship, as a type of matrimonial regime (this type of union has already been recognized in the new Constitution). The new Civil Code will provide for retroactive effect of this law for already existing unions. Common property will be administered jointly by the two partners in the union, subject to the rules of the community property regime set ...more
Aug. 25, 2015, 9:45 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-4, MARR-LAW-2

“Gender norms have evolved rapidly in the Netherlands in the past few decades. Shortly after the Second World War, the male breadwinner model was dominant, and homosexuality was a taboo subject. Nowadays, many families have two incomes, and men and women can marry a same-sex partner. The notion of the gender binary is gradually losing ground, so that the position of transgender people in society is improving. Gender is no longer experienced as either male or female, but increasingly as a spectrum with male and female at either extreme, and numerous variations in between. The new transgender legislation and the Lesbian Co-Parents Act (Wet lesbisch ouderschap) (see Section VI, LBT ...more
Aug. 19, 2015, 1:54 p.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"The established family model in Qatar is one based on a lawful marriage between a man and a woman. Any other model is considered illegitimate or unlawful and is not governed by the Family Act" (93).
Aug. 13, 2015, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"New Zealand meets human rights standards in respect of sexual and gender minorities in a number of key areas, including: positive legal protection from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation; legal recognition of same-sex relationships, including property rights and obligations, and registration of civil unions. The lack of official sexual orientation data, however, makes it difficult to monitor and advance the human rights of sexual minorities, including levels of violence and harassment" (12). “Another alternative to marriage is a civil union. The Civil Union Act 2004 came into force on 26 April 2005 and the first ceremonies were celebrated on 29 April 2005. There have been 1,630 resident civil ...more
Aug. 12, 2015, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"The law defines the contract of marriage as 'a contract between a man and a woman who is lawfully permissible to him, the purpose of which is to establish a bond for a mutual life and to procreate children' (art. 3.1). This requires two conditions to be met: "1. The offer: expressed either verbally or customarily by one of the two parties to the contract; "2. The acceptance: namely the full consent of the other party to the contract" (58). "The dissolved Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 234 on 20 October 2001, stipulating that any person who commits the crime of sodomy with a male or female, commits incest, ...more