The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for MARR-LAW-3

Aug. 23, 2017, 12:46 a.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

1975 Law 1289: Family Code: Article 1: The strengthening of the legally formalized or legally recognized marriage based on the absolute equality of men’s and women’s rights. (WROLUCFW: P3) Article 24: Marriage is constituted on the basis of equal rights and duties of both spouses. (WROLUCFW: P6)
July 3, 2017, 2:58 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"16 December 2015, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of article 750 of the Civil Code requiring married couples to use the same surname, which in practice often compels women to adopt their husbands’ surnames" (3-4)
March 10, 2017, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"It is usually in the evening of the third day of the [Chechen] wedding festival that a man empowered to act for the bride's father and the bridegroom goes to the register office" (para 16). The bride is not involved with the paperwork of her own wedding, therefore legally being treated as a minor (TP - CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 7, 2017, 9:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"It also condemned a Japanese law which requires married couples to share a common surname as discriminatory against women because it 'in practice often compels women to adopt their husbands' surnames'" (para 6).
Feb. 2, 2017, 12:33 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"In their 2009 report to the UN Human Rights Commission, seven UN special rapporteurs and representatives expressed concern that, although the family code recognizes equality between spouses, it 'effectively renders a married woman a minor under the guardianship of her husband' by stating the wife must obey her husband" (28).
Jan. 30, 2017, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Women are effectively rendered legal minors in Saudi Arabia. She states that the restrictions on women’s rights in Saudi Arabia have existed for decades and authorities enforce the guardianship system through policies and practice. Under the strict male guardianship system, ministerial policies and practices forbid women from obtaining a passport, marrying, travelling, or accessing higher education without the approval of a male guardian — usually a husband, father, brother, or even a son" (para 16-17).
Jan. 26, 2017, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Under Saudi law, women require the permission of a male guardian to travel, marry, or exit prison and it may be needed to be granted employment or access to healthcare. A guardian is typically a woman’s father or her husband if she is married; a widow may have to seek permission from her son if she has no other men of age in her life" (para 4-5). If the woman still requires her husband's permission to access essential tasks, she is effectively still a minor (KH- CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 11, 2016, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"A Masai woman cannot own a house, [Peninnah] Tombo says, and her children are regarded as her husband's property. Some men even keep their wives' ID cards.'They make the decisions for us,' she says"(para 31-32)."An elder from Oloontulugum village, Mpoke ole Kimojino, says he enjoys exercising power as head of the family.'My wife is like my child,' he says. 'She is not educated, she cannot do any business and she has no capital. She entirely depends on me as the only provider. She therefore has no choice but to live by my command and respect what I dictate to her'"(para 40-41)
Sept. 17, 2016, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Law does not require that a woman takes the name of her husband on getting married, and many now choose to keep their surname or add their husband’s surname to their own. If a woman chooses to use both names she is required to acquire an affidavit. Cultural practice remains that children take the name of their father where couple marries" (44)
Sept. 13, 2016, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

“A Saudi woman needs a male guardian to look after her affairs in this country. This means a woman here would not reach maturity that makes her capable of looking after her affairs, safeguard her interests and take own decisions. So a male guardian is required at all agencies to represent her. The male guardian will have the authority to take care of the affairs of ‘this minor’ until death" (para 4).
July 14, 2016, 5:39 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-3

"...according to the new law (article 194), spouses jointly ensure the moral and material management of the household, unlike article 206 of the old law which provided that the husband is the head of the family composed by his wife and their children" (7)
May 15, 2016, 7:55 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Particularly important provisions proclaiming equality between men and women prescribe that property relations in the family are based on the principles of equality, reciprocity and solidarity and protection of the interests of children (Article 11), that spouses shall be equal in marriage (Article 39), that the parenting right shall belong to the mother and father together (Article 60) and that parents shall have the right and obligation to take care of the child (Article 69). The Law also defines property relations between spouses (Part Eight). Formally and legally, the Law stipulates that men and women shall be equal in all matters regarding marriage and parenthood and, which is particularly important, ...more
Feb. 22, 2016, 1:35 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Legal provisions of the Family Code indicating that the man is the head of the family" (13)
Feb. 18, 2016, 4:31 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"the decision as to where the household will live lies exclusively with the husband (article 153, Family Code)" (19). "the father exercises parental authority as head of the family (article 277, paragraph 2, Family Code)" (19). "a husband still has 'marital power' over his wife (article 152, Family Code)" (19). "Article 152 of the Family Code gives the husband the prerogative of choosing the household’s residence, to which the wife must agree because of her obligation of cohabitation. However, the Code recognizes the wife’s right to take the matter to court if the chosen residence is physically or morally hazardous for her and the children" (65)
Feb. 4, 2016, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"At a constitutional level, the second Draft of Constitution has taken into consideration matters relating to the preservation of dignity of both men and women in all settings, including in matrimonial relations" (49-50)
Jan. 21, 2016, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

“The plaintiffs, in their request, said there was a need to adjust the marriageable age for girls to 18 because 16 years remained within the definition of a child in the laws on child protection, pornography, manpower and others” (para 4).
Dec. 18, 2015, 5:21 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"A woman’s first guardian is her father, and when she marries, her husband" (8).
Nov. 21, 2015, 9:59 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

“Law 3719/2008 (G.G. 241/A/26-11-2008) on the ‘Reforms for family, children and society and other provisions’…amends provisions of family law, Civil Code, aiming at the simplification of related procedures, such as the reduction of constant separation of spouses from four to two years (automatic divorce). Other provisions aim at the further improvement of wives’ status, such as article 28 of the law that adds a third paragraph to article 1388 of the Civil Code, whereby, upon agreement between the spouses, each one may add to his/her last name the last name of the other one” (17)
Sept. 23, 2015, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

“Currently, marriage law assumes that there is agreement between the partners and does not assign gender-specific roles or responsibilities” (75)
Sept. 9, 2015, 10:29 p.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"The Committee notes with concern that under the 2002 Family Code...The husband is the head of the family whose prerogatives the wife must respect (art. 31)" (13)
Aug. 19, 2015, 11:24 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

“…article 66 of the Civil Code regarding matrimony establishes, that ‘the spouses are equal in rights and duties’” (4)
Aug. 18, 2015, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"It [the Committee] is also concerned about discriminatory provisions under civil law and customary practices, such as the husband’s legal right to authority over his wife and children" (11)
Aug. 14, 2015, 2:56 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"The protections associated with marriage are established in the section of the Constitution entitled 'Rights of the Family', in which the State recognizes and protects the family as the fundamental unit of society and guarantees the social and economic conditions necessary for its full development. Every member has equal rights, obligations and opportunities (article 62). Marriage between a woman and a man is established by legal ties and is based on the equal rights and duties of both spouses" (91)
Aug. 12, 2015, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Upon marrying, a woman retains her full legal capacity in respect of entering into contracts and all legal actions pertaining to her movable and immovable property. Her finances are separate from those of her husband" (60). "Nothing in any Iraqi law or custom obliges a wife to change her name after getting married. The wife continues to bear her family name, just as she continues to retain her independent legal personality, although her marriage is noted in her civil identity card. Marriage is not an obstacle to her choosing a profession. There is no legal restriction imposed on her in this regard. As she continues to enjoy her independent legal ...more
July 31, 2015, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Upon marrying, a woman retains her full legal capacity in respect of entering into contracts and all legal actions pertaining to her movable and immovable property. Her finances are separate from those of her husband" (60). "Nothing in any Iraqi law or custom obliges a wife to change her name after getting married. The wife continues to bear her family name, just as she continues to retain her independent legal personality, although her marriage is noted in her civil identity card. Marriage is not an obstacle to her choosing a profession. There is no legal restriction imposed on her in this regard. As she continues to enjoy her independent legal ...more
July 14, 2015, 11:03 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"The Committee is concerned... about discriminatory provisions under civil law and customary practices, such as the husband’s legal right to authority over his wife and childrens" (page 13).
July 11, 2015, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-3

"In this context it is also concerned about the fact that the man is considered the head of the family and married women cannot freely choose their place of residence according to the Personal Status Code" (9)
May 29, 2015, 7:24 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"The [CEDAW] Committee notes with concern the continued application of the discriminatory provisions contained in the State party’s Personal Status Act, in particular the permissibility of polygamy, the requirement of walis (guardians) for women for the marriage notwithstanding the woman’s consent, and the restrictions on women’s right to work and to divorce" (11)
May 17, 2015, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"In Pakistan, personal laws and marriage dffer for the various religious communities Christian, Muslim, and others (Hindu, Parsi, and Sikh) and are supplemented by relevant statutory provisions such as the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939, and Muslim Family Laws Ordinance 1961" (9). "of particular importance to the purposes of this report and the issue of forced marriages and forced conversions is that the Christian Marriage Act applies not only to instances where both parties contracting marriage are Christians by faith, but also where only one of the parties is Christian. This provision was included to safeguard Christian women from the practice of polygamy when ...more
April 14, 2015, 12:40 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Violence against Palestinian women is widespread because of Palestinian laws and Palestinian culture that give men 'the right of ownership' over their wives, according to the head of the Women’s Legal Counseling Center, Zainab Al-Ghneimi. Palestinian principles determine that the man 'is the one who commands and prohibits,' she says, commenting on statistics of cases of violence reported to the Center of Women’s Affairs in Gaza. The belief that the man 'has bought the woman and paid for her, and therefore she has become his property and must obey his orders,' is, 'unfortunately, the culture of the entire society,' said Al-Ghneimi" (para 1-2). "When asked for the reasons that may ...more