The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for MARR-PRACTICE-5

Aug. 11, 2020, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4

“Being born a girl in India, as many such stories will show anyone, comes with a challenge in many families. A heady mix of culture, tradition and empty belief culminate in a demand for the male child, for a girl is not a preferred choice. If anything, a girl is perceived as a liability for many, many families in India, while a boy is seen as an asset. To families that are ridden by poverty and schooled in a warped cultural ideology, a girl is perceived as an extra mouth to feed and an economic burden since she cannot work as a male child can, and since her marriage would...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 5:55 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5

“Teenagers like Sara - not her real name - are all too aware of this. She was meant to be married off to a man twice her age in India over the summer. ‘In exchange for [a] dowry he was going to give me land, a house, gold and all the wedding expenses,’ she said. Sara says it made her feel like an object - ‘like being sold or exchanged’. She managed to escape to a refuge in the UK before the wedding” (para 29-32).
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"women [ . . . ] [in Shortepa district] are viewed as productive assets because of their carpet-weaving skills and often command high bride prices as a consequence. Coupled with this, prevailing gender norms still frown on women spending much time outside of the home and mixing of the sexes is generally prohibited" (pg 22).
June 11, 2020, 3:20 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Bridegrooms in the predominantly Muslim republic of Chechnya are required to make a payment either to the bride herself or her relatives, according to long-standing custom" (para 1).
June 8, 2020, 8:04 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, MARR-PRACTICE-5

"It is common in Kachin communities for a groom’s family to pay a dowry to the bride’s family at the time of marriage. This practice is sometimes exploited by traffickers who give 'dowry' to purchase a woman or girl in a manner that may appear to her and her family to be legal and binding. 'Parents are very ignorant and poor,' a Kachin activist said. Traffickers say they will give the dowry to the mother…There is a very long history of this. It is giving respect to the mother and father’s side—you have to give precious things…The Chinese brokers says, 'We love your daughter and we will pay.' She said...more
May 7, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Four of the 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are in west Africa's Sahel and Sahara belt. In the years when rains or crops fail, so-called "drought brides" – who bring in a dowry while being one fewer mouth to feed – push numbers up dramatically." (para 6).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Between 2012 and 2015, several campaigns were carried out (MPFIFD and associations) to raise awareness among local and religious leaders and the general population throughout the country about the primacy of modern law condemning discriminatory customary practices and local traditions. Examples reported are: (i) abusive and excessive dowry costs" (8). "Awareness-raising activities to combat harmful traditional practices are carried out in all departments. Emphasis is placed on practices such as: (...) (iii) abusive rites (constraints on widowhood, non-recognition of the inheritance rights of widows and orphans; economic exploitation of dowries, domestic violence; female genital mutilation — despite the lack of comprehensive reports on this issue)" (11).
Dec. 21, 2019, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Child marriage is common in Kapoeta because the communities are cattle keepers and so they use their daughters for wealth" (para 6). "It involved paying a dowry of 60 cows to the bride's family" (para 9).
Dec. 14, 2019, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Her new husband's family could not find brides for their sons in-state due to the shortage caused by female foeticide and pooled their money to purchase Maajida and, unbeknown to her and her family, she would act as bride to all three men" (para 18). "When a woman marries her family must pay a substantial dowry to her in-laws meaning it can be financially beneficial to have a son" (para 25).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"The story of Raha, an eleven-year-old girl forced to marry a fifty-year-old man led to a heated debate last February. The man already had a wife and seven children. He paid around $1,500 to 'Raha's parents to marry her. After an intense public outcry, the government intervened and transferred Raha to a care center" (para. 13-14).
Dec. 6, 2019, 2:51 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"The impoverished family scrimped and saved to gather the double dowry the bride's father demanded to marry off his daughter to a boy who was too young to support his own family" (para 7). "Hussaini says UNICEF has recently been registering about 200 Afghan boys each month, aged 11 to 17, as they return to Herat Province from Iran where they've been working to help support their families" (para 21).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4

"According to the law, a foreign man who wants to marry an Egyptian woman more than 25 years younger than he is must pay a fine of EGP 50,000 ($2,830)." (45-46).
Sept. 24, 2019, 9:15 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, PW-PRACTICE-3

"Marriages in Papua New Guinea commonly involve a 'bride price' of money or chattel paid to the wives’ families by the husbands’ families, who use the bride price as debt to compel women to remain in abusive or servile marriages (...) Young girls sold into polygamous marriages may be forced into domestic service for their husbands’ extended families or exploited in sex trafficking" (382).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5

"While the law prohibits marriage of boys and girls under the age of 18, many marriages of underage children took place. Bridewealth (dowry) payment made by a groom or his family to the relatives of the bride to ratify a marriage greatly contributed to underage marriage, as parents forcibly married daughters to collect bridewealth or to finance bridewealth for a son. The constitution criminalizes forced marriage. Courts may sentence parents convicted of forcing a child to marry to up to 12 years’ hard labor and a fine of 92,500 Congolese francs ($58). The penalty doubles when the child is under 15. For additional information, see Appendix C" (page 42-43).more
July 19, 2019, 9:18 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, PW-DATA-1

"Polygyny and the custom in many tribal cultures of paying a 'bride price' tended to reinforce the view that women were property" (para 53)
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4

"The constitution criminalizes violence against or oppression of women based on religious, social, or cultural traditions and gives victims the right to compensation. The new criminal code makes the practice of paying dowries illegal and imposes penalties of up to NRs 30,000 ($300), prison sentences of up to three years, or both. The legislation also criminalizes violence committed against one’s spouse in connection to a dowry, imposing fines of up to NRs 50,000 ($500), prison sentences of up to five years, or both. Additionally, the 2015 Act to Amend Some Nepal Acts to Maintain Gender Equality and End Gender-Based Violence stipulates that any psychological abuse of women, including asking for...more
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Customary bride price payments continued. This contributed to the perception by many communities that husbands owned their wives and could treat them as chattel. In addition to being purchased as brides, women sometimes were given as compensation to settle disputes between clans" (p. 18).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"The Committee also notes with concern that the practice of giving a dowry continues to be imposed on girls’ families" (4).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, PW-LAW-1

"The NGOCC and several of its member organizations observed that the country’s dual system of customary and statutory law made it difficult to end injustices against women. For instance polygyny is legally permitted under customary law. Women’s organizations stated that the bride price had entrenched societal patriarchal dominance. The practice of “sexual cleansing,” in which a widow is compelled to have sexual relations with her late husband’s relatives as part of a cleansing ritual, declined significantly; some local leaders banned the practice. The penal code prohibits “sexual cleansing” of girls under age 16" (Pg 21).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4, ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"On August 6, the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the practice of refunding the bride price after the breakdown of a customary marriage. Chief Justice Bart Katureebe wrote, “the practice of refunding bride price suggests that women are held on loan and can be returned and money recovered.” The court, however, rejected the argument that bride price itself was unconstitutional. Mifumi, a women’s rights organization that brought the case to court, stated bride price encouraged domestic violence and led men to believe they had paid for their wives’ sexual and reproductive capacity" (Pg 30).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"Although a marriage may not be registered until the youngest spouse is at least age 16, cultural, religious and civil marriages were recognized in the civil code. Cultural pressure to marry, especially if a girl or woman becomes pregnant, is strong. Underage couples may not officially marry, but are often married de facto once they have children together. Forced marriage rarely occurred, although reports indicated that social pressure sometimes encouraged victims of rape to marry their attacker or persons to enter into an arranged marriage where a bride price is paid According to the most recent information from UNICEF (2010), an estimated 19 percent of girls married prior to the...more
June 14, 2019, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"'Sumangali schemes' affected an estimated 120,000 young women. These plans, named after the Tamil word for 'happily married woman,' are a form of bonded labor in which young women or girls work to earn money for a dowry to be able to marry. The promised lump-sum compensation ranged from 80,000 to 100,000 rupees ($1,300 to $1,600), which is normally withheld until the end of three to five years of employment. Compensation, however, sometimes went partially or entirely unpaid. While in bonded labor, employers reportedly subjected women to serious workplace abuses, severe restrictions on freedom of movement and communication, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, sex trafficking, and being killed. The majority of...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Authorities considered such common law marriages illegal. Punishment for arranging forced marriages ranges from six months to five years in prison. Romani NGOs claimed that families paid dowries of 4,000 to 15,000 euros ($4,400 to $16,500) for child brides. NGOs reported that parents of some girls sold them into marriage, including to foreigners. The custom of buying or selling virgin brides continued in the Romani, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities; grooms reportedly paid between 1,000 to 10,000 euros ($1,100 to $11,000). The government implemented measures to prevent underage marriage, including enforcing mandatory school education and prosecuting persons who arranged early marriages. During the first nine months of the year, courts...more
May 25, 2019, 3:39 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4

"Baad and Baadal refers to traditional practices common to some parts of Afghanistan in which unmarried girls are given or exchanged to resolve disputes or stand in place of a dowry. They are generally recognized to be ethnically-based traditions that often contradict Islamic principles. Baad usually occurs in the context of a past crime or local conflict. The family of the wrongdoing party resolves the matter by giving an unmarried girl or girls to the family who was been wronged. Because these girls are perceived as atoning for the wrong committed by their family members, they are often the victims of serious abuse by the receiving family. Baadal is an...more
May 22, 2019, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"She further said the government's reasoning that these special circumstance marriages may reduce the stigma placed on girls who are raped or sexually assaulted was unfounded. 'Marrying a girl off to her rapist or to a hooligan who sexually harasses her will definitely lower her dowry, but it will do nothing to guarantee a better life for her. If anything, her husband will use and abuse her further and throw her out. This will increase the stigma and destroy her life,' she said" (Para 10-11). "'It will encourage child marriage since rural people will now have an excuse to marry off their underage daughters,' he said. 'This is hardly a...more
May 14, 2019, 3:25 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Parents also have a financial incentive. In Niger, daughters in some areas are traded by poor families desperate for a dowry payment" (para 61).
May 14, 2019, 2:38 p.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"A 20-year-old woman was beaten to death by her brothers in South Sudan on Friday after she refused an arranged marriage set up by her parents. Nyaluk Magorok was killed in the town of Yirol, in Eastern Lakes state, for reportedly turning down the proposal from her parents' preferred suitor. The man had reportedly offered the family 40 cows as a dowry - or conditional gift - ahead of the marriage" (para 1-3). "South Sudan has a deeply rooted cultural practice of paying dowries for brides, usually in the form of cows. It also has a long history of child marriage" (para 8). "Nyaluk's killing comes just months after the...more
May 14, 2019, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-PRACTICE-7, MARR-LAW-1, MARR-LAW-4

The customs noted in this article were for a Sufi Muslim family in Chechnya in Russia. The customs include brideprice (the groom gave the bride's father livestock), and that "The groom’s representatives also brought cash, to give directly to the bride, not her father. Religious authorities in Chechnya regulate the sum, to keep a check on bride payment inflation. Still, it went up last year, rising from the ruble equivalent of about $470 to $780." The article noted that the bride and groom do not attend the wedding: "each separately committed to the marriage in ceremonies a few hours apart . . . the bride in her father's home." Vows...more
May 11, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-PRACTICE-7

"In indigenous villages, girls younger than 18 years who became pregnant could live as common- law wives with their child’s father after the men presented traditional apologies to the girls’ families, thereby avoiding the filing of a complaint to police by the familiese" (17).
April 5, 2019, 11:16 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Customary bride-price payments continued to increase and contributed to the perception of male ownership of women" (10).