The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for PHBP-DATA-1

Feb. 18, 2021, 7:04 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Around a quarter of Mauritanian girls are force-fed, but in rural areas it can be as high as 3/4. The long term health risks for the girls include diabetes, heart disease, and kidney failure” (para 8).
Oct. 5, 2020, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Croatia, Lithuania, United States
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Girls reported more frequently than boys that they were on a diet or doing something else to lose weight (390 boys and 891 girls, 9.1% vs 18.9%) . . . Girls also reported more frequently than boys that they should lose weight even if they were making no efforts to do so (608 boys and 1412 girls, 14.1% vs 30.0%) . . . In contrast, a wish to put on weight was more frequent in boys (722 boys and 443 girls, 16.8% vs 9.4%) . . . dieting and other methods of losing weight were most prevalent in the US adolescents, while Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to diet, considering...more
Oct. 5, 2020, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Croatia, Lithuania, United States
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“The lowest proportion of adolescents who perceived themselves as “too fat” was found in Lithuania; this proportion was markedly higher in Croatia and highest in the US (686 [24.2%], 773 [27.5%], and 1096 [34.3%] respondents) . . . Such significant difference between countries existed in all sex and age groups (Table 3). The proportion of girls who perceived themselves as “too fat” was higher than the proportion of those who perceived themselves as “too thin,” but in boys this was noticed only in the US adolescents (both age groups) and Croatian 13-year-olds.”
Oct. 5, 2020, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Croatia, Lithuania, United States
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to perceive themselves as “too fat;” this perception was significantly more frequent in Croatia and the US (24.2%, 27.5%, and 34.3%, respectively) . . . With the exception of 15-year-old Lithuanian boys, in all respondents the proportion of adolescents with body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile who perceived themselves as “too fat” was significantly higher (up to 3.13 times among 15-year-old US girls) than the proportion of adolescents with BMI ≤15th percentile who perceived themselves as “too thin.” The highest proportion of overweight boys and girls on a diet or doing something else to lose weight was found in the US. Boys in Lithuania were...more
Oct. 5, 2020, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Croatia, Lithuania, United States
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“In all three countries, girls perceived themselves as being “too fat” more frequently than boys (37.0% vs 19.7%) . . . The prevalence of this perception increased with age among girls (32.7% vs 41.1%) . . . and decreased among boys (21.4% vs 17.9%).”
Sept. 20, 2020, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-2, PHBP-DATA-1

“According to a 2011 estimate from the World Health Organization, 76 million Nigerians, mostly women, use skin-lightening products regularly. Some darker-skinned Nigerians are pushing back against the idea that lighter is better. They say black is beautiful with the so-called “Melanin Movement.””
Sept. 20, 2020, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“The majority of [Moroccan Saharawi] women wanted to gain weight rather than to lose it; 217 women reported that they had tried to gain weight at some time and 42 of them still desired to gain weight at the time of the survey.”
Sept. 20, 2020, 4:29 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, PHBP-DATA-1

“To study obesity in Moroccan Saharawi culture, 249 women were questioned about their desired body size and diet practices. The majority of women (90.4%) reported wanting to gain weight currently or at some time in the past. To gain weight, women used a fattening period (tablah) of at least 40 days of overeating with a reduction of physical activity and special traditional meals. Appetite enhancers (therapeutic drugs or fenugreek) and traditional suppositories were also used. Some women used corticosteroids to gain weight rapidly.”
Sept. 20, 2020, 3:50 p.m.
Countries: Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Guinea-Bissau, Togo
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“A pilot study showed that [breast ironing] is found in parts of Guinea Bissau, Chad, Togo, and Benin, but appears to be most prevalent in Cameroon where it occurs in the country’s 10 provinces with an estimated 24% of girls experiencing it. The study also showed that in the province of Littoral, 53% of the girls and women reported having experienced breast ironing and approximately 60% of all breast ironing cases were performed by the victim’s mother.”
Sept. 20, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“According to a 2011 GIZ report, one out of every ten Cameroonian girls has been subjected to breast ironing.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Our study specifically looks at one East African community—Dar es Salaam, Tanzania—where recent research indicates that skin bleaching is increasing at estimated rates of nearly 30% annually, with women being the primary users (Lewis, 2009). Similar to findings from other regions of Africa, there has been a rise in the practice of skin bleaching in Tanzania among educated women in their 20s and 30s who are financially secure.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:50 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Case studies in Lusaka, Zambia, indicate that the use of skin-bleaching agents may be as high as 60% among women between the ages of 30 and 39 years.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:25 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Based on a survey of undergraduate students in Vietnam, scholars Peltzer and Pengpid report that in the past twelve months, 5.0% have used skin lightening products more than 10 times and 19.0% have used skin lightening products at least once. Breaking down the latter category, 7.4% of men and 30.3% of women have used skin lightening products at least once in the past twelve months.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:25 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Based on a survey of undergraduate students in Thailand, scholars Peltzer and Pengpid report that in the past twelve months, 26.5% have used skin lightening products more than 10 times and 69.4% have used skin lightening products at least once. Breaking down the latter category, 73.3% of men and 69.0% of women have used skin lightening products at least once in the past twelve months.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Based on a survey of undergraduate students in Myanmar, scholars Peltzer and Pengpid report that in the past twelve months, 1.3% have used skin lightening products more than 10 times and 13.4% have used skin lightening products at least once. Breaking down the latter category, 12.7% of men and 13.7% of women have used skin lightening products at least once in the past twelve months.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:23 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Based on a survey of undergraduate students in Malaysia, scholars Peltzer and Pengpid report that in the past twelve months, 2.6% have used skin lightening products more than 10 times and 15.9% have used skin lightening products at least once. Breaking down the latter category, 9.2% of men and 22.5% of women have used skin lightening products at least once in the past twelve months.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:23 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

"Based on a survey of undergraduate students in Indonesia, scholars Peltzer and Pengpid report that in the past twelve months, 5.2% have used skin lightening products more than 10 times and 32.5% have used skin lightening products at least once. Breaking down the latter category, 21.8% of men and 35.8% of women have used skin lightening products at least once in the past twelve months."
Aug. 29, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Based on the [surveyed female university students in Malaysia] who answer with “Yes” to the skin lightening practice, facial cleanser is the most common type of product used (81%) followed by facial moisturizer (39.7%). Other types of products are toner (22.2%), facial mask (17.5%), antiageing (11.1%), and sunblock and serum (4.8%).”
Aug. 29, 2020, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“There is a widespread practice of skin lightening in Malaysia. A Synovate regional survey in 2004 revealed that 61% of women in Malaysia believed they looked younger with a fair complexion [11]. Skin lightening product is a huge market in Malaysia. The sales of skin lightening products increase 100% every year for the past five years in Malaysia.”
Aug. 29, 2020, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Senegal, Zimbabwe
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“In our study, a proportion of 20% of University of Zimbabwe students used skin lightening creams and 94.9% of the women knew of someone who uses the creams. These results concur with findings from Senegal where the prevalence of 11 use of skin lighteners was reported to be 26%”
Aug. 29, 2020, 12:50 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“The overall prevalence of use of skin lightening creams among our sample [of female university students in Zimbabwe] was 20%. When disaggregated by marital status, 6 (17%) of the married students and 21 (20%) of the unmarried students reported use of skin lighteners; and when disaggregated by program of study, the use of skin lighteners was 5 (13%) and 18 (18%) among medical and non-medical students, respectively.”
Aug. 29, 2020, 12:50 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“In a study at the University of Sudan it was found that 8 out 10 of Sudanese undergraduate females had tried skin whitening products.”
Aug. 29, 2020, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Prevalence of use of skin lightening creams among [surveyed female university students in Zimbabwe] was 20%. Most of the women (83.3%) preferred lighter skin tone, and 93.3% perceived light skin as a symbol of beauty, 65% as a sign of wealth and 23.3% as symbolizing power.”
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 0.0% of undergraduate students surveyed in Turkey reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 0% of men, and 0% of women.
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 8.9% of undergraduate students surveyed in Barbados reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 5.8% of men, and 13.1% of women.
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 9.0% of undergraduate students surveyed in Singapore reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 4.9% of men, and 13.0% of women.
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 31.8% of undergraduate students surveyed in Egypt reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 12.4% of men, and 47.9% of women.
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 10.8% of undergraduate students surveyed in South Africa reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 12.2% of men, and 9.6% of women.
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 28.8% of undergraduate students surveyed in Pakistan reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 17.9% of men, and 36.6% of women.
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 33.9% of undergraduate students surveyed in Nigeria reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 32.3% of men, and 35.7% of women.