The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for PHBP-LAW-1

Sept. 20, 2020, 3:42 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“In terms of breast flattening, some groups have petitioned Cameroonian parliamentarians to implement “anti-discrimination legislation that proposes a 10-year prison sentence for those caught practicing [breast flattening].”149 However, the practice has not yet been criminalized.”
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:52 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“The government in Tanzania has officially banned the manufacture, sale, supply, and distribution of 168 various skin-bleaching cosmetic products containing prohibited ingredients such as mercury and hydroquinone (Tanzania Food and Drug Authority, 2003). Government agencies are also engaging in efforts to educate the public on the negative effects of skin bleaching via educational radio programs, brochures, books, and public forums (Tanzanian Food and Drug Authority, 2004; Warning Issued, 2009). However, creams are still readily accessible and the ban on importation, exportation, and sale of these creams is poorly enforced.”
Aug. 29, 2020, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“There is active involvement of Malaysian authority known as the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB) on monitoring the safety of cosmetic products including the skin lightening products. The NPCB role is to ensure the quality of notified cosmetic products in the Malaysian market and ensure compliance towards standards/specification set by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia [13]. For instance, some of the skin lightening products underwent a notification cancelation if the product was found to be adulterated with prohibited substances such as mercury or hydroquinone. Mercury is listed as a prohibited substance in the cosmetic products under the Guidelines for Control of Cosmetic Products in Malaysia [14], whilst hydroquinone is prohibited...more
Aug. 29, 2020, 10:57 a.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Hydroquinone, the depigmenting standard [in skin lightening products], has been banned in cosmetic use in Europe and currently available only by prescription. However, in other countries such as Jordan, hydroquinone use is still allowed in cosmetics at a concentration level not more than 2%. Cases of exogenous ochronosis caused by the abuse of hydroquinone‐containing products have been reported. It is characterized by progressive darkening of the area to which the cream containing hydroquinone is applied. Such cutaneous side effect is of great importance as it is difficult to treat and is disfiguring.”
Aug. 13, 2020, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Australia, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Japan, Rwanda
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Hydroquinone, which is still legal in the U.S. in products containing less than 2%, can cause rashes, redness, irritation, and even, paradoxically, skin darkening. Plus, researchers are still trying to determine if it causes cancer in humans. Some countries, including Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Rwanda, have recently joined the European Union, Japan, and Australia in banning skin-bleaching products with hydroquinone altogether.”
Aug. 13, 2020, 7:31 p.m.
Countries: Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Nigeria, South Africa and Kenya have all banned skin bleaching products with high amounts of hydroquinone and mercury, with the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa urging people to "reject all colonial notions of beauty". In July, Ghana's Food and Drugs Authority issued a statement telling pregnant women not to take glutathione pills to bleach their unborn babies saying that there may be "serious toxic side effects" such as "asthma, renal failure and chest pains."”
Aug. 2, 2020, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“After Marketplace shared their findings with Health Canada, the regulator issued a new advisory, warning Canadians that the sale of unauthorized skin-whitening products is illegal and using them can pose serious health risks. "Health Canada has seized several products from retailers and is concerned that similar unauthorized products continue to be sold to Canadians despite their risks. The department strongly encourages Canadians to not use these products and to report to Health Canada if they see the products for sale, so that the department can take appropriate action."”
Aug. 2, 2020, 4:53 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Some skin-lightening products sold in Canada contain alarming levels of harmful ingredients, including mercury, hydroquinone and steroids, a CBC Marketplace investigation has found. Mercury and hydroquinone, in particular, are possible carcinogens and can cause severe skin issues with prolonged use. Health Canada says the sale of these "unauthorized" products is illegal, as they may pose serious health risks.”
Aug. 2, 2020, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: China, Japan, South Korea
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“There are also different rules governing products in Asia. For example, Hu says, cosmetic products in China require approval from the China Food and Drug Administration, which she describes as "one of the most strict regulation on skin whitening worldwide." There is an ingredients approval list but no limit on their concentration. For an ingredient to be added to the list, registration is required and could take years of research and a lot of investment. In Japan, skin-whitening products are labeled as "quasi-drugs," Hu said, with an ingredient approval list and concentration limit. Tests on new ingredients could also take time and money. And in South Korea, whitening products are...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria, South Africa
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“South Africa banned mercurial cosmetics in 1975, the European Economic Union in 1976, and Nigeria in 1982. The trade in skin lighteners, nonetheless, continued as other active ingredients – most notably hydroquinone – replaced ammoniated mercury.”
Aug. 2, 2020, 11:32 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Rwanda
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“In light of these dangers, African countries, including Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire and most recently Rwanda, have begun banning skin-lightening products, mainly creams with hydroquinone.”
Aug. 2, 2020, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Lately, skin care companies in Ghana and other African countries are increasingly using glutathione, trying to appeal to pregnant women aiming to lighten the skins of their babies in utero. Ghana’s Food and Drugs Authority warns it has not approved any glutathione products either for oneself or “in the form of a tablet to lighten the skin of an unborn child.””
Aug. 2, 2020, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, PHBP-LAW-1

“In a country where height is considered attractive, Komal is one of a growing number of young Indians using their increasing prosperity to improve their marriage and career prospects, and fuelling a cosmetic surgery boom. However, limb lengthening surgery is completely unregulated in India and many of the surgeons performing it lack experience. As it also carries a certain stigma, the Guardian has chosen not to reveal Komal’s real name. Dr Sarin says: “This is one of the most difficult cosmetic surgeries to perform, and people are doing it after just one or two months’ fellowship, following a doctor who is probably experimenting himself. There are no colleges, no proper...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, PHBP-LAW-1

“Appearances are becoming increasingly important in China. Formerly banned as the "nonsense" of a decadent west, beauty pageants were made legal this year. Last month, the country hosted its first Miss World competition. Cosmetic surgery is also thought to be booming. According to the local media, consultants report a 25% increase in the number of women seeking nips and tucks. The most popular operation puts an extra fold in eyelids. Like nose-lengthening, jaw re-shaping and breast enlargements, the procedure aims to bring women closer to western ideals of beauty.”
July 26, 2020, 9:20 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Mr. Nkrumah acknowledged that the ban is a micro step, and that adjustments will need to be made in education and social marketing to change the way society views black skin. But as a food and drug official, his job, he says, is to try to protect people from the harmful affects of skin bleach in the hot sun. “When you bleach, it takes off the outer layers of your skin,” he said. “And this part of the world, the sun is always on. So there’s more skin cancer.””
July 26, 2020, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“On Aug. 1, Ghana’s Food and Drug Authority began a ban on certain skin-whitening products that include hydroquinone, a topical ingredient that disrupts the synthesis and production of the melanin that can protect skin in the intense West African sunshine . . . But the ban in Ghana hasn’t extended to removing the countless billboard advertisements on how to get “perfect white” skin. Nor have the creams and lotions disappeared from stores.”
Feb. 28, 2020, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"While genital elongation can theoretically be treated as a form of FGM, the law does not consider the practice to be a form of mutilation, especially when conducted outside the context of traditional war-related sexual violence. To be sure, the 2006 law against sexual violence makes no mention of genital elongation" (119)
June 7, 2018, 8:49 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"In the U.S., if you want a face lift or a tummy tuck, it’s generally assumed that you’ll be paying out of pocket. Insurance will tend to cover plastic surgery only when the surgery is deemed 'medically necessary' and not merely aesthetic. In Brazil, however, patients are thought of as having the 'right to beauty.' In public hospitals, plastic surgeries are free or low-cost, and the government subsidizes nearly half a million surgeries every year" (Para 1-2). "Around the world, Brazilian plastic surgeons are known as the best in their field, and they gain global recognition for their daring new techniques. During an international plastic surgery conference in Brazil, an...more
Feb. 8, 2017, 8:14 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, PHBP-LAW-1, PHBP-DATA-1

"In the United States, where minors can get plastic surgery with parental consent, rhinoplasties account for about 50 percent of plastic surgeries performed on teenagers" (para 11).
Jan. 27, 2017, 6:55 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"In Colombia, a plastic surgery is performed every five minutes. But a new law will help ensure, for the most part, those going under the knife have at least completed puberty. The law, which Colombia’s Congress is expected to approve, prohibits performing breast and buttock augmentation, liposuction and botox, and other surgeries on people under age 18. Plastic surgery clinics also will be barred from using minors in their advertising" (para 1-2).
June 8, 2016, 8:33 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"French MPs have adopted a bill aimed at banning the use of fashion models deemed to be 'excessively thin.' Models will need a doctor's certificate that their health is 'compatible with the practise of the profession.' Employers who break the law could face up to six months in jail and a €75,000 fine (£54,000, $81,000). A previous version of the bill had suggested a minimum Body Mass Index (BMI) for models, prompting protests from modelling agencies in France. But the final draft approved on Thursday allows doctors to decide whether a model is too thin by taking into account their weight, age, and body shape. It also says that digitally...more
April 19, 2016, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1, WAM-LAW-1

"In July 2011, a new law banned media advertisement of cosmetic surgery" (13).
Feb. 29, 2016, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

""No, there are no laws against beauty practices in Ukraine." Anna Saienko" (4)
Dec. 18, 2015, 5:10 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“Professor Wang Zheng of the University of Michigan, who has promoted gender studies in the nation, says that while the current leadership in China may not exactly be ‘prioritising women’s rights’ (as it has since Mao Zedong abolished foot binding, and famously declared that 'women hold up half the sky') - ‘it doesn’t mean they reject it either’“ (11).
Aug. 12, 2015, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"Ivory Coast has banned skin-whitening creams, which are widely used in west Africa, because of fears they cause lasting damage to health, the health ministry said Wednesday. 'Cosmetic lightening and hygiene creams ... that depigment the skin ... are now forbidden,' the ministry said in a statement. The ban affects whitening creams and lotions containing mercury and its derivatives, cortisone, vitamin A or more than two percent hydroquinine, a lightening agent that is used to develop photographs" (para 1-3)
April 11, 2015, 11:05 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"Controversial new measures to prohibit modeling agencies from hiring dangerously thin models and to require that retouched photos of models be clearly labeled overcame a major legislative hurdle on Friday, winning approval by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament. If approved by the Senate, the measures, which are part of a larger overhaul of the French health care laws, would put France in the vanguard in punishing the fashion world for its use of very thin models" (para 1-2). "Backed by the French government, the measures are intended to protect models from being pushed into losing unhealthy amounts of weight and to reduce the images of extremely thin...more
April 9, 2015, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"The creams and tablets, most classified under the country’s Dangerous Drugs and Substances Act, are illegal because they contain harmful substances. They are not authorised by the Medicines Control Council of Zimbabwe, the body responsible for regulating medicines. They often contain highly-concentrated cocktails of compounds like hydroquinone and tretinoin, which if used for a long time can lead to skin cancer, permanent pigmentation of the skin, liver damage and mercury poisoning" (para 5)
Dec. 11, 2013, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

"The embrace of plastic surgery clashes with the government's socialist ideology and frequent talk of creating a society free of the taint of commercialism. Venezuela's longtime leader, Hugo Chavez, who died in March after 14 years in office, railed against the procedures, saying it was 'monstrous' that poor women were spending money on breast surgeries when they had trouble making ends meet. But the same resource the government relies on - the world's largest estimated petroleum reserves - has long fed a culture of easy money and consumerism" (para 9-11)
Dec. 6, 2013, 2:08 p.m.
Countries: Mali, Mauritania, Niger
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, PHBP-LAW-1

"Participants at the 2005 regional consultation for the UN Study on Violence in West Africa, noted that in countries such as Mauritania, Niger, and Northern Mali, parents’ desire to marry their children at a very young age incites them to force-feed their 5-10 year old daughters to promote their physical development, make them as plump as mature women, and therefore pleasing to men. Unfortunately, there is no law that specifically prohibits or condemns forced feeding of children in these countries"
Dec. 4, 2013, 1:53 p.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, PHBP-LAW-1

"Of all Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries with plural legal systems, only the constitutions of Angola, Namibia and South Africa make it clear that the provisions of the Bill of Rights take precedence in a conflict between customary law and statutory law"