The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for POLY-LAW-1

Aug. 3, 2019, 7:38 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: POLY-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-2

One aspect of polygamous marriages that influences succession and inheritance practices is the hierarchy that exists among wives. The first wife, also called the great wife, is regarded as the woman with most power and privileges in the family. According to the data gathered during the fieldwork, in the central provinces of Manica and Zambézia this means that the first son of the first wife would be considered the principal heir of his father’s possessions the children of other wives dependent on his willingness to share. In Gaza province in the south, however, the power of the first wife and her offspring seems to be more symbolical. It was reported...more
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:30 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"With respect to polygamous marriages, the government’s most recent report to CEDAW indicated that it had amended the law to provide equal inheritance rights to all wives" (1)
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:26 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Polygamy is a customary practice commonly accepted in Mozambique, even though it is legally prohibited. There are no statistical data, because this practice is legally recognized, but we are conscious that in rural areas this practice abounds. And we also know that the second, third and even fourth woman has no legal rights and protection whatsoever" (63)
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:13 p.m.
Countries: Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Kenya, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe recognize the inheritance rights of multiple wives" (10)
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:12 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Although customary marriages and polygamy are recognized in Ghana, statutory law on marital property does not apply to these marriages" (10)
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:10 p.m.
Countries: Botswana, Morocco, Rwanda, Tunisia
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Polygamy is prohibited in Botswana, Rwanda and Tunisia, and highly restricted in Morocco, and so women who marry into these arrangements have no legal protection" (10)
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"In Mozambique, polygamy is neither sanctioned nor outlawed, but a man may only register one wife, thereby excluding additional wives from property entitlements" (10)
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, POLY-LAW-1

"Customary marriages in most communities are potentially polygamous and not registered. These marriages are regulated primarily by unwritten customary laws that differ from community to community. For example, in Herero communities, civil marriages are usually technically in community of property, while husband and wife have separate movable property in terms of customary law. It is not uncommon, in regions other than the Caprivi, for a couple to marry in terms of both civil and customary law and to rely upon different legal and social norms, depending on the situation at hand. It also occurs that a man is married under civil law to one wife and is cohabiting with a...more
Aug. 3, 2019, 5:53 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"In terms of the inheritance of moveable property women, where eligible, receive half the share of an equivalently positioned male family member in Niger, as stipulated in Islamic law" (para 18). Sharia law implies that all legally married wives and their sons get a share (MAD - CODER COMMENT)
Aug. 3, 2019, 5:37 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"In Niger, inheritance is governed by customary (which varies between different ethnic groups) and/or Sharia law. Sharia law stipulates that women may inherit from their father, mother, husband or children and, under certain conditions, from other family members. However, their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled...Widows may not receive anything if there are no surviving children and are often the victims of 'property grabbing' on the part of her deceased husband’s male relatives. According to the Chronic Poverty Research Centre, in 2006, 23.75% of widows inherited majority of assets after their spouses passed away. In some regions, when a husband dies, his property and land...more
July 20, 2019, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"The wife of a polygamous husband is only entitled to 1/8th of his property" (81)
July 20, 2019, 7:51 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"In a polygamous family, however, the eldest son distributes the property per stripe at his discretion. In Enugu, Ezeike and Etteh clans of Igbo-Eze Division, the eldest son is the sole heir. In Ogbaru Division, the eldest son inherits the property exclusively though in practice, he sometimes shares the property out with his other brothers" (168). "In Afikpo and Edda clan of Afikpo Division, the male children in a polygamous family or the eldest child in a monogamous family will share the yams with the maternal brothers of the deceased. Other farm produce are inherited by the nearest maternal sisters e.g. sisters of the same mothers daughters of the sisters...more
July 20, 2019, 7:37 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

""It is generally true that widows are denied inheritance to housing and land in particular, and to chattels to a lesser degree. Generally, inheritance is based on the principle of primogeniture: that is, that the eldest surviving son inherits all the deceased’s property...In northern Nigeria, which is predominantly Muslim, women’s inheritance is governed by Islamic law — the Sharia. Under the Sharia, women can acquire and retain their own property, can pass it on to their heirs, and can inherit from their deceased parents, husbands, brothers, sisters, daughters and other relations. However, under the personal law code of the Sharia, the share of inheritance a female receives is discriminatory. Male...more
July 20, 2019, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Almost all ethnic groups practice patrilineal inheritance. Upon a man's death, land may be divided among his male heirs or passed down solely to the eldest son, depending on the community practice. If a man has multiple wives, his land is divided equally among the wives and passed down to their sons. Women rarely inherit land, usually only if there are no male heirs. Inheritance is by far the most common mode of land acquisition among rural people" (para 1)
July 20, 2019, 7:21 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Sharia law provides for detailed and complex calculations of inheritance shares. Women may inherit from their father, mother, husband or children and, under certain conditions, from other family members. However, their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. Female heirs, for example, inherit half as much as male heirs, unless a will has been left specifying otherwise. Women may also be reluctant to bring inheritance cases to court, for fear of causing conflict within the family" (para 5).
July 20, 2019, 7:17 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Islamic law provides for detailed and complex calculations of inheritance shares. Women may inherit from their father, mother, husband or children and, under certain conditions, from other family members. However, their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled" (162)
July 20, 2019, 6:51 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Women have the legal right to acquire land via Islamic and state law; however, their inheritance rights are governed by Islamic Sharia law. Women may inherit from their fathers, mothers, husbands or children, and under certain conditions, from other family members, but their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. The social status attached to property and land often makes it difficult for widows and daughters to inherit even their entitled shares, as they may face opposition from the deceased man’s relatives. The 2011 Anti-Women Practices Law makes it a punishable offence to deprive women of their inheritance right" (1-2)
July 19, 2019, 9:41 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Inheritance practices are to a great extent governed by Sharia law" (188)
July 19, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Jordanian inheritance laws apply in the Palestinian territories and are derived directly from the Koran. Although women have legally enforceable inheritance rights, they are entitled to half the share of their male counterparts" (16). Palestine observes Sharia/Islamic law (MAD - CODER COMMENT)
July 19, 2019, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"In matters of ‘inheritance’, the State does not recognize before or during marriage what either parties owns and brings into marriage. However, the Court would require disclosure of assets by either party in divorce proceedings. The Constitution provides equal distribution of wealth and inheritance between women/girls and men/boys. The Public Curator’s Office under the provision of the ‘Wills & Probates Administration Act’ distributes estates equally among the children (if any) or next of kin of the deceased" (38)
July 19, 2019, 9:07 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Most ethnic groups use bilateral inheritance systems whereby both male and female descents may inherit. Succession norms follow either the primogeniture system, by which land is inherited by the eldest male or female child, as among the Ifugao population, or the equal sharing system, by which all male and female heirs inherit equally, as it happens among the Pangasinense. The surviving spouse may not inherit, but holds the land in trust for the children...Muslim groups are patrilineal and follow patrilineal inheritance practices, where land is passed along the male line" (para 6-7)
July 19, 2019, 8:34 p.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Women do not have equal inheritance rights in Qatar, as inheritance is governed by sharia law, which allows women to inherit half what a similarly situated male relative would receive (e.g. daughters receive half the amount that sons receive)" (2). Qatar observes Sharia law (MAD - CODER COMMENT)
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"In a polygynous marriage, a widow’s share must be divided proportionally with other wives, based on the length of time each has stayed in the marriage" (Pg 23).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Customary law allows a man to take more than one wife. A man who marries a woman under civil law may not legally have more than one wife, although this restriction was sometimes ignored" (Pg 20).
June 3, 2019, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Polygyny was practiced and recognized by formal and traditional law" (p. 12).
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"The law allows polygyny for Muslims, which a small minority of men practiced" (23).
Feb. 18, 2019, 6:48 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-1

"In 1999, five years after the genocide, the Parliament of Rwanda passed what is commonly known as the ‘Inheritance and Succession Law’,260 which deals with almost all aspects related to inheritance and succession. Among many provisions, it explicitly grants equal inheritance rights to male and female children, establishes a choice of property regimes upon marriage, and allows a wife to inherit her deceased husband’s property. This law has greatly enhanced property rights for married women; unfortunately, however, it only protects monogamous civil marriages" (91)
Feb. 11, 2019, 7:33 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Islamic law provides for detailed and complex calculations of inheritance shares" (164). In Saudi Arabia, polygyny is legal (MAD - CODER COMMENT)
Feb. 11, 2019, 7:29 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: POLY-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-2

"Title II of the Family Code deals with intestate inheritance rights. The lineage is divided into 'legitimate' heirs, 'natural' heirs and 'joined' heirs. Articles 520-528 specify the possible legitimate descendants and their ranking: the one with the highest degree of consanguinity is always first in line; thus, first the children and their descendants, if any; thereafter the deceased’s ascendants; then collateral parents and, finally, the surviving spouse. In order to inherit her/his full share, a child born out of wedlock must be recognised and accepted by the natural father’s wife, and by all his wives in a polygamous marriage. The inheritance of an unrecognised child is only half that of...more
Feb. 11, 2019, 7:19 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: POLY-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-2

"Under Islamic law, women in polygamous unions inherit less than those in monogamous marriages, since the eighth share of the man’s property which is allocated to a widow is divided among the wives and the shares allocated to children are divided among all the children of the deceased, with sons receiving twice the share that daughters received" (84). "In practice, most widows interviewed inherited a share of their deceased husband’s property (in the case of polygamous marriages), or owned property in their own right in urban areas. In Muslim families, the process of sharing the deceased’s assets according to Islamic law was usually led by male relatives, sometimes in consultation...more