The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for PW-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 1, 2017, 1:17 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

“Zioual points the finger at the imposition of harshly patriarchal customs from the Middle East, particularly in recent decades. ‘The active marginalization and oppression of women has come from Arab countries — it is the Arab male who has this culture,’ she says of … the enduring practice of ‘repudiation’ (instant male-pronounced divorce) [and] polygamy ” (para 16). “‘Since 2004 in Morocco, a man is not supposed to repudiate and divorce his wife and take another spouse without her unforced permission. But the reality is most women don’t know they have these rights or can’t exercise them,’ says Zioual” (para 21). “Women in regional areas like the Atlas Mountains are ...more
Sept. 1, 2017, 10:18 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"Hundreds of under-age Egyptian girls enter temporary marriages with rich tourists from the Persian Gulf during the summer in return for money for their families. These unions – dubbed summer marriages – are not legally binding and end when the foreigners return to their own countries. It was a summer′s day in 2008 when someone knocked at the door. Howeida was 15 years old at the time. A man stood in the doorway. He spoke briefly to her father and her step-mother. Then the matter was settled: Howeida would be married to a man from Saudi Arabia for a sum of around 1750 euros. The 'marriage' lasted a whole 20 ...more
June 8, 2017, 2:19 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-3

"Traditionally, in Shona culture for example, a man could marry sisters with the eldest wife consenting to the new arrival" (para 21)
Sept. 13, 2016, 5:02 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

“Just hours after Shagufta Sayyd was married, her new husband told her he was having a relationship with another woman. He was clear the two would have no future, the 21-year-old Sayyd said. He was only marrying her to please his mother. ‘He said, “no, I don't want to keep you,”’ she said. ‘So he said, “divorce, divorce, divorce,” three times, and that was it’" (para 1-3).
Aug. 24, 2016, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-1

"According to a 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report, foreign men, especially from Gulf countries 'purchase Egyptian women and girls for ‘temporary’ or ‘summer’ marriages for the purpose of prostitution or forced labor; these arrangements are often facilitated by the victims’ parents and marriage brokers, who profit from the transaction'" (para 7)
Aug. 13, 2016, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1

“The law affirms the religiously based practice of allowing a man to marry as many as four wives. The law permits polygamy only upon the agreement of the first wife and the determination of a judge as to the husband’s financial ability to support an additional wife. A joint Ministry of Health and UN study from 2013 estimated that 3 percent of marriages were polygamous. It was unclear whether authorities followed the law in all cases” (31).
June 20, 2016, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"The MCW mandates that customary laws related to marital relations shall be respected, provided that they do not discriminate against women. In the Philippines, this primarily affects Presidential Decree 1038 or the Code of Muslim Personal Laws (CMPL) as it contains “discriminatory” provisions relating to early marriage, polygamy and divorce as well as unequal inheritance rights. For example, Article 27 of the CMPL states that no Muslim male can have more than one wife unless he can deal with them with equal companionship and just treatment as enjoined by Islamic law and only in exceptional cases. Some Moro women claim that men contracting subsequent marriages often disregard these conditions" (8).more
June 4, 2016, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"Some Saudi men used legally contracted 'temporary marriages' for the purpose of sexually exploiting Yemeni girls—some reportedly as young as 10 years old, and some of whom are later abandoned on the streets of Saudi Arabia" (365)
May 1, 2016, 2:08 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1, PW-DATA-1

“Polygyny, the practice of having more than one spouse, is not widely practiced in Rwanda; only 4 percent of men have more than one wife. The differentials by background characteristics are small, however, the proportion of men in polygynous unions is slightly higher in East province (6 percent) than in other provinces” (22).
April 8, 2016, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"The Sezim Center reported approximately 50 percent of its clients were in unregistered marriages, which do not have legal force. Observers reported there was a greater frequency of early marriage, polygamy, and bride kidnapping in connection with unregistered religious marriages" (29)
April 7, 2016, 11:14 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"For women who depend entirely on their husband’s income, sharing that with a second, third or fourth wife can mean severe financial hardship. According to Shi’a Islam, Iranian men can already take any number of 'temporary wives' without informing their first wife. The length of a temporary marriage is defined in advance and can last anything from hours to decades. Temporary wives generally face social ostracism, and their children may face difficulties in accessing public services such as education because if the marriage is unregistered, it may be hard for the mother to prove paternity” (para 1)
April 7, 2016, 10:50 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"CWGI notes that so-called cultural practices such as child marriage, polygamy, un-registered marriage, are widespread in society, especially in rural areas. Cultural practices are increasingly powerful and difficult to handle especially those which are justified on the basis of a narrow interpretation of religious teachings" (4)
April 6, 2016, 8:47 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-2, PW-DATA-1

After reading through CEDAW reports, human rights reports and other various materials, polygyny does not seem to be practiced in Guyana.
April 5, 2016, 9:24 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3

Polygyny does not seem to be practiced in any form in Fiji, after checking Human Rights reports, CEDAW reports, and other various government and non-government documents. (HS - CODER COMMENT)
March 31, 2016, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"Winston Blackmore, a religious leader in the polygamous community of Bountiful near Creston, B.C., laughs with six of his daughters and some of his grandchildren in 2008. On Wednesday the B.C. Supreme Court upheld Canada's laws that make his polygamous relationships illegal"(para 9)
March 17, 2016, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, PW-PRACTICE-1

"No" (1)
March 9, 2016, 10:13 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"The phenomenon of “holiday brides”, mostly poor unsuspecting India women who are married off to Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) only to be abandoned by their ‘grooms’ even before they can settle into their new lives, has been growing steadily. This concern, however, has been long recognised. In 2008, the India National Commission for Women (NCW) reiterated that the issue of women trapped in fraudulent marriages has assumed ‘alarming’ dimensions. The NCW has also brought out a book, ‘Abandoned Indian Women Trapped in NRI Marriages - The Way Out’, which suggested remedial measures" (1)
March 4, 2016, 10:12 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the country is home to about 160,000 Syrian refugees, and there are offices set up to traffic in Syrian female refugees and arrange for customary marriages between Syrian women and Egyptian men in exchange for a fee. Customary marriage — known as nikah 'urfi — is a type of marriage where the contract is not registered with the state and no witnesses are required. Al-Monitor met with Youssra al-Dali, 24, a Syrian woman who had no option but to marry a man over the age of 50 just to ensure that she had food and shelter. Dali explained to Al-Monitor the ...more
Feb. 26, 2016, 10:59 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"GBV remains pervasive within Iraq, including forced, under-aged, and temporary marriages, and honor killings" (para 4). "Financial desperation and the absence of breadwinners in households where men have gone off to war has also led to a rise in forced, temporary and under-aged marriages. Temporary marriages had previously been very rare in Iraq, but have re-emerged under the growing influence of certain religious leaders. In these controversial marriages, women and girls are “married” in the presence of a religious figure for a fixed period of time, which can be as short as several hours. In many cases, the marriage is a mere cover up for prostitution which lasts a few ...more
Feb. 26, 2016, 10:59 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"Men can more easily claim a temporary marriage because under Iranian laws they may have multiple wives, allowing them to have both a permanent wife and be temporarily married at the same time" (11). "In addition to the principles about multiple permanent marriages, Iran, as a Shi’ite State, has a unique institution: the Mut’a (temporary marriage). Mut’a allows a Muslim man to contract an unlimited number of temporary marriages, i.e. for a fixed time period, in addition to his permanent marriages. In fact, in Shi'ite Islam this institution has remained through the centuries though it has long been forbidden in Sunni Islam. Articles 1075 to 1077 of Civil Code exclusively ...more
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

Temporary marriages did occur as part of jihadist attacks - women were kidnaped and forced into temporary, unregistered marriages by the fighters. The government reports 1,600 since 1993. The children born of these marriages (called "mountain children" since that is where many of the terrorists were hiding) are also unregistered by the government, and now many of the women and their children have to rely on the government for support. The government reports there are roughly 500 of these children, ranging from age 3 to 15. (http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/10/jihadist-carnal-marriage-algeria.html#) So it appears that while they did occur, they no longer occur and were never truly supported by the society in general. (LMS ...more
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

Though illegal, there has been and increase in, and increased demand for the legalization of "urfi" or "temporary marriages". This is presented as a way to avoid expensive fees associated with permanent marriages and allow for more western style dating (http://www.france24.com/en/20120131-urfi-marriage-trend-seen-among-tunisian-university-students). There have also been unsubstantiated rumors that women have been leaving Tunisia in a "sexual jihad", to be temporary brides to Daesh militants (http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-24448933). (LMS - coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

While there is a single report (http://www.mulabi.org/epu/9th%20round/Maldives.pdf) stating that temporary marriages can occur, there is no indication that it is actually occuring. However, it seems to strongly associated with Maldives, as it used to occur in the past, and was reported by a 14th c. scholar (http://rjh.ub.rug.nl/index.php/groniek/article/viewFile/17630/15103). (LMS - coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

While there is no indication of frequency, it appears that Yemen is a destination for sex tourism, with prostituion under the guise of "temporary marriage". (http://publications.iom.int/books/pilot-study-tourist-marriage-yemen) This requires bribing officials since non-Yemeni require special permissions to marry a Yemen citizen (http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?dlid=236630&year=2014#wrapper). (LMS - coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

Though it is claimed that hundreds of temporary marriages are occuring, actual numbers are not available. It is a type of de facto prostitution as the practice has been linked to poverty, especially among women left behind by men who have left the country for migrant work. While many blame the practice on Iranians living in Tajikistan, the Iranian Embassy reports that they have not recieved any complaint about such practices. It is being discouraged by Tajik Mullahs (religious leaders) and the government. (http://www.rferl.org/content/tajik-mullahs-warn-against-temporary-marriages/24616875.html; http://archive-old.theoslotimes.com/saudi-arabia-tajikistan-brace-for-hike-in-temporary-marriages/) (LMS - coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

Overall it does not appear to be a problem; however, there is a small tribe in northern Kenya (the Samaburu, less than 1% of the total popuation) that does practice a form of temporary marriage as part of a girl's coming-of-age (http://www.internewskenya.org/article.php?id=401; http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/aug/16/village-where-men-are-banned-womens-rights-kenya). It appears that the people of Kenya are generally against this and working to prevent the tradition. (LMS-coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

While there is some evidence of temporary marriage among immigrant populations, it does not seem to occur among the rest of society. (http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/view/40806) Given that Tajiks make up less than 1% of Russian population, temporary marriages do not appear to be a problem. (LMS - coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

While some have suggested non-religious temporary or 'contract' marriages as a way to deal with the seemingly inevitbility of divorce (http://www.ottawasun.com/2014/08/09/contract-marriages-might-be-better-for-true-love), the idea doesn't have any kind of widespread support. (LMS-coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

Young couples are engaging in temporary marriage to side step large fees associated with traditional marriage (http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2015/10/29/Unable-to-afford-expenses-young-men-opt-for-limited-marriage-.html; http://www.arabnews.com/news/642991). That said, it still has many detractors because it does not grant women the same rights as full wives, and is associated with both extra-maritial affairs and prostitution http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/traditional-temporary-marriages-are-now-a-permanent-problem). Many 'marriage brokers' are acting as de facto pimps, and in some cases have been prosecuted as such (http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2014/05/04/Saudi-female-marriage-mediator-sentenced-to-prison-lashes.html). Men traveling outside of Saudi Arabia may also look for temporary wives and/or be targeted by "marriage brokers", which the government condemns (http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2015/05/16/Marriage-brokers-stalking-Saudi-young-men-at-airports-abroad.html; http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2015/04/18/Saudi-Arabia-grappling-with-the-surge-in-temporary-marriage.html). (LMS - coder comment)
Feb. 9, 2016, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

Women and girls entering Jordan as Syrian refugees are engaging in de facto prostitution via temporary marriages as there are few opportunities for empoloyment. (http://www.thenational.ae/world/middle-east/syrian-refugees-resort-to-desperate-measures-in-jordanian-frontier-town; http://www.dailysabah.com/opinion/2014/08/09/combatting-genderbased-violence-against-syrian-refugees-in-jordan-and-lebanon) (LMS - coder comment)