The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for PW-PRACTICE-3

March 24, 2021, 12:05 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus, Israel
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Bigamy is a surprisingly easy crime to commit. A person married in Israel can, without difficulty, get married to somebody else in Cyprus" (para 2).
March 23, 2021, 11:32 p.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"I know men who have been married 20 years (or longer) and have kept the same mistress all the while. Polygamy without the papers I like to call it. In many cases, there’s little care taken to hide it – friends, family, colleagues are all hip to the scenario" (para 8). There are multiple other blogposts online that relate that it is common for Cuban men to have mistresses. In some cases, this could be viewed as informal polygamy (CM - CODER COMMENT).
March 19, 2021, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"A man, who has asked for confidentiality in the process, has filed a constitutional action with the intention of allowing polygamy in the country. A report in a La Prensa Libre, says the man is asking Costa Rica’s Constitutional Court (Sala Constitucional or Sala IV) for the elimination of two articles – Article 14 (1) and Article 48 (1) – of the Family Code (Codigo de Familia) that prohibits the practice. The man said his action to allow him and others to have more than one spouse. The articles that he seeks to be eliminated prohibit a person from marrying more than one person at the same time, defining a...more
March 19, 2021, 8:30 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The [Congolese] woman, named Aka, is the second wife of a man named Ekwambe, who lives with the Mbenejli tribe in a small village in the south of the country... It is common for male members of the tribe to have more than one wife, however women are monogamous. Aka says: 'It is common for men to have two wives in this village. If a man has two wives it can make life easier. One person can hunt, one can go to the forest and one person can cook'" (para 2, 5-6).
March 19, 2021, 7:54 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo, Sierra Leone
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Overall, polygamy was found to be a common type of marriage within all research sites. It was generally socially accepted, although in DRC the Catholic Church was a vocal critic. In both DRC and Sierra Leone, it was common for polygamy to consist of one man and two to three wives. One important difference observed between the two sites is living arrangements within the node. In DRC wives were more likely to live in separate dwellings whereas in Sierra Leone wives most commonly shared one dwelling with their husband and children" (para 6).
March 19, 2021, 7:43 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The Lele people are a subgroup from the Kuba Kingdom of the Democratic Republic of Congo who originally resided along the Kasai River region... Unity is essential amongst the Lele because of the type of polyandry practised in the village. The Lele call it hohombe, or ngalababola, which means “wife of the village”. It is worth mentioning that one out of ten or so Lele women becomes a village wife. The rest are mostly in polygynous marriages... A village wife is either captured by force, seduced or taken as a refugee, or betrothed from infancy. She is initially married to several men in the village who may or may not...more
March 19, 2021, 6:48 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"'The two most common problems we find in our village are women’s inheritance rights and men getting married to many women', says Alice, a graduate of our 12-month training program in DRC who, after participating in an intensive course to build her leadership and advocacy skills, now works as a ‘Change Agent’ in her community of Mumosho... Inequality is further reinforced by deep-rooted patriarchal cultural norms whereby men can take multiple wives, who then compete for resources. Polygamy has been described by the UN’s Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) as a contravention of women’s rights, due to the serious emotional and financial consequences for women and...more
March 19, 2021, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep, Chad, Guinea
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The polygamy-civil war link is also borne out in fragile and political violence prone places like Guinea, Central African Republic and Chad" (para 2).
March 19, 2021, 3:57 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Chinese authorities have been trying for three years to reverse the devastating imbalances of their one-child policy and coax couples to have more children... None of this has worked... But now, an economics professor at Fudan University in Shanghai has come up with another — and, unsurprisingly, controversial — solution: Allow women to have multiple husbands, and they will have multiple babies. 'I wouldn’t suggest polyandry if the gender ratio was not so severely imbalanced,' Yew-Kwang Ng, who is Malaysian, wrote in his regular column on a Chinese business website this month. The headline asked: 'Is polyandry really a ridiculous idea?' 'I’m not advocating for polyandry, I’m just suggesting that...more
March 19, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Harmful practices, such as female genital mutilation and polygamy, occur in migrant communities" (para 10).
March 19, 2021, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The most frequent form is living together under one roof without a marriage certificate in the união de facto, which is equated to marriage by law after three years. Many women have a relationship with the pai de visita, which means: visiting father. In this type of relationship, women who are sometimes still very young or mothers still live with their parents or alone and their partner visits them regularly and even spends the night. This visiting relationship is highly accepted. A special form of the visiting relationship is the tio relationship in which the man is usually many years older than his partner. Even if some people think that...more
March 16, 2021, 11:46 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Western reporting indicates that the three men have signed legal papers with a lawyer in Medellin in an attempt to establish themselves as a family with inheritance rights... It's unclear whether it's legally enforceable and whether a court will recognize it. We do know they can't be punished for polyamory, and that may be driving some ambiguous reporting. Colombia struck down its laws criminalizing polygamous relationships in 2001. That's not the same as legally recognizing polyamorous marriages as valid. It just means you can't be arrested and imprisoned for it" (para 3-4).
March 16, 2021, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"A politician from the southwest of Colombia has proposed to legalize polygamy while running for a seat in the Senate. The public debate on polygamy was reopened earlier this year when three men announced they had gotten married in a Medellin notary office, the country’s second largest city. Yobany Orozco, a Senate candidate from the MAIS political party in the Huila province, now has pushed that debate further, proposing legislation to legalize the marriage between more than two partners. According to Orozco, the promotion of marriage between one man and two women or one woman and two men would prevent gay marriage. Orozco said that his proposal would grant the...more
March 16, 2021, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Three men have gained legal recognition for their relationship in Colombia. The three men, known as a throuple, rather than a couple, signed legal documents with their solicitor to formally recognise their relationship. The formal recognition of their union will entitle each man to inheritance rights over their partner’s estates" (para 1).
March 16, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Football legend Ronaldinho is to marry TWO women at the same time, according to reports in Brazil. The 38-year-old Samba ace will reportedly tie the knot in August with his pair of 'fiancees', Priscilla Coelho and Beatriz Souza. The two women have been living 'harmoniously' with the former Barcelona star since December at his £5million Rio de Janeiro mansion, according to reports" (para 1-3).
March 16, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Ask Kgosi Kebinatshwene Mosielele of Manyana about polygamy and he will tell you that if it has worked in the past it can work today. A strong proponent of rarely heard polygamous families, he contends such can, to large extent, avert today’s social ills. 'In customary law polygamy is legal, it only requires us to formalise it. We know that in the past polygamy was a part of our culture and we rarely heard of such things as divorce, abortion, drug abuse, HIV/AIDS and many other social ills happening today, polygamy can be the answer to these problems,' he says" (para 2-3).
March 8, 2021, 11:48 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"While Aboriginal marriage rules and customs have been maintained, especially in more remote communities, despite external pressures, amongst most urban and fringe-dwelling Aborigines formal marriage rules and institutions have diminished in importance. Polygyny has also declined, certainly in communities where mission influences were strong, but also, it seems, more generally, under the impetus of economic change. Dr Sutton states that: 'Polygynous marriages are often said to have disappeared from communities where missionary influence is strong, but it is not uncommon for second and third marriages to be concealed from authorities where these authorities disapprove of polygyny … At present one must assume that polygyny will be around for an indefinite...more
March 5, 2021, 11:44 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Angola law prohibits polygamy, but it is widely practiced in the predominantly Christian country" (para 7).
March 5, 2021, 11:09 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Crowned the most beautiful girl in Algeria, the miss expressed her support for polygamy during a TV show. Khadidja Benhamou stated 'I would not be against if my husband married four women at the same time, a muslim man has the right to four and this is our religion. If my husband wants a second wife I would be a little angry, but I would accept it regardless and bend to the will of my husband'... More worryingly, even some Algerian female politicians have expressed support for polygamous relationships, notably the controversial conservative figure Naima Salhi" (para 1-2, 4).
March 5, 2021, 10:18 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Elgyun Safarov, head of informatics and analytical research at the State Committee for Family, Women and Children Affairs of Azerbaijan, responded to our inquiry saying that they do not have statistical information about such polygamous families, and that they have not received complaints related to these sorts of problems. 'But the employees of our committee have often taken part in judicial processes addressing issues connected with these sorts of families. This is particularly the case for women who have entered nikah with citizens of Turkey and Russia. Problems arose in such cases concerning property and parental rights. The law places no restrictions on religious marriage, i.e. on nikah, but I...more
March 5, 2021, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Gabil was told by his brother that the wedding ceremony would be performed by a local mullah, without any sort of 'papers from the civil registry', so there was nothing illegal about this. After the marriage, the young wife would stay to live in her mother-in-law’s home, would help around the house, and all that would be required of Gabil is that he send money and sometimes visit his spouse. 'According to the customs of our grandfathers and fathers', the older brother finished his speech and brought the young woman into the room. And so Gabil saw his fiancé for the first time: there was no point in resisting any...more
March 5, 2021, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Article 12 of the 1999 Family Code of the Azerbaijan Republic states that, 'Marriage is not permitted between individuals of whom one or both are in another marriage' (12.0.2.). Nevertheless, the popularity of such marriages has significantly grown over the twenty-five years since independence. In the opinion of lawyer Elchin Sadiqov, 'Based on this article, we can formally consider polygamy to be unlawful in Azerbaijan, but no sort of penalty is provided for violating this point of the article. Because of this, polygamous marriages, unregistered, of course, are in principle not prohibited for men or for women'" (para 1-2).
March 3, 2021, 11:03 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Monash Indigenous Centre deputy director Dr John Bradley has more than 30 years’ experience in the Northern Territory working with indigenous Australians who are polygamous. He says we should not presume women in these situations need support. In fact, he thinks support of any kind is unwarranted. 'Polygamy and polyamory have been part of our societies for a long time. It is disingenuous to deny it,' he says. Dr Bradley asks us to remove our cultural bias and expectations. In the Northern Territory, 'women who are wives to a man do not need support of any kind, they have a deep understanding of the cultural practice, how [polygamy] works and...more
March 3, 2021, 10:56 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The practise of polygamy is also common amongst members of... certain Indigenous Australian communities" (para 3).
March 2, 2021, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"A thirty-six year old woman from Sarajevo, who has two children from her first marriage, told BIRN about how she married an Arab, to become his second wife. She says her new husband, who is 51, originally came to Bosnia for business, to open a small company in Sarajevo. They met, the woman recalls, when he came to her place of work... After a while, a mutual friend who is already married to an Arab introduced them. This friend explained that the man was looking for a Bosnian wife, to help her if he could. She says it took her about two months to familiarize herself with his way of...more
March 1, 2021, 11:59 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Egypt, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"'Considering the fact that they already have wives of their age, they will normally look for younger women. However, in some cases they search for women of their age,' she said, explaining that most of the Arabs who marry Bosnian women [in polygamous marriages] come from Saudi Arabia, Emirates, Kuwait, Egypt and Libya" (28).
March 1, 2021, 11:25 p.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-DATA-1

"Tsimane marriages are largely monogamous; <5% of marriages are polygynous. Polygynous marriages mostly involve sisters, but their dynamics and implications are relatively unexplored. While polygyny generates higher fertility for husbands, it is associated with lower fertility for second wives" (para 37). The Tsimane are an indigenous people of Boliva that account for less than 1% of Bolivia's population (CM - CODER COMMENT).
March 1, 2021, 11:10 p.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"A recent retrospective study in Bolivia reports that, although women in polygynous marriages had lower fertility than women in monogamous marriages overall, the addition of a second wife did not impact on the fertility of the first wife in intraindividual analyses" (4).
Feb. 28, 2021, 12:19 a.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Although polygamy is legal in Bhutan and his father has many wives, King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck vowed to never marry another woman" (para 4).
Feb. 28, 2021, 12:02 a.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Phurpa Zangmo of Merak felt that marriages based on mutual consent and affection is the preferred norm nowadays rather than polyandry: 'Our Parents still want us to keep the tradition alive but I think differently. So we cannot fulfil their wishes. Even if our parents make arrangements, the marriage does not last for long.' The improvement in the highlanders’ standard of living is also another contributing factor to the decline of polyandry which has somewhat outlived its usefulness. As Bhutan opened its doors to tourism, homestays became a viable source of income for the highlanders unlike in the past, the lack of provisions compelled some Layaps to marry multiple partners....more