The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for PW-PRACTICE-3

Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Older women are more likely than younger women to have co-wives. The percentage of women with co-wives peaks among women age 45-49 (5%). Women living in non-urban areas are more likely to report co-wives (4%) than their counterparts living in urban areas (2%)" (58).
Feb. 7, 2020, 4:26 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Polygamy is not practised but a phenomenon known as the deuxième bureau (literally, the 'second office') has developed, whereby married men enjoy extramarital relationships with several women. They act and consider themselves to be genuine spouses, and may even carry the identification cards of married women, but they do not have the legal status of a wife" (212)
Feb. 7, 2020, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Polygamy was part of traditional marriage, she added. As there was no law, it could not be declared legal or illegal. Polygamous marriages were entirely valid. Civil marriages were under their own regulations and separation was subject to the civil code. Traditional marriages depended on family negotiations. In African Bantu families, customs and traditions almost had the force of law. The law would be stillborn if it were applied. Marital issues were settled under traditional customs. It would counterproductive to apply a law to traditional marriages" (para 96)
Feb. 7, 2020, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The law states that couples must stipulate at the time of marriage whether they intend to adhere to a monogamous or a polygamous relationship" (222)
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The percentage of married women who have co-wives does not vary greatly by age or urban/rural residence (Table 4.2.1)" (pg 56). "Polygyny spans all education levels and wealth quintiles; married women in the middle quintile are the most likely to have co-wives (6%)" (pg 56).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Awareness-raising activities to combat harmful traditional practices are carried out in all departments. Emphasis is placed on practices such as: (i) those related to sexuality (sexual violence, early initiation of sexual behaviour); (ii) polygamy; (iii) abusive rites (constraints on widowhood, non-recognition of the inheritance rights of widows and orphans; economic exploitation of dowries, domestic violence; female genital mutilation — despite the lack of comprehensive reports on this issue)" (11).
Feb. 1, 2020, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, POLY-LAW-2, POLY-LAW-3

"Marriages often were arranged and, depending on the ethnic group, polygyny was practiced. Women in polygynous unions had property and other rights arising from the marriage. They also had the option to divorce, but no legal right to disapprove or be notified in advance of subsequent marriages" (para 105)
Jan. 31, 2020, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"There is clear relationship between early marriage and polygamy, with just under 80% of women aged 20-24 who had been married before they turned 18 reporting that they were in a polygamous union" (2)
Jan. 31, 2020, 10:48 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Polygamy was permitted by law in Hong Kong until 1971 when it was rendered illegal under the Offenses against the Person Ordinance. Despite these developments, polygamy still occurs as a cross-border phenomenon, with many Hong Kong businessmen maintaining concubines in mainland China" (28)
Jan. 28, 2020, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1

"Liberia’s civil law prohibits polygamy but customary law allows men to have several wives. More than one-third of married women between 15 and 49 years of age live in polygamous marriages" (236)
Jan. 28, 2020, 10:11 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The Constitution, 1994, reviewed in 2004:...- Article 22[3]: 'All men and women have the right to marry and found a family.' Article 22[4]: 'No person shall be forced to enter into marriage.' Article 22[5] clarifies that Sub-sections [3] and [4] shall apply to all marriages at law, custom and marriages by repute or by permanent cohabitation" (para 1)
Jan. 28, 2020, 9:24 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"In addition, if the type of marriage was not specified on the marriage certificate, judges presumed the marriage was polygynous" (para 77)
Jan. 28, 2020, 9:11 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1

"Following Islamic law, polygamy is legal in Mauritania. It is especially common within the Black population. Once married, women can ask their husbands not to enter into a second union" (244)
Dec. 14, 2019, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Maajida* quivers as she describes the hell she has endured since her wedding day. At just 17 she was married off to a lorry driver living in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Little did she know that barely a month into her marriage she would also be expected to act as a wife for two of her husband's other brothers and, when she refused, would be raped and assaulted" (para 1-3). "Her new husband's family could not find brides for their sons in-state due to the shortage caused by female foeticide and pooled their money to purchase Maajida and, unbeknown to her and her family, she would act...more
Dec. 6, 2019, 2:51 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3

"Reluctantly, after his mother also promised he could marry a second wife of his own choosing when he was older, Mohammad agreed to the wedding -- consent required from him for the marriage to be valid under Islamic law" (para 6).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-7, MARR-PRACTICE-8, WR-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3

"Although not widespread, levirate marriage, the practice by which a man is required to marry his brother’s widow, occurred" (20).
Sept. 24, 2019, 9:15 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, PW-PRACTICE-3

"Marriages in Papua New Guinea commonly involve a 'bride price' of money or chattel paid to the wives’ families by the husbands’ families, who use the bride price as debt to compel women to remain in abusive or servile marriages (...) Young girls sold into polygamous marriages may be forced into domestic service for their husbands’ extended families or exploited in sex trafficking" (382).
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, POLY-LAW-1

"Customary marriages in most communities are potentially polygamous and not registered. These marriages are regulated primarily by unwritten customary laws that differ from community to community. For example, in Herero communities, civil marriages are usually technically in community of property, while husband and wife have separate movable property in terms of customary law. It is not uncommon, in regions other than the Caprivi, for a couple to marry in terms of both civil and customary law and to rely upon different legal and social norms, depending on the situation at hand. It also occurs that a man is married under civil law to one wife and is cohabiting with a...more
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"The acceptance of polygamy and repudiation under customary law" (14).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The Gender Equality Act adopted in 2006--along with more than 60 other laws-- contain discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The law encourages bigamy by allowing men to remarry without divorcing if the first wife is incapacitated or infertile. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of their spouses in property and family affairs, and special opportunities in education, health, and social security" (Pg 28).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Polygyny was practiced" (Pg 12).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-3

"The 2004 Council of Ulema fatwa prohibiting Hanafi Sunni women--constituting the vast majority of the female population--from praying in mosques remained in effect. Religious ceremonies also made polygyny possible, despite the illegality of the practice. NGOs estimated that up to 10 percent of men practiced polygyny. Many of these polygynous marriages involved underage brides. Unofficial second and third marriages were increasingly common, with neither the wives nor their children having legal standing or rights" (Pg 21-22).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"In rural areas polygyny was widespread" (Pg 20).
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Religious ceremonies also made polygyny possible, despite the illegality of the practice. Many of these polygynous marriages involved underage brides. Unofficial second and third marriages were increasingly common, with neither the wives nor their children having legal standing or rights" (p. 23).
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-3

"The practice continued of taking a 'fifth wife,' or 'wahaya,' in which girls and women are sold into physical or sexual slavery. Polygamy is legal and widespread" (Pg 17).
May 30, 2019, 11:13 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Polygamy is practiced in some parts of the country" (26).
May 14, 2019, 3:25 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The economic problems are compounded in Niger because polygamy is so common. Men in the mostly Muslim nation can have up to four wives" (para 43).
March 31, 2019, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-DATA-1

"In some parts of the North Caucasus, women continued to face bride kidnapping, polygamy, forced marriage (including child marriage), legal discrimination, and enforced adherence to Islamic dress codes" (47).
March 18, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

In this story about a woman named Khadija, it was noted that her husband wished to take a widow as his second wife. Polygyny is thus practiced in Afghanistan. However, Khadija noted that levirate marriage is practiced; that is, the brother of the widow's dead husband has the right and obligation to marry her, and since this widow has 10 brothers-in-law, it would be impossible for her husband to take the widow as his second wife.
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Government awareness programs encouraged women to obtain a contractual agreement at the time of marriage stipulating the marriage will end if the husband marries a second wife. This practice was common in Moor (Arab) society. Women who did not establish a solid contract remained unprotected. Moreover, government authorities did not always respect either the validity of such prenuptial agreements or the right to establish them. Polygyny continued to be relatively unusual among Moors, although its popularity has grown. The practice was more common among sub-Saharan ethnic groups" (page 19).