The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for PW-PRACTICE-3

Dec. 23, 2020, 3:22 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Jewish law prohibits men from taking multiple wives. But Mr. Kin, according to several rabbis here, apparently relied on a legal loophole, which says that if a man can get the special permission of 100 rabbis to take a second wife, he is able to do so" (para 4).
Dec. 23, 2020, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"The transitional leadership illustrated this in its statement reacting to a law limiting polygamy: 'this law is contrary to Shariah and must be stopped... Shariah allows polygamy.' Libyan women clearly and vocally opposed the potential legalization of polygamy and continued to demand their place in national decision making" (2).
Nov. 23, 2020, 6:17 p.m.
Countries: Senegal

"It is concerned, however, at the persistence of adverse cultural norms, practices and traditions as well as patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles, responsibilities and identities of women and men in the family and society. It notes that stereotypes contribute to the persistence of violence against women as well as harmful practices, including female genital mutilation, levirate and sororate, child marriage, polygamy, repudiation, and food prohibitions or taboos. The Committee is also concerned that the State party has not taken sufficient action to modify or eliminate such stereotypes and harmful practices" (Art. 18).
Nov. 19, 2020, 9:29 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan

"The Committee is concerned at the prevalence of customs and traditional practices that limit the degree of involvement of rural women in development programmes and prevent them from inheriting or acquiring land and other property. It is concerned that rural women farmers are not recognized as such, because in the State party a farmer (kisan) is the person who owns land. The Committee is also concerned at the difficulties faced by rural women in gaining access to health and social services and in participating in decision-making processes at the community level... It is concerned about the persistence of child and forced marriages and at the fact that the minimum age...more
Nov. 18, 2020, 2 p.m.
Countries: Nepal

"It is also concerned about the persistence of harmful traditional practices in the State party, such as child marriage, the dowry system, son preference, polygamy, widows accused of witchcraft, and such practices as c haupadi, j huma, d euki and d han- k haane" (Article 17). Chhaupadi is a form of menstrual taboo which prohibits Hindu women and girls from participating in normal family activities while menstruating, as they are considered impure. (CM - CODER COMMENT)
Nov. 12, 2020, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Kenya

"The Committee is concerned that such customs and practices perpetuate discrimination against women, and are reflected in women’s disadvantageous and unequal status in many areas, including in public life and decision-making and in marriage and family relations. The Committee notes that such stereotypes also contribute to the persistence of violence against women as well as harmful practices, including female genital mutilation (FGM), polygamy, bride price and wife inheritance; and expresses its concern that despite such negative impacts on women, the State party has not taken sustained and systematic action to modify or eliminate stereotypes and negative cultural values and harmful practices" (Article 17).
Nov. 12, 2020, 7:39 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan

"The Committee recalls its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/KAZ/CO/2, para. 13) and remains concerned at the persistence of some forms of harmful practices and traditions and patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, in particular those portraying women as caregivers. The Committee notes that such stereotypes contribute to the increased harmful practice of child marriage and polygamy among certain ethnic groups, and hence to the disadvantaged and unequal status of women in society" (Article 16).
Oct. 31, 2020, 12:03 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia

"It notes that stereotypes contribute to the persistence of violence against women and practices harmful to women and girls, such as female circumcision, early marriage, arranged marriage and polygamy. The Committee expresses its deep concern that the State party has not taken sufficient sustained and systematic action to modify or eliminate stereotypes and harmful practices" (Article 23).
Oct. 27, 2020, 8:47 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea

"It also expresses its serious concern about the persistence of entrenched harmful practices, such as forced and early marriages, levirate and mistreatment of widows, dowry-related violence and polygamy in the State party" (23).
Oct. 21, 2020, 12:14 p.m.
Countries: Benin

"The Committee expresses deep concern that harmful practices, such as child and forced marriages, polygamy, female genital mutilation, widowhood practices, levirate and sororate, purification rites for adulterous women and killings of so-called “witch children”, continue to be prevalent and go unpunished, the comprehensive legislative framework notwithstanding. The Committee is concerned that the customary practice of excluding women from inheriting agricultural land remains dominant in rural areas and that women continue to face practical difficulties in gaining access to both land and credit. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the persistence of customary laws and practices, including the prevalence of de facto polygamous marriages, although such laws are no longer valid...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Men can marry up to four wives, without the permission or knowledge of the other wife or wives" (para 17).
Aug. 31, 2020, 6:42 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

“[Fawzia] Koofi, [a female presidential candidate], was the 19th child out of her father's 23 children. Her mother was her father's second wife” (Para. 32-33). It’s important to note this was in the 70’s, although polygyny is still allowed in modern Afghanistan under Sharia Law (BC - CODER COMMENT).
Aug. 10, 2020, 7:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"According to research compiled by the Ireland Refugee Documentation Centre reasons for polygamous marriages in Afghanistan include: a) The very poor social status of divorcees which pressurises wives to agree to become a second or third wife to avoid being single; b) The view among men that the ability to enter into a polygamous marriage is an indication of material and social prestige; c) The failure of the existing wife to produce a male child; and d) The wife as an incurable disease" (4-5).
July 3, 2020, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"2% of women age 15-24 reported having two or more sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, among whom 39% reported using a condom during their last sexual intercourse. Twenty-seven percent of young women age 15-24 reported having sexual intercourse in the past 12 months with a partner who neither was their husband nor lived with them, and among these women 34% reported using a condom during their last sexual intercourse with such a partner. 11% of men age 15-24 reported having two or more sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, among whom 41% reported using a condom during their last sexual intercourse....more
April 28, 2020, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Ildar Alyautdinov, the mufti of Moscow, told state-owned news agency RIA Novosti that allowing men to have multiple wives would help solve a number of social problems in Russia." (para 2). "He added that there would be 'much less sinfulness and fornication, which is spreading so rapidly' if polygamous relationships were no longer illegal." (para 3). "Alyautdinov also claimed that women are currently 'completely unprotected' in the social sphere due to the absence of Islamic Sharia law in the country." (para 4). "'Legalising polygyny would guarantee women's rights', he said. 'It's important to create a legal mechanism of protection, so that women could become full-fledged second spouses.'" (para 5). "Informal...more
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Second, Christian men in Lebanon can convert to Islam and remarry without ever divorcing their wives (Muslim men are legally allowed to have up to four wives) as explained in the following section. There are no similar processes by which Christian women can bypass Christian personal status law after their marriageshave been consummated" (69). "Given the difficulty of ending a Christian marriage, some Christian men choose to convert to Islam so that they can remarry. Under Shia and Sunni personal status laws, men can have up to four wives.150 The first wife remains confined to the restrictions imposed by their Christian confession (see Table 6 “Grounds for Termination of Marriage...more
Feb. 22, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-DATA-1

"Customary law authorises polygamy with the consent of the first wife, but it is not a common practice" (2)
Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Older women are more likely than younger women to have co-wives. The percentage of women with co-wives peaks among women age 45-49 (5%). Women living in non-urban areas are more likely to report co-wives (4%) than their counterparts living in urban areas (2%)" (58).
Feb. 7, 2020, 4:26 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Polygamy is not practised but a phenomenon known as the deuxième bureau (literally, the 'second office') has developed, whereby married men enjoy extramarital relationships with several women. They act and consider themselves to be genuine spouses, and may even carry the identification cards of married women, but they do not have the legal status of a wife" (212)
Feb. 7, 2020, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Polygamy was part of traditional marriage, she added. As there was no law, it could not be declared legal or illegal. Polygamous marriages were entirely valid. Civil marriages were under their own regulations and separation was subject to the civil code. Traditional marriages depended on family negotiations. In African Bantu families, customs and traditions almost had the force of law. The law would be stillborn if it were applied. Marital issues were settled under traditional customs. It would counterproductive to apply a law to traditional marriages" (para 96)
Feb. 7, 2020, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The law states that couples must stipulate at the time of marriage whether they intend to adhere to a monogamous or a polygamous relationship" (222)
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The percentage of married women who have co-wives does not vary greatly by age or urban/rural residence (Table 4.2.1)" (pg 56). "Polygyny spans all education levels and wealth quintiles; married women in the middle quintile are the most likely to have co-wives (6%)" (pg 56).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"Awareness-raising activities to combat harmful traditional practices are carried out in all departments. Emphasis is placed on practices such as: (i) those related to sexuality (sexual violence, early initiation of sexual behaviour); (ii) polygamy; (iii) abusive rites (constraints on widowhood, non-recognition of the inheritance rights of widows and orphans; economic exploitation of dowries, domestic violence; female genital mutilation — despite the lack of comprehensive reports on this issue)" (11).
Feb. 1, 2020, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Gambia

"Marriages often were arranged and, depending on the ethnic group, polygyny was practiced. Women in polygynous unions had property and other rights arising from the marriage. They also had the option to divorce, but no legal right to disapprove or be notified in advance of subsequent marriages" (para 105)
Jan. 31, 2020, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"There is clear relationship between early marriage and polygamy, with just under 80% of women aged 20-24 who had been married before they turned 18 reporting that they were in a polygamous union" (2)
Jan. 31, 2020, 10:48 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"Polygamy was permitted by law in Hong Kong until 1971 when it was rendered illegal under the Offenses against the Person Ordinance. Despite these developments, polygamy still occurs as a cross-border phenomenon, with many Hong Kong businessmen maintaining concubines in mainland China" (28)
Jan. 28, 2020, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1

"Liberia’s civil law prohibits polygamy but customary law allows men to have several wives. More than one-third of married women between 15 and 49 years of age live in polygamous marriages" (236)
Jan. 28, 2020, 10:11 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"The Constitution, 1994, reviewed in 2004:...- Article 22[3]: 'All men and women have the right to marry and found a family.' Article 22[4]: 'No person shall be forced to enter into marriage.' Article 22[5] clarifies that Sub-sections [3] and [4] shall apply to all marriages at law, custom and marriages by repute or by permanent cohabitation" (para 1)
Jan. 28, 2020, 9:24 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

"In addition, if the type of marriage was not specified on the marriage certificate, judges presumed the marriage was polygynous" (para 77)
Jan. 28, 2020, 9:11 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1

"Following Islamic law, polygamy is legal in Mauritania. It is especially common within the Black population. Once married, women can ask their husbands not to enter into a second union" (244)