The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-LAW-1

Sept. 13, 2018, 8:11 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"A senior Saudi cleric said last month that women need not wear the abaya - the loose-fitting, full-length robe symbolic of religious faith - and another prominent sheik said that celebrating Valentine's Day did not contradict Islamic teachings, defying the religious police's hardline position" (para. 19). It shows the religious police demands the use of the abaya (JSM - coder comment).
Sept. 6, 2018, 9:14 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"A Corsican mayor has announced a ban on burkinis, becoming the third in France to do so" (para 1). "The burkini ban in Cannes was backed by a court on Saturday after two local Muslim associations took emergency legal action to have it repealed. The judge upheld the move, ruling that it was not disproportionate. The associations said they would appeal against the court decision and a human rights group will also challenge the ban" (para 15). "Near Cannes, the hardline mayor of Villeneuve-Loubet, Lionnel Luca, from Nicolas Sarkozy’s Les Républicains party, also banned the burkini, saying it was unhygienic to swim fully clothed" (para 16)
Aug. 2, 2018, 10:03 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Sheikh Abdullah al-Mutlaq, a member of the Council of Senior Scholars, said women should dress modestly, but this did not have to mean wearing the abaya.Saudi women are currently required to wear the garment by law" (para 2-3). "Women who do not wear the abaya in places where they may be seen by men who are not related to them face being chastised by the religious police" (para 10).
March 16, 2018, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-PRACTICE-1

"Under Erdogan, Turkey has lifted bans on Islamic-style headscarves that barred devout women from attending university, entering the civil service and serving in the military" (para 19).
Jan. 10, 2018, 5:14 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"...all Iranian women are obliged to cover themselves in public, even when traveling abroad" (para 4).
Jan. 10, 2018, 4:29 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Bulgaria banned on Friday face-covering Islamic veils in public" (para 1). "Parliament approved the law that 'bans wearing in public clothing that partially or completely covers the face', referring to the burqa or the more common niqab" (para 2).
Jan. 6, 2018, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, ASR-PRACTICE-1, ASR-DATA-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"In Egypt, it is common to prohibit veiled women from entering night clubs and pubs. Since last year, an increasing number of veiled women were reported to have been denied entry to restaurants as well. One of the cases that created a fuss was that of Heba Arnaout, a professor of microbiology in her 50s who has been veiled for many years. Going to a restaurant and bar in Cairo's upscale district of Zamalek late in December, she says she was asked to leave with her husband and foreign friends because she was wearing the hijab. They got a table after threatening to go to the police and file a...more
Dec. 20, 2017, 8:05 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Officials this Spring launched a massive renewed campaign against women wearing the Hijab (Islamic headscarf). Victims and human rights defenders complain that women have been questioned, threatened and fined, as have some husbands. Some have lost their jobs or been forced to leave school" (para 1). "Since late Spring, the authorities - particularaly in the capital Dushanbe and khujand, central city of the northern Sogd Region - have been carrying out a massive renewed campaign against women wearing the hijab (Islamic headscarf)" (para 2). "Working groups - which included Police, employees of the State Committee for Women and Family Affairs, and officials of the State Committee for Religious Affairs (SCRA)...more
Dec. 20, 2017, 11:56 a.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In addressing the issue of gender-based violence in its electoral platform, Al-Nahda specifically states that it will 'combat all forms of violence against women, and oppose compulsory dress code among women' in its platform" (para 3) (Coder comment: Al-Nahda is the moderate Islamist party - ARR).
Dec. 6, 2017, 10:43 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"The UN has criticised Iran for forcing girls to wear hijab (Islamic veil) at the very young age of 7 irrespective of their religious affiliations. Following a review of the situation in Iran, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) urged the country to 'review its hijab laws and regulations and ensure that the right of girls to wear or not to wear hijab is fully respected'" (para 1). "In a submission to the UN CRC, JFI [Justice For Iran] had urged the committee to take appropriate measures against . . . compulsory veiling of children in Iran. Many JFI recommendations were adopted by the UN Committee...more
Dec. 2, 2017, 4 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"[The Germany burqa ban] also echoes a controversial decision by several French towns in recent weeks to outlaw burkinis, the full-body Islamic swimsuit, at a highly sensitive time for relations with the Muslim community following a series of attacks in France" (para 7).
Dec. 2, 2017, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Germany's interior minister has proposed a partial ban of the burqa, the full-face veil worn by some Muslim women, as a nationwide debate rages over integration" (para 1)."The minister said the ban would apply to "places where it is necessary for our society's coexistence", including government offices, schools and universities, courtrooms, demonstrations and while driving vehicles" (para 3).
Nov. 30, 2017, 6:18 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Police in the central Asian state of Tajikistan have forcibly shaved nearly 13,000 men and 'convinced' 1,700 women to remove their headscarves in a bid to eradicate radical Islam in the country" (para 1). "Police also said they had 'convinced' 1,700 women to remove their headscarves, arrested 89 hijab-wearing prostitutes and closed down 162 shops and stalls selling hijabs" (para 5).
Nov. 30, 2017, 5:19 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Morocco has banned the production and sale of burqa full-face Muslim veils for security reasons (para 1). "In Taroudant in southern Morocco, authorities ordered traders to stop making and selling burqas and to liquidate their stock within 48 hours, the reports said" (para 9). "It was unclear if Morocco plans to follow in the footsteps of some European countries such as France and Belgium where it is illegal to wear full veils in public" (para 11).
Nov. 27, 2017, 3:37 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In recent years following an increase in the summer air temperature and the thinning of women’s clothing, the security forces implemented a special plan to counter the improper wearing of the hijab. In March 2005 the High Cultural Council passed a resolution entitled ‘Strategies and solutions to develop the culture of chastity’. Based on this resolution security forces were charged with a series of enforcements known as ‘Guidance Patrol’. Police cars with emblems of Guidance Patrol roam through important streets, squares, promenades, cinemas, shopping centres, arcades and similar spots where women whose hijabs are not deemed appropriate in accordance with their views are arrested" (para 11).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:55 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"On 11 April 2011, France became the first European country to ban the full-face Islamic veil in public places. Under the ban, no woman, French or foreign, is able to leave their home with their face hidden behind a veil without running the risk of a fine. As President, Nicolas Sarkozy, whose administration brought in the ban, said that veils oppress women and were 'not welcome' in France. In 2016 France introduced a controversial ban on women's full-body swimsuits, known as 'burkinis'. Prime Minister Manuel Valls called the swimsuits 'the affirmation of political Islam in the public space'. The burkini ban, imposed by French Riviera mayors, was later lifted in...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In 2008, the government announced it would bar judges from wearing headscarves and similar religious or political symbols - including crucifixes, Jewish skull caps and turbans - in courtrooms. . . . That move came after pressure from the Danish People's Party (DPP), known for its anti-Muslim rhetoric, which has since called for the ban to be extended to include school teachers and medical personnel" (para 56-57).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Though there are no plans for a national ban in Spain, in 2010 the city of Barcelona announced a ban on full Islamic face-veils in some public spaces such as municipal offices, public markets and libraries. At least two smaller towns in Catalonia, the north-eastern region that includes Barcelona, have also imposed bans. Barcelona was the first major city in Spain to ban the full-face Islamic veil in public buildings. But a ban in the town of Lleida was overturned by Spain's Supreme Court in February 2013. It ruled that it was an infringement of religious liberties. Barcelona's city council said the ban there targeted any head-wear that impeded identification,...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"There is no ban on Islamic dress in the UK, but schools are allowed to decide their own dress code after a 2007 directive which followed several high-profile court cases. Many Islamic groups see a ban on full-face veils as discrimination against Muslims. In January 2010, then Schools Secretary Ed Balls said it was not British to tell people what to wear in the street after the UK Independence Party called for all face-covering Muslim veils to be banned. In September 2013, Home Office Minister Jeremy Browne called for a 'national debate' about Islamic veils in public places, such as schools. In 2014 UKIP came first in the European elections...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In late 2009, Swiss Justice Minister Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf said a face-veil ban should be considered if more Muslim women begin wearing them, adding that the veils made her feel 'uncomfortable'. In September 2013, 65% of the electorate in the Italian-speaking region of Ticino voted in favour of a ban on face veils in public areas by any group. It was the first time that any of Switzerland's 26 cantons has imposed such a ban" (para 62-64).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"On 11 April 2011, France became the first European country to ban the full-face Islamic veil in public places. Under the ban, no woman, French or foreign, is able to leave their home with their face hidden behind a veil without running the risk of a fine. As President, Nicolas Sarkozy, whose administration brought in the ban, said that veils oppress women and were 'not welcome' in France. In 2016 France introduced a controversial ban on women's full-body swimsuits, known as 'burkinis'. Prime Minister Manuel Valls called the swimsuits 'the affirmation of political Islam in the public space'. The burkini ban, imposed by French Riviera mayors, was later lifted in...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In November 2016, Dutch MPs backed a ban on the Islamic full veil in public places such as schools and hospitals, and on public transport. The niqab and the burka full-face veils were included in the ban along with face coverings such as ski-masks and helmets. In order for the ban to become law, the Dutch Senate must approve the bill. Prime Minister Mark Rutte's ruling Liberal-Labour coalition described the bill, which will see offenders fined up to 410 euros (£350, $435), as 'religious-neutral'. The proposed ban reflected the influence of the anti-Islamist Geert Wilders, whose Freedom party was at that time the third largest in parliament and the minority...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Russia's Stavropol region has a ban on hijabs - the first of its kind imposed by a region in the Russian federation. The ruling was upheld by Russia's Supreme Court in July 2013. In Chechnya, the authorities have defied Russian policy on Islamic dress. In 2007 President Ramzan Kadyrov - the pro-Moscow leader - issued an edict ordering women to wear headscarves in state buildings. It is a direct violation of Russian law, but is strictly followed today. President Kadyrov even voiced support for men who fired paintballs at women deemed to be violating the strict dress code" (para 59-61).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"For more than 85 years Turks have lived in an officially secular state founded by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who rejected headscarves as backward-looking. . . . Scarves are banned in civic spaces and official buildings, but the issue is deeply divisive for the country's predominantly Muslim population, as two-thirds of all Turkish women - including the wives and daughters of the prime minister and president - cover their heads. In 2008, Turkey's constitution was amended to ease a strict ban at universities, allowing headscarves that were tied loosely under the chin. Headscarves covering the neck and all-enveloping veils were still banned. In October 2013, Turkey lifted rules banning women from...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"The ruling coalition agreed in January 2017 to prohibit full-face veils (niqab and burka) in public spaces such as courts and schools. It said it was considering a more general ban on state employees wearing the headscarf and other religious symbols. The measures were seen as an attempt to counter the rise of the far-right Freedom Party, which almost won the presidency in December 2016. The coalition, made up of the left-wing Social Democrats and the conservative Austrian People's Party, said that full-face veils in public stood in the way of 'open communication', which it said was fundamental to an 'open society'. Only an estimated 150 women wear the full...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Several towns in Italy have local bans on face-covering veils. The north-western town of Novara is one of several local authorities to have already brought in rules to deter public use of the Islamic veil. In the Lombardy region of Italy, a burka ban was agreed in December 2015 and came into effect in January 2016. Governments have discussed extending laws to impose penalties on Muslim face coverings, but these have not yet been enforced nationally. This sign in Varallo says that the Burqa, Niqab and Burqini are not allowed by communal decision. In 2004 local politicians in northern Italy resurrected old public order laws against the wearing of masks,...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"On 6 December 2016, Chancellor Angela Merkel said the wearing of full-faced veils should be prohibited in Germany 'wherever it is legally possible'. Her comments, made at a CDU party meeting, came after plans to outlaw the burka - or any full-face veil - in public buildings were proposed by Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere in August. There has been no national law restricting the wearing of veils in Germany prior to these proposals. In September 2003 the federal Constitutional Court ruled in favour of a teacher who wanted to wear an Islamic scarf to school. However, it said states could change their laws locally if they wanted to. At...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"A law banning the full-face veil came into effect in Belgium in July 2011. The law bans any clothing that obscures the identity of the wearer in places like parks and on the street. Veiled women in Belgium have staged protests against the ban. In December 2012, Belgium's Constitutional Court rejected appeals for the ban to be annulled, ruling that it did not violate human rights. Before the law was passed, the burka was already banned in several districts under old local laws originally designed to stop people masking their faces completely at carnival time" (para 26-29).
Nov. 8, 2017, 10:49 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Morocco's Interior Ministry has banned the production and sale of the burqa, the full-length covering for women that leaves only the eyes visible, according to notices delivered by law enforcement to street vendors, wholesalers, tailors, and industrial producers. Security forces made the country's highest police authority, the caid, compile a form that trickled down to local vendors. 'It is prohibited to produce and sell burqa. You are invited to get rid of your stock within the next 48 hours. Those who contravene will have their merchandise seized and their store closed,' read the notice. The Moroccan version of a burqa, which costs between 50-60 dirhams (about 5-6 euros), is different...more
Oct. 30, 2017, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-DATA-2, RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"She [Fatima Imam] addresses the challenges facing Nubian women, foremost among them the issue of genital mutilation, women's weak position in political affairs and the absence of a Nubian feminist movement in the public space, as well as the Islamization of society through the imposition of abayas (loose overgarments) on women. Speaking on all of the above, Fatima said, 'Wahabi culture and ideas from the Gulf have led to the Islamization of society, because many Nubians have traveled to live in the Gulf and have returned carrying Gulf ideas'"(para 18)