The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-LAW-1

July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"Cultural norms enforced by state institutions require women to wear an “abaya” (a loose-fitting, full-length cloak) in public. The CPVPV also generally expected Muslim women to cover their hair and non-Muslim women from Asian and African countries to comply more fully with local customs of dress than non-Muslim Western women" (43).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-4

"In areas under its control, ISIS published a 'Civilization Document' with 16 points that a woman must follow or face the death penalty. They included staying at home and not leaving it without an immediate male relative (mahram); wearing a wide cloak, full face veil, and headscarf; closing hair salons; not sitting on chairs in public; and not seeing male doctors. ISIS established the 'al-Khanssaa' brigade, an all-female police force in the city of Raqqa, composed mostly of noncitizen women who enforced these regulations, sometimes violently, among women" (Pg 47).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"The National Commission on Violence against Women reported 421 policies that discriminate against women were issued by provincial, district and municipal administrations between 2009 and 2014. These include “morality laws” and antiprostitution regulations, such as those in Bantul and Tanggerang, that have been used to detain women walking alone at night. More than 70 local regulations require women to dress conservatively or wear a headscarf. The Ministry of Home Affairs is responsible for “harmonizing” local regulations that are not in line with national legislation, but as of August the ministry had not invoked this authority to overturn any gender discriminatory local regulations" (Pg 28).
July 13, 2019, 12:03 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Public order laws and personal laws imposed since 1991 have prevented women from wearing what they want" (1).
July 4, 2019, 9:20 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In public spaces, people tend to follow common rules about modest dress and interactions between unrelated women and men. But in private, Saudis can largely do as they please" (para 12). "...[young people] organize salsa dance classes where women dress in ways they never could on the street" (para 13). "[Picture shows Saudi women at the opening of a women’s book fair in Saihat] Because the event was on private land, attendees had the freedom to take off their veils" (para 4). Dress code for women in public requires veils (HGM - CODER COMMENT).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"The Ministry of Education maintained a dress code that bans wearing the hijab in schools and government institutions. Authorities allowed women to wear a traditional version of the head covering--a scarf that covers hair but not the neck-- to schools and universities. Many female students wore the hijab to and from school but removed it upon entering the school building. Parents and school officials appeared to accept this arrangement. The ministry also maintained its ban on beards for all teachers. Students with beards reported being removed from class, questioned, and asked to shave" (Pg 11).
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Various government institutions required women to dress according to Islamic or cultural standards, including wearing a head covering. In Khartoum Public Order Police occasionally brought women before judges for allegedly violating Islamic standards. Islamic standards for dress generally were not enforced for non-Muslims...On September 10, seven Cristian girls from South Sudan were arrested at a popular restaurant and convicted of indecent dress. The girls each were fined 100 SDG ($15)" (Pg 66).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Widespread societal exclusion enforced by, but not limited to, state institutions restricted women from using many public facilities. The law requires women usually to sit in separate, specially designated family sections. They frequently cannot consume food in restaurants that do not have such sections. Women risk arrest for riding in a private vehicle driven by a male who is not an employee (such as a hired chauffeur or taxi driver) or a close male relative. Cultural norms enforced by state institutions require women to wear an abaya (a loose-fitting, full-length black cloak) in public. The CPVPV also generally expected Muslim women to cover their hair and non-Muslim women from Asian...more
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"The Ministry of Education maintained a dress code that bans wearing the hijab in schools and government institutions. Authorities allowed women to wear a traditional version of the head covering--a scarf that covers hair but not the neck-- to schools and universities. The ministry also maintained its ban on beards for all teachers. Students with beards reported being removed from class, questioned, and asked to shave. In January the Ministry of Education signed a decree obliging all female teachers, university students, and schoolchildren to wear traditional dress, starting from March 1 until the end of the academic year in June" (p. 12).
June 3, 2019, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Between 2008 and 2010 more than 20,000 girls and women were lashed publicly for defying discriminatory laws related to dress codes. In 2012, between May and August, three women were sentence to stoning, which was a new occurrence in Sudan. Even thought Article 146 of the Criminal Code does prescribe stoning as a punishment, in the past the 7-8 cases tried never resulted in the actual sentencing to death by stoning. Thankfully, the recent cases in 2012 were all overturned, but the fact that this happened within a 4 month span is a very worrying sign of rising fundamentalisms, and increased threat’s to women’s everyday security" (Pg 37).more
May 16, 2019, 3:01 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Two women are awaiting Supreme Court hearings in their challenges to the ban on female students wearing hijab in Tashkent's International Islamic Academy and its secondary school. The Academy expelled Luiza Muminjanova in 2018, while Abdukakharova was allowed back after appealing" (para 1).
April 9, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"The law provides that a woman who appears in public without appropriate attire, such as a cloth scarf veil ('hijab') over the head and a long jacket ('manteau'), or a large full-length cloth covering ('chador'), may be sentenced to flogging and fined. Absent a clear legal definition of “appropriate attire” or of the related punishment, women were subjected to the opinions of various disciplinary and security force members, police, and judges" (36).
March 21, 2019, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Da’esh also beat persons because of their dress; several sources reported Da’esh members beat women for not covering their faces. Da’esh justified its use of corporal punishment, including amputations and lashings, under religious law" (para 99). "Da’esh imposed severe restrictions on women’s personal conduct, attire, and freedom of movement in the territory it controlled" (para 184). ""In areas under its control, Da’esh published a 'Civilization Document' with 16 points that a woman must follow or face the death penalty. They included staying at home and not leaving it without an immediate male relative (mahram); wearing a wide cloak, full face veil, and head scarf; closing hair salons; not sitting on...more
March 18, 2019, 7:25 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"According to media reports, in June the city of Lorette prohibited women wearing veils from accessing the city’s municipal swimming pool by adding “headscarves” to the pool’s list of prohibited items. The rules require a woman to wear a onepiece or two-piece bathing suit to access the pool" (p. 23).
March 1, 2019, 11:10 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Sudan’s public order law allows police officers to publicly whip women who are accused of public indecency. In 2015, there were multiple reports of individuals being arrested for ‘indecent dress,’ including twelve Christian female students wearing trousers; one of which was sentenced to twenty lashes" (para 5).
Feb. 25, 2019, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Ali Motahari, the deputy speaker of Iran's parliament, demanded a nationwide vote on the hijab... The head scarf has been a mandatory dress requirement for women in Iran since the Islamic Revolution in 1979" (para. 2 - 3). "The Islamic dress code, in place since the 1979 revolution, considers veiling obligatory for any female above 13 in Iran and says they should cover themselves from head to toe while disavowing any figure-hugging dress. Breaking the rules can result in fines of up to 500,000 rials (£17) and up to two months in prison" (para. 17 - 18).
Feb. 4, 2019, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"UK Government is clear that discriminatory dress codes are unlawful, outdated and sexist, and cannot be tolerated in the workplace" (12).
Jan. 10, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In 2004, the French government passed a highly controversial law banning any overt religious symbols from schools, which critics interpreted as a ban on Muslim headscarves by another name. In 2010, the government passed another law, banning outright any face-covering garments from public spaces, arguing that these violate individual freedoms, especially of women" (para 27). "This summer, roughly 30 French towns banned the “burkini,” a swimsuit designed to allow Muslim women to enjoy the beach while observing traditional codes of modesty. Manuel Valls, now a Socialist Party candidate for the French presidency, called the burkini a “provocation” and an insult to France’s strict interpretation of secularism. French courts have since...more
Jan. 7, 2019, 9:37 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Under Iran's strict interpretation of Islam that's melded with government since 1979, women and girls over the age of 9 are required to cover their heads and everything but the face and hands. Offenders face fines or jail time" (para 19). "In late 2017, police said they would stop arresting people for dress code violations. But harassment of women by the 'morality police' continued" (para 23).
Jan. 2, 2019, 9:02 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Last week, Denmark voted to ban the niqab and burqa, becoming the fifth European country to pass such a law" (para 18).
Dec. 14, 2018, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Algerian authorities has banned banned female public sector employees from wearing full-face veils, or niqabs, at work. Prime Minister Ahmed Ouayhia publicized the decision in a letter to ministers and regional governors in the Muslim-majority country last Thursday. Civil servants, he wrote, need to 'observe the rules and requirements of security and communication within their department.' He said public sector workers needed to be able to be 'physically identifiable' while in the workplace" (para 1-4).
Dec. 9, 2018, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: Italy, Netherlands
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"The Netherlands and Italy also have partial burqa bans, though they are confined to specific towns, public places, or jobs" (para. 13).
Dec. 9, 2018, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"At least half of Germany's 16 states have bans on teachers and public servants wearing full-face veils" (para. 11).
Dec. 9, 2018, 6:35 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Denmark has voted to ban the niqab and burqa, becoming the fifth European country to pass such a law" (para. 1).
Oct. 28, 2018, 9 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Tajikistan continues beard and hijab-wearing bans, and has forced one couple to divorce. Police set up a roadblock to enforce the bans, which are also been enforced in schools and universities" (para 1). "Under repeated pressure from the authorities, a man in Tajikistan's northern Sogd Region divorced his wife in 2017 after seven years of marriage. Police had repeatedly summoned him, demanding that he stop his wife, a devout Muslim, from wearing the hijab. Under great pressure from police, the woman's husband kicked her out of their house and also began to publicly insult her" (para 2). "Hijab-wearing women have also been refused employment and medical care. Asked why, the...more
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In October the government banned actress Sadaf Taherian from returning to the country after she posted photos on her social media account that showed her not wearing the 'hejab' (headscarf), which is mandatory in the country for all women appearing in public. Authorities briefly arrested an unnamed man for posting photos with members of the opposite sex who were not wearing the hejab on his social media account in November, according to multiple press reports" (para 92). "The law provides that a woman who appears in public without appropriate attire (hejab), such as a cloth scarf over the head and a long jacket, or a large full-length cloth called a...more
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"Although they have no authority to implement laws based on sharia or religious considerations, local governments outside Aceh also enforced regulations mandating female modesty and Islamic dress for Muslim women. For instance, a 2009 local regulation in Tasikmalaya, West Java, mandates all Muslim women who have reached puberty to dress “according to the teachings of Islam'" (para 155)
Oct. 2, 2018, 11:38 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"A law banning face coverings while driving took effect in Germany last year, coming on the heels of legislation prohibiting anyone in the civil service, military or working for an election from covering their faces. Bavaria took the measure one step further, barring teachers and university professors from covering their faces" (para 27-28).
Oct. 2, 2018, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In 2016, a string of beach towns went one step further, driven in part by a string of deadly terrorist attacks, and banned the burkini, a full-body swimsuit worn by some Muslim women" (para 23).
Oct. 2, 2018, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1

"In 2011, France became the first country in Western Europe to ban face-covering garments like the burqa or niqab in public, although the law did not explicitly mention Islam. The move made it illegal to cover one’s face in public places, including streets and stores, as a security measure. Those who break the law face fines of up to 150 euros" (para 21).