The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-LAW-2

Sept. 12, 2017, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Compulsory 'veiling' (hijab) laws empower police and paramilitary forces to target women for harassment, violence and imprisonment regularly"(para 17)
Aug. 16, 2017, 9:46 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"France’s highest administrative court on Friday overturned a town’s ban on burkinis, the full-body swimwear used by some Muslim women, setting a precedent that challenges similar bans in at least 30 other municipalities, most of them on the French Riviera"(para 1)."In its ruling, the court, known as the Council of State, found that the ban in the town of Villeneuve-Loubet violated civil liberties, including freedom of movement and religious freedom, and that officials had failed to show that the swimwear posed a threat to public order.The ruling also made clear that the bans in other municipalities could be similarly overturned, and the Socialist government seemed conflicted on how to respond"(para ...more
Feb. 1, 2017, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"In May 2015 the Netherlands passed a partial ban on face covering Islamic veils which bars women from wearing it in government buildings, schools, hospitals and on public transport" (para 17).
Feb. 1, 2017, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"France became the first country in Europe to ban Islamic veils, such as the burka and the niqab, in public places in April 2011. Woman seen sporting the face veil can be fined while those who threaten a woman to wear the garb can be fined up to 30,000 Euros. In the wake of a number of terror attacks parts of France also banned the burkini-Islamic swimwear that covers women's bodies and faces-although some states over turned the ban saying it is unconstitutional" (para 13-15).
Feb. 1, 2017, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The Ticino region of Switzerland outlawed the veil in public places while a draft vote in the Swiss parliament this week saw politicians vote in favour, albeit by one vote, of a nationwide burqa ban. However the plans remain far from coming into force after a previous proposal for a ban on the face covering veils was voted down by state representatives at a commission in January" (para 18-19).
Feb. 1, 2017, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"In July 2011 Belgium also outlawed the burqa and the niqab and those caught wearing the face veil in public pieces could be jailed for up to seven days and fined" (para 16).
Jan. 26, 2017, 8:30 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Bulgaria bans the burqa: Women no longer allowed to wear veils after nationalist party pushed for law change amid fears of Islamic terrorism. Bulgaria's parliament has approved a law banning women from wearing veils that cover their faces in public amid increasing fears over acts of Islamic terrorism in the country (para 1-2). "The new law states that clothing that conceals the face may not be worn in the institutions of Bulgaria's central and local administrations, schools, cultural institutions, and places of public recreation, sports and communications" (para 5). "Women who violate the ban [on the burka] face fines of up to 770 euros (665 pounds), as well as a ...more
Nov. 9, 2016, 6:19 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"[The burqa is] enforced by the Taliban"(para 6). This is found in the infographic underneath the sixth paragraph (ENB-Coder Comment)
Nov. 9, 2016, 6:19 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"The niqab has become a defining issue of the 2015 federal election, with the Conservatives in favour of limiting its use in certain public circumstances, and the NDP and Liberals coming out strongly against such restrictions"(para 1)."There are 8,495 Muslim women working in Canadian public administration positions. Stephen Harper’s musings about a ban on niqabs in the civil service would affect at best a small number of bureaucrats. Statistics from 2011 show only 1.8 per cent of 257,000 federal employees are Muslim women, and only a small subset of them is likely to wear face coverings"(para 3)."Bill 62, introduced by Quebec’s Liberal government in June, bans religious face-coverings such as ...more
Feb. 29, 2016, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"There are no dress code requirements in Ukraine, except when in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church or Greek Orthodox Church, which requires that their heads be covered (not their faces), and that they wear a long skirt to enter the building." (10)
Feb. 26, 2016, 10:59 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Although Ayatollah Khomeini, the eventual leader of the Revolution and later the Islamic Republic, first denied that Islamic hijab would be compulsory, it eventually became mandatory and the penal Code prescribed a severe punishment (seventy lashes) for violating Islamic hijab. Flogging was later replaced by more lenient punishments: including imprisonment and fines. Article 683- 'Those women that appear in the streets and public places without the Islamic hijab, shall be sentenced from ten days to two months’ imprisonment or fined from fifty thousand to five hundred thousand Rials.' There is no similar rule for men in the Penal Code " (16)
Feb. 25, 2016, 6:37 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"When in public, all women in Iran, even foreigners, are required to wear the loose scarf, which covers the hair and neck"(para 3)."Earlier this month, a police official said women drivers could have their cars impounded if they are caught driving with a poorly fixed veil or with their heads uncovered.'If a (female) driver in a car is poorly veiled or has taken her veil off, the vehicle will be seized in accordance with the law,' said Tehran traffic police chief General Teymour Hosseini"(para 9-10)
Feb. 20, 2016, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Reza Shah attempted to implement 'Western' values, inter alia, by mandating Western-style dress. In 1936, he specifically deemed veiling to be against the law" (16)
Feb. 12, 2016, 6:19 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The regional government in Lombardy said Wednesday it will ban women from wearing veils or burqas in hospitals. Lombardy Governor Roberto Maroni, speaking at a press conference with Labour Minister and Minister for Social Policies Giuliano Poletti, said that during a meeting on Friday the region will ban, on the basis of national law, hospital entry for anyone ‘wearing the veil, burqa or anything of that type. We have regulations that establish the conditions for entry into hospitals,' he said. 'The regulations don’t expressly prohibit entry for those who are covered or wear the veil. However there are national laws and we will bring ourselves into line with those'"(para 1-2)more
Jan. 29, 2016, 7:52 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

A woman wearing a niqab in Iran’s Hormozgan province, which has the highest incidence of FGM in the country. Niqabs are only worn in southern provinces (para 1). This data piece is found as a caption right before the first paragraph. It does not say whether this is law or practice in those provinces (ENB-Coder Comment)
Jan. 13, 2016, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, IIP-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-1

"Just 15 years ago, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islam combined with profoundly conservative tribal codes onto the Afghan people. Men and women were strictly segregated, the vast majority of the country's girls' schools were shuttered, women were barred from leaving their homes without an all-enveloping burka and a male chaperon. Those who broke the rules were beaten or executed" (para 37).
Jan. 9, 2016, 9:41 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"The regional government in Lombardy said Wednesday it will ban women from wearing veils or burqas in hospitals. Lombardy Governor Roberto Maroni, speaking at a press conference with Labour Minister and Minister for Social Policies Giuliano Poletti, said that during a meeting on Friday the region will ban, on the basis of national law, hospital entry for anyone ‘wearing the veil, burqa or anything of that type. We have regulations that establish the conditions for entry into hospitals,' he said. 'The regulations don’t expressly prohibit entry for those who are covered or wear the veil. However there are national laws and we will bring ourselves into line with those'"(para 1-2)more
Dec. 18, 2015, 5:21 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-2

"Most judges require women to wear full-face veils in court, and according to 'Perpetual Minors,' do not accept women’s testimony in criminal cases" (17).
May 25, 2015, 7:57 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"In Raqqa, the Isis 'capital' in Syria, women were initially ordered to wear a black abaya covering the entire body. Soon after, a command to wear a veil was issued, then a third ordered a shield on top of the abaya. Women are also instructed to wear only black, including gloves and shoes. Isis subsequently ordered women to hide their eyes, requiring a a double-layered veil" (Para 10). This refers to ISIS-occupied Syria (Coder Comment - RMH). "Hisbah patrols tour Isis-controlled cities to ensure that women and men are behaving in accordance with Islamic rules. If they spot a woman in the street not wearing a shield or gloves, sometimes ...more
May 25, 2015, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Male guardians are subject to punishment if women are not complying with the prescribed dress code. In Mosul, Isis published a charter within weeks of taking taking control of the city, restricting women’s movements and imposing dress requirements. Women were instructed to wear a Saudi-style black veil of two layers to conceal their eyes and a loose robe designed by Isis after it said some abayas revealed body outlines. Many women initially objected to the Isis order but complied when they realised they could be beaten, humiliated and fined, and their husbands might be punished. Men are now forcing their wives and daughters to stay at home to avoid confrontations ...more
May 25, 2015, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"'They forced women of all ages to wear a veil, even though the majority of the women in Mosul wear a hijab,' paediatrician Maha Saleh, 36, said. 'The Hisbah would hit a woman on her head with a stick if she was not wearing a veil. At the beginning, some female doctors refused to wear veils and went on a strike by staying at home. Hisbah took ambulances and went to their houses and brought them by force to the hospital. One of my colleagues was alone in her clinic in the hospital and thought it was all right to strip off her veil. All of a sudden, two Hisbah ...more
April 24, 2015, 11 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"There are two laws restraining religious freedom in dress. In March 2004, religious signs at public school were banned for students. The main objective was to ban the hijjab. In theory, all such symbols are forbidden, but in really, symbols like crosses are sometimes allowed. It is symbolically very violence for young girls to be forced to remove their hijjab to go to school. Young Muslim girls are often harassed or punished by professors or school administration because of the way they dress (beyond hijjab) - for example if they wear long dresses or skirts, or headbands. In 2010, full veils were banned in public spaces - basically those veils ...more
April 23, 2015, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"In September 2013, 65 percent of the electorate in the Italian-speaking region of Ticino voted in favour of a ban on face veils in public areas by any group.' It was the first time that any of Switzerland's 26 cantons has imposed such a ban" (para 50-51)
April 23, 2015, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Russia's Stavropol region has announced a ban on hijabs - the first of its kind imposed by a region in the Russian federation. The ruling was upheld by Russia's Supreme Court in July 2013. In Chechnya, the authorities have defied Russian policy on Islamic dress. In 2007 President Ramzan Kadyrov - the pro-Moscow leader - issued an edict ordering women to wear headscarves in state buildings. It is a direct violation of Russian law, but is strictly followed today" (para 46-47)
April 23, 2015, 2:16 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"There is no national law restricting the wearing of veils" (para 42)
April 23, 2015, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Several towns in Italy have local bans on face-covering veils. The north-western town of Novara is one of several local authorities to have already brought in rules to deter public use of the Islamic veil. Governments have discussed extending the law to impose penalties on Muslim face coverings, but these have not yet been enforced nationally. In 2004 local politicians in northern Italy resurrected old public order laws against the wearing of masks, to stop women from wearing the burka. Some mayors from the anti-immigrant Northern League have also banned the use of Islamic swimsuits" (para 35-38)
April 23, 2015, 2:12 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Scarves are banned in civic spaces and official buildings, but the issue is deeply divisive for the country's predominantly Muslim population, as two-thirds of all Turkish women - including the wives and daughters of the prime minister and president - cover their heads. In 2008, Turkey's constitution was amended to ease a strict ban at universities, allowing headscarves that were tied loosely under the chin. Headscarves covering the neck and all-enveloping veils were still banned. In October 2013, Turkey lifted rules banning women from wearing headscarves in the country's state institutions - with the exception of the judiciary, military and police" (para 30-32)
April 23, 2015, 2:09 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Plans to impose a ban in the Netherlands under the country's previous centre-right coalition were shelved in 2012 when the government collapsed and was replaced by its left-wing rivals" (para 25)
April 23, 2015, 2:08 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"There is no ban on Islamic dress in the UK, but schools are allowed to decide their own dress code after a 2007 directive which followed several high-profile court cases" (para 21)
April 23, 2015, 2:05 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Though there are no plans for a national ban in Spain, the city of Barcelona announced a ban on full Islamic face-veils in some public spaces such as municipal offices, public markets and libraries. At least two smaller towns in Catalonia, the north-eastern region that includes Barcelona, have also imposed bans. But a ban in the town of Lleida was overturned by Spain's Supreme Court in February 2013. It ruled that it was an infringement of religious liberties. Barcelona's city council said the ban there targeted any head-wear that impeded identification, including motorbike helmets and balaclavas" (para 17-20)