The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 17, 2018, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"We observe attempts to control women’s conduct, dress code and freedoms in ways that contravene Israel’s commitment to gender equality…Women are discriminated against in cemetaries…where signposts direct women to seek alternative paths or to adhere to a strict dress code if they wish to pass through certain neighbourhoods" (18-19).
Jan. 10, 2018, 4:54 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Muslim women are rarely seen wearing burqa veils in Norway, according to AFP, but the issue has been widely discussed" (para 6).
Jan. 10, 2018, 4:29 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Muslim women in Bulgaria have generally worn just a simple scarf to cover their hair" (para 5).
Jan. 6, 2018, 8:12 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, IIP-PRACTICE-2

"Although she felt she was obliged to wear the hijab [in Egypt], Sara says she would not have taken part in such a demonstration had it taken place in Cairo when she was still veiled. 'If this is what I think, I shouldn't impose my opinion on the public,' says Sara, who now works as a simultaneous interpreter and lives with her husband in New York.'I can't really imagine a protest taking place in New York against a certain attire, though there are a lot more freedoms here'"(3)
Jan. 6, 2018, 8:11 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2

"'Many people would think women in Kuwait, as a Gulf country, have less freedom than in Egypt. As a matter of fact it's completely the opposite,' says Sara, who speaks Egyptian Arabic almost perfectly"(1). This statement was made by Sara who lived in Cairo for a year and remarked on the social pressure to wear the hijab as well as the sexual and verbal harassment on the street regardless of whether she was wearing the hijab or not (ENB-Coder Comment)."Sara wore the veil for five years. But the headscarf gave her little respite throughout the remainder of her time in Cairo, and she took it off following her departure. 'It...more
Jan. 6, 2018, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Veil or no veil, Egyptian women are often stigmatised, or worse. Calls for women to take off their veils at a demonstration in Cairo initiated debate over Islamic attire for women in Egypt"(1)."After spending one year living in Cairo, Muslim teenager Sara decided to adopt the Islamic veil, dressing modestly to show only her face and the palms of her hands in public as per mainstream Islamic teachings for women. She was not following her religious beliefs by wearing the hijab, but rather succumbing to social pressure and seeking to avoid recurrent harassment. Sara had visited Cairo beforehand. But when she began living there in 2001, she says, she experienced...more
Jan. 6, 2018, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"'EIPR observed cases where veiled Syrian women were physically attacked, insulted and kicked out of public microbuses because people recognised their nationality through their distinct hijab'"(5). This statement was made by Dali Abd El-Hameed (ENB-Coder Comment)
Dec. 22, 2017, 6:59 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In Béjaïa, Merabet’s photo was placed among that of women assassinated by Islamists during the 1990s. They included 17-year-old Katia Bengana, who was killed for refusing to wear the hijab" (para 3).
Dec. 22, 2017, 6:59 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In Béjaïa, Merabet’s photo was placed among that of women assassinated by Islamists during the 1990s. They included 17-year-old Katia Bengana, who was killed for refusing to wear the hijab" (para 3). "Indeed, the colonial authorities’ campaign of unveiling Muslim women led to the showcasing of 'emancipated women' to promote French ideals" (para 10). "Some, like A. Hedjila, criticised the French authorities’ unveiling 'masquerade' and stressed that women’s emancipation belonged to unionists. For Messalists, the evolution of women’s status was not 'an issue of veil or short skirt'" (para 21-22).
Dec. 20, 2017, 8:05 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In mid-July President Emomali Rahmon and other officials made public statements against wearing the hijab and beards. The campaign became 'more energised' after those statements, according to human rights defenders. And 'it still goes on,' as one human rights defender pointed out" (para 4). "On 11 July, at a public meeting marking the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the law on regulation of traditions, ceremonies and rituals with representatives of state and public organizations, President Rahmon spoke against hijabs and other religious apparel not traditional in Tajikistan, as well as against long beards" (para 15). "Radio Free Europe reported Rahmon warning in the same meeting that some women 'wearing...more
Dec. 14, 2017, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

Most women in the video are wearing saris (ENB-Coder Comment)
Dec. 13, 2017, 9:18 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Woman in the Turkish armed forces have been given the right to wear Islamic head scarves in a move that represents a significant cultural shift within an institution seen historically as the guardian of Turkey's secular identity" (para 1). The military was one of the last Turkish institutions to forbid the wearing of the hijab" (para 2). "The decision... highlights the transformation in the years since of both the military and society, where the head scarf has long been emblematic of the struggle between the country's secular and religious factions" (para 4). "Since 2002, the government...has gradually opened the punblic sphere to veiled women - allowing the veil on university...more
Dec. 13, 2017, 4:02 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"Hundreds of women marched in Istanbul on July 29 to protest against violence and animosity they face from men demanding they dress more conservatively" (para 1).
Dec. 6, 2017, 10:43 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"The UN has criticised Iran for forcing girls to wear hijab (Islamic veil) at the very young age of 7 irrespective of their religious affiliations” (para 1). "In a submission to the UN CRC, JFI [Justice For Iran] had urged the committee to take appropriate measures against . . . compulsory veiling of children in Iran" (para 10).
Dec. 2, 2017, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2

"Thomas de Maiziere said on Friday that the face veil does not belong in Germany society, where more than four million Muslims live, calling the proposed ban a 'preventive measure'" (para 2).
Nov. 30, 2017, 5:19 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Most women in Morocco, whose King Mohammed VI favours a moderate version of Islam, prefer the hijab headscarf that does not cover the face" (para 6).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In 2008, the government announced it would bar judges from wearing headscarves and similar religious or political symbols - including crucifixes, Jewish skull caps and turbans - in courtrooms. . . . That move came after pressure from the Danish People's Party (DPP), known for its anti-Muslim rhetoric, which has since called for the ban to be extended to include school teachers and medical personnel" (para 56-57).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"On 11 April 2011, France became the first European country to ban the full-face Islamic veil in public places. Under the ban, no woman, French or foreign, is able to leave their home with their face hidden behind a veil without running the risk of a fine. As President, Nicolas Sarkozy, whose administration brought in the ban, said that veils oppress women and were 'not welcome' in France. In 2016 France introduced a controversial ban on women's full-body swimsuits, known as 'burkinis'. Prime Minister Manuel Valls called the swimsuits 'the affirmation of political Islam in the public space'. The burkini ban, imposed by French Riviera mayors, was later lifted in...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

In late 2009, Swiss Justice Minister Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf said a face-veil ban should be considered if more Muslim women begin wearing them, adding that the veils made her feel 'uncomfortable'. In September 2013, 65% of the electorate in the Italian-speaking region of Ticino voted in favour of a ban on face veils in public areas by any group. It was the first time that any of Switzerland's 26 cantons has imposed such a ban" (para 62-64).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In November 2016, Dutch MPs backed a ban on the Islamic full veil in public places such as schools and hospitals, and on public transport. The niqab and the burka full-face veils were included in the ban along with face coverings such as ski-masks and helmets. In order for the ban to become law, the Dutch Senate must approve the bill. Prime Minister Mark Rutte's ruling Liberal-Labour coalition described the bill, which will see offenders fined up to 410 euros (£350, $435), as 'religious-neutral'. The proposed ban reflected the influence of the anti-Islamist Geert Wilders, whose Freedom party was at that time the third largest in parliament and the minority...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Russia's Stavropol region has a ban on hijabs - the first of its kind imposed by a region in the Russian federation. The ruling was upheld by Russia's Supreme Court in July 2013. In Chechnya, the authorities have defied Russian policy on Islamic dress. In 2007 President Ramzan Kadyrov - the pro-Moscow leader - issued an edict ordering women to wear headscarves in state buildings. It is a direct violation of Russian law, but is strictly followed today. President Kadyrov even voiced support for men who fired paintballs at women deemed to be violating the strict dress code" (para 59-61).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"For more than 85 years Turks have lived in an officially secular state founded by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who rejected headscarves as backward-looking. . . . Scarves are banned in civic spaces and official buildings, but the issue is deeply divisive for the country's predominantly Muslim population, as two-thirds of all Turkish women - including the wives and daughters of the prime minister and president - cover their heads. In 2008, Turkey's constitution was amended to ease a strict ban at universities, allowing headscarves that were tied loosely under the chin. Headscarves covering the neck and all-enveloping veils were still banned. In October 2013, Turkey lifted rules banning women from...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"There is no ban on Islamic dress in the UK, but schools are allowed to decide their own dress code after a 2007 directive which followed several high-profile court cases. Many Islamic groups see a ban on full-face veils as discrimination against Muslims. In January 2010, then Schools Secretary Ed Balls said it was 'not British' to tell people what to wear in the street after the UK Independence Party called for all face-covering Muslim veils to be banned. In September 2013, Home Office Minister Jeremy Browne called for a 'national debate' about Islamic veils in public places, such as schools. In 2014 UKIP came first in the European elections...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"The ruling coalition agreed in January 2017 to prohibit full-face veils (niqab and burka) in public spaces such as courts and schools. It said it was considering a more general ban on state employees wearing the headscarf and other religious symbols. The measures were seen as an attempt to counter the rise of the far-right Freedom Party, which almost won the presidency in December 2016. The coalition, made up of the left-wing Social Democrats and the conservative Austrian People's Party, said that full-face veils in public stood in the way of 'open communication', which it said was fundamental to an 'open society'. Only an estimated 150 women wear the full...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Several towns in Italy have local bans on face-covering veils. The north-western town of Novara is one of several local authorities to have already brought in rules to deter public use of the Islamic veil. In the Lombardy region of Italy, a burka ban was agreed in December 2015 and came into effect in January 2016. Governments have discussed extending laws to impose penalties on Muslim face coverings, but these have not yet been enforced nationally. This sign in Varallo says that the Burqa, Niqab and Burqini are not allowed by communal decision. In 2004 local politicians in northern Italy resurrected old public order laws against the wearing of masks,...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"On 6 December 2016, Chancellor Angela Merkel said the wearing of full-faced veils should be prohibited in Germany 'wherever it is legally possible'. Her comments, made at a CDU party meeting, came after plans to outlaw the burka - or any full-face veil - in public buildings were proposed by Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere in August. There has been no national law restricting the wearing of veils in Germany prior to these proposals. In September 2003 the federal Constitutional Court ruled in favour of a teacher who wanted to wear an Islamic scarf to school. However, it said states could change their laws locally if they wanted to. At...more
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"A law banning the full-face veil came into effect in Belgium in July 2011. The law bans any clothing that obscures the identity of the wearer in places like parks and on the street. Veiled women in Belgium have staged protests against the ban. In December 2012, Belgium's Constitutional Court rejected appeals for the ban to be annulled, ruling that it did not violate human rights. Before the law was passed, the burka was already banned in several districts under old local laws originally designed to stop people masking their faces completely at carnival time" (para 26-29).
Nov. 22, 2017, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Though there are no plans for a national ban in Spain, in 2010 the city of Barcelona announced a ban on full Islamic face-veils in some public spaces such as municipal offices, public markets and libraries. At least two smaller towns in Catalonia, the north-eastern region that includes Barcelona, have also imposed bans. Barcelona was the first major city in Spain to ban the full-face Islamic veil in public buildings. But a ban in the town of Lleida was overturned by Spain's Supreme Court in February 2013. It ruled that it was an infringement of religious liberties. Barcelona's city council said the ban there targeted any head-wear that impeded identification,...more
Nov. 8, 2017, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2

"The Moroccan version of a burqa, which costs between 50-60 dirhams (about 5-6 euros), is different than the long Afghan dress with an eye screen"(para 4)
Nov. 8, 2017, 10:49 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2

"Morocco's Interior Ministry has banned the production and sale of the burqa, the full-length covering for women that leaves only the eyes visible, according to notices delivered by law enforcement to street vendors, wholesalers, tailors, and industrial producers. Security forces made the country's highest police authority, the caid, compile a form that trickled down to local vendors. 'It is prohibited to produce and sell burqa. You are invited to get rid of your stock within the next 48 hours. Those who contravene will have their merchandise seized and their store closed,' read the notice. The Moroccan version of a burqa, which costs between 50-60 dirhams (about 5-6 euros), is different...more