The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for SMPP-DATA-1

Aug. 11, 2017, 10:32 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"'Today, it was 12 days of my child delivery. I am living in this shed since child delivery. I am here because myself and my baby is not allow to touch by family members at home. I am not living in this cowshed during menstruation and childbirth, but also all women members from my family are living here. My maternal house is in Humla, all women live in cowshed like this. I have already delivered five babies. I stayed a month here in cowshed during all childbirth. Here, the family members served food for only ten days then I am cooking myself'"(para 2). This statement was made by Nandasra Sarki ...more
Feb. 1, 2017, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"She is menstruating, and caste tradition dictates that menstruating women must live in isolation, sleeping alone and taking care not to step into the kitchen, lest they contaminate the food and water" (para 47).
Sept. 27, 2016, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

“One evening when Baby begins preparing dinner, several of her roommates protest. She is menstruating, and caste tradition dictates that menstruating women must live in isolation, sleeping alone and taking care not to step into the kitchen, lest they contaminate the food and water” (para 47).
Jan. 27, 2016, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"'Because she's menstruating, she should not be entering another person's house. It's disrespectful,' says Cecile Shrestha of Wateraid. The nonprofit is working with girls and women in western Nepal to end a tradition called chaupadi — that's held them back for thousands of years: 'When they are menstruating, no matter what, they stay outside, they eat outside and they sleep outside,' Shrestha says.Outside in sheds. In Kamala's village they consist of a raised platform, with no walls, some have thatched roofs.Kamala tells us she'll sleep in one of those sheds tonight"(para 3-6). "Her shed is shocking. It looks more like a cage — with wooden bars crisscrossed over the top ...more
April 20, 2015, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"For many women in the far western parts of Nepal, Chhaupadi - a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle - is looked upon as a repulsive time that necessitates the expulsion of many women on their periods from their homes by loved ones only to live in cow, bull, or goat sheds during the 4-5 day period" (para 2). "According to a UNICEF report, 95 per cent of girls who were surveyed in Nepal’s far western regions faced some sort of restriction when having their first periods. The report found that 44 per cent of the girls observed were placed under Chhaupadi - this included forbidding them from touching books, boys or ...more
Nov. 23, 2014, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"Traditionally, women are not allowed to touch any food, relatives or animals during their period. In some families, women are locked up in huts to avoid any contact with the outside world because just by looking at people and objects, they could contaminate them" (Para 4). "In the past few years, reports have made into the media about women dying of cold, heat or snakebites. In such cases, Chhaupadi defenders claim the women died because the gods punished them for breaking the rule. The latest example occurred in Accham district when a number of women died of cold in their huts" (Para 5)
Oct. 31, 2011, 11:53 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"Bhusal highlights chaupadi pratha, the practice of isolating women who are menstruating, as an example of this discrimination. At its most extreme, rural women may be forced to sleep in animal sheds during menstruation. She says the 'backward' attitute that menstruating women are somehow 'polluted' persists among people in both urban and rural communities, and regardless of their levels of education" (para 11)
June 7, 2011, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

“Today the ritual of banishment surrounding chhaupadi still affects girls and women on all levels of Nepali society. This dangerous practice also isolates woman during and after childbirth as they are banished for up to eleven days away from family members, causing critical danger and increasing complications that can, and do, lead to maternal and child mortality due to the possibility of excessive bleeding and asepsis following labour. A chhaupadi shed or hut, also called chhaupadi goth, is a rudimentary stone, grass or stick shelter. Most shelters, many which are also commonly used as cow or goat sheds, have dirt floors and no windows. Many sheds have no water. Habitation ...more
Nov. 29, 2010, 2:10 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

"In the case of maternity, after giving birth, the tradition requires women to stay home (botsetse) for a period of time, which may range from 14 to 90 days." (38)
April 30, 2010, 6:01 p.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

“Interestingly, these stressors were named by women in Taiwan, where new mothers traditionally spend the first month after childbirth in seclusion. During this postpartum seclusion, the new mother is accompanied by an older woman (her mother or mother-in-law) and is relieved from most household chores. While the tradition gives rise to its own stressors (for example, some new mothers would prefer to spend their confinement with their husbands—Heh et al 2001), the social support associated with postpartum seclusion may have a protective effect. Compared to Western mothers, Taiwanese mothers report relatively low levels of postpartum stress overall (Hung and Chung 2001)” (Para. 10).
March 2, 2010, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"After her fifth menses had passed the girl's mother invited the women and a few old men of the village to a feast. The day was spent in singing songs, dancing, and feasting. At the end each guest received a present. Her long stay in the dark cell was now over. But her companion remained with her constantly, and she continued her daily baths. She was now regarded as eligible for marriage, and ordinarily did marry within a short time" (Olson, 1936:p105-6)"
March 2, 2010, 1:25 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Chile
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Sister Hilger (1957)[174] states that child betrothal was rare, in which case marriage would be delayed till fifteen (p329, 389). Hilger (1957) has no arguments on child sexuality. Among the Argentine Araucanians, a girl is prepared for menarche, but not explained its purpose. (p293). 'Neither boys not girls were given sex instructions. Speaking of sex matters was practically taboo. 'We would not talk about it; it was too delicate. Things were very strict formerly. A girl of 20 years old knew nothing about sex; today very young girls know everything they should not know [ch. Chippeway]. Formerly, if a young man touched a girl, like putting his hands on hers ...more
March 2, 2010, 1:23 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Bolivia
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"The Mataco regard the initiation of girls as an introduction to marriage. This initiation consists in the girl's seclusion—or better—segregation from everyone apart from her mother. It comes as a prolongation of her first menstruation, and the long isolation is spent in continual work making caraguatá cord. It is considered very important that this work should be performed rapidly and well in order that an impression can be formed of the girl's ability as regards her main occupation in the future. As a rule the end of seclusion is marked by an aloja festival during which the girl looks around for a man. That same night she is able to ...more
March 2, 2010, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"'Boys are secluded for three years at age 12, girls at menarche (Gregor, 1977)[160]. A father of a boy who was having a romance, would say: "That will keep him away from her; I don't want him to grow up stunted'. Children may 'play at seclusion' (p114, 226). Other games require privacy: 'women's sons' (teneju itãi), 'Mariage' (kanupai), and 'jealousy' (ukítsapi) (p113). In one variation of marriage, '[…] the husbands and wives pair off and go to hidden areas around the village to engage in casual sex play or, if they are capable, actual intercourse. The Mehinaku are sexually free, and most children have had some degree of experience by ...more
March 2, 2010, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Crocker and Crocker (1994:p33-4, 156-7)[141] stated that girls begin sexual relations between ten and thirteen before menarche. Boys and girls are segregated at ages 6 to 7. At ages 6 to 14, a girl "is appointed to be a girl associate of a male society for one or a number of successive years. At one or more ceremonial points in the festival, beginning in her early teens, she has sexual relations with the society's members, teaching her that one of her roles in mature Canela life is to keep nonrelated males sexually satisfied". At age 11-13, "[a] girl's genitals [are] formally inspected by a disciplinary aunt to see if she ...more
March 2, 2010, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Boys go to sleep at the home of a brother, an uncle, a comrade; the same for girls who have not yet reached puberty; but it is not the same for girls who have reached puberty; they are subjected to strict supervision. […] Whereas little girls before puberty are left free to come and go, older girls are the object of constant surveillance. They are always under the surveillance of one of their near relatives specifically designated. If they have permission to go dancing in another village, they must present themselves upon arrival to an uncle, an aunt, an older brother who will watch over them all evening. Sometimes they ...more
March 2, 2010, 12:18 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Among the Indians of the Orinoco-Ventuari region of southern Venezuela, '[s]ometimes parents marry off their children before they reach maturity. Some men also take a second wife when she is still underage, but they respect them and have no sexual contact with them until after the first menstrual periods have passed. […] The first menstrual period indicates that a man may have sexual relations with the wife who was promised to him when she was still a child. Sometimes a girl will refuse to marry the man to whom she was promised as a wife, but she is afraid to conceal her first menstrual periods for mythological reasons'"more
March 2, 2010, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Girls after menarche receive 'instructions with respect to sexual […] activities, such as how to prepare and use contraceptives […]' (Watson-Franke, 1982:p452; 1976)[69]. These contraceptives would be administered even during the seclusion, part of the initiation called majayuraa. In Guajiro society there is an apparent relationship between severe socialisation of female sexual behaviour and the demands made on a woman's behaviour by the institution of marriage (Watson, 1972)[70]. The success of this severe sexual socialisation of the girl has a bearing on the ability of her family to maintain its status in society and to contract useful political alliances. Severe socialisation is functionally adapted to these demands because it produces ...more
March 1, 2010, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Between the first and second menstruations, a shaman performs protective magic for her. During this time, she is also taught the role and duties of an adult and married woman. After her second menstruation, the shaman starts to bless food in the usual sequence. The girl gradually returns to normal life and eating habits. When her hair has grown long again, she is considered an adult woman. She may now have sexual relations with men and is free to marry"
March 1, 2010, 10:49 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"'Girls undergo digital defloration at the age of eight, I was told. An old man of the sib who is no longer virile is charged with this task. He is said to stretch the young girl's vagina until he can insert three fingers. He then announces, 'You are a woman'. The Cubeo say that if a girl should reach her first menstruation with her hymen intact coitus will ever after be painful for her and she will have difficulties during parturition. Digital defloration is a secret act; officially, the Cubeo credit the moon with the act. The moon copulates at night with a young girl and brings on her first ...more
March 1, 2010, 10:48 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"According to Losonczy (1993), the beginning of the menstrual cycle marks the opening of the feminine body to "a cosmic movement, focused on the capacity of childbearing". The girl in the ambiguous transitional phase between childhood and maturity is represented in initiation rites as an accomplice, seductress, and nurturer of supernatural beings. This transitional status must culminate in marriage and maternity to sustain the cosmic movement of production and reproduction"
March 1, 2010, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"It is the duty of the mothers to teach their daughters what behavior is to be observed when the first menstruation appears, and they are responsible if this behavior is not observed. […] Then the Máma divines who should deflower the girl. Generally this is an "Elder", a man who is not related to her, but many times the Máma himself performs this act. The man, or the Máma, then builds a small house (nyuíji hubé -- the house of the bat), where the first coitus is to take place. On the previous day the Máma gives the girl a spindle wheel and a needle of deer bone (sometimes made ...more
March 1, 2010, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"In their study of challenges to girl child education, FAWE researchers found that taboos and silence associated with menstruation in many communities mean some girls are in any case unable to ask their parents for money to buy pads, and forced to find ways of getting money on their own. Raising the subject can put unwanted pressures on a young girl. Kanyike says that for some parents, when a girl starts menstruating, it’s a sign that she is mature enough for marriage. This is the age at which many girls in rural areas are sent into forced marriages"
March 1, 2010, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"More than half of Ugandan girls who enrol in grade one drop out before sitting for their primary school-leaving examinations. The fact that girls are dropping out between age 11 and 13 is being linked to the beginning of the menstruation cycle and its associated challenges. Research conducted by a non-government organisation, the Forum of African Women Educationalists (FAWE), reveals that the lack of sanitary pads, coupled with other factors like the absence of water or separate toilet facilities for girls in many schools, is responsible for the drop-out rate"
March 1, 2010, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Question from a reader: I remember learning about menstruation leave - as I recall you could take one day a month off with pay to accommodate - in Japan and thinking how great/dangerous that was. Does it still exist? I think it's dangerous as it sort of says "poor weak woman, not as capable as a man" and great because sometimes it's just so energy draining that it would be nice to stay home on the couch with a heating pad. What is/was the attitude of men in Japan about this? Answer: It does exist. It's not in my contract, but I know another city-employed foreign woman who does have ...more
Feb. 25, 2010, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: SMPP-DATA-1

“Hassim, following the arguments of scholars like Lila Abu-Lughod and Asma Barlas, asserts that a patriarchal reading of the Qur'an as well as political, economic and cultural factors that have nothing to do with Islam are used as a basis for the scripted lives of Muslim women. And the script includes forms of social control, seclusion, subordination and exploitation” (Para. 4).
Feb. 24, 2010, 3:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Ingesting menstrual blood is the focal point of Vaishnava Baul ideology, a tradition sustained by means of recruitment. Yet many converts continue to reside in their natal village, thus maintaining daily contact with their kin and neighbors. This fact has been insufficiently emphasized. Instead, previous accounts have tended to describe the adherents as marginal wanderers, 'renouncers,' opposed to society at large (Capwell 1974; Dimock 1989; Salomon 1995:187). In keeping with this binary framework, it might easily be surmised that ideas of menstrual blood as a beneficent fluid are inversions of orthodox norms and practices, where the substance is thought to be polluting. Yet the situation is more complex than a ...more
Feb. 24, 2010, 3:06 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia, Singapore
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"Taboos surrounding menstruation in Bali state that a menstruating woman may not enter the kitchen to perform her usual domestic tasks and that she must sleep apart, sometimes in a separate pavilion, sometimes merely on the ground. To keep the clothes in which she menstruates separate from clothes she might wear to the temple, she is supposed to don special menstrual dress. She also is to eat from a special set of dishes. Some of these measures were most pronounced among people of high caste, and are now in effect only in brahmanic households. There continues to be a taboo against sexual relations during menstruation, though many women relate that ...more
Feb. 24, 2010, 3:01 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia, Singapore
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"n 1998, in a noble house in eastern Bali, I observed a ceremony performed for a woman whose period coincided with a family temple purification marking the onset of preparatory sacred work for a major ancestral ritual. Reminding her that she must heed her elders, the woman's paternal aunt summoned her to the garbage heap outside the palace walls. Placed at the top of the heap, she was sprinkled with holy water in a brief rite performed by her aunt. At first glance, such a practice of sending the menstruating woman to the garbage heap--expressly, as the women envisioned it, because her condition belongs with the filth there--seems to resonate ...more
Feb. 24, 2010, 3 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia, Singapore
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-DATA-1

"As many tourists to Bali can confirm from personal experience, menstrual taboos remain in effect there. At the entrance to temples, female tourists find that the taboos pertain to them, too, a fact they almost invariably experience as an affront to their sex. Visitors stop short with some incredulity at the signs in English that forthrightly prohibit entry to menstruating women. Although they have had surprisingly little to say on the issue of menstruation, the reaction of scholarly observers of Balinese culture has been similar. If mentioned at all, the complex of taboos and regulations surrounding it has tended to be viewed as somewhat of a jolting exception to otherwise ...more