The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Another powerful instrument is the National Anti-Trafficking Toll-Free Helpline. Within this framework, victims of trafficking benefit from special residence permit for social protection, which can be granted upon participation in the “Article 18 programme”. The permit, renewable for one year, is valid for six months. It can be converted into a residence permit for education or work purposes." (para 63). "...the above Legislative Decree officially recognizes DEO as the equivalent mechanism and national contact point for the EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. By this Decree, the above two programmes have been incorporated in a more structured one to ensure victim’s better integration. This Decree entitles victims to the right to compensation, (1,500...more
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1, TRAFF-DATA-1

"As of August 31, the ISF investigated 15 cases of human trafficking involving 21 victims of sexual exploitation and referred them to the judiciary. The Ministry of Justice reported investigating 80 suspected traffickers, of whom the government charged and prosecuted 61 under the antitrafficking law" (30).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"There is as yet no law on human trafficking. The work initiated by the Government in 2006 on trafficking in women and children (MASAH, MPFIFD, MJDH), civil society (ALTO, OCDH, SAMU SOCIAL, RENAPAC), with the support of agencies of the United Nations system (UNICEF, UNFPA, IOM), has achieved: (i) several surveys and two studies, (ii) round tables of policymakers and donors, (iii) advocacy with specialized services of neighbouring countries and others (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Benin, Mali), (iv) the training of security officers (including the national node of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)), (v) adoption of partnership agreements between States (Congo-Benin) for better traceability of displacement of children....more
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:06 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"In addition, the State party should consider ratifying the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children." (9).
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1, GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Sources reported there could be several hundred other men, women, and children sold or inherited as slaves in the al-Hodeida and al-Mahwit Governorates. In some instances employers forced children into domestic servitude and agricultural work (see section 7.c.) and women into domestic servitude or prostitution" (35).
Jan. 29, 2020, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"As one of the preventive measures, in the first instance, efforts concerning violence against women, including raising awareness, are further strengthened through the “Campaign for Eliminating of Violence against Women” (November 12 to 25 every year), in coordination/cooperation with the State, local governments, women’s groups, and other related groups, in order to eradicate violence against women, such as violence by a spouse, etc., sexual crimes, prostitution, trafficking in persons, sexual harassment, and stalking activities." (45). "The Government of Japan achieved significant results by taking measures to combat trafficking in persons based on Japan’s Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons formulated in 2004. Specifically, the Government steadily implemented measures such...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The State Council issued China’s Action Plan Against Human Trafficking (2013-2020) in 2013, further improving the mechanism of inter-departmental coordination. The public security organs have resolutely combated crimes of violence against women. In 2013, they uncovered 25,852 rape cases and 4,537 cases of abducting and trafficking in women. China has also strengthened international judicial cooperation, carried out international cooperation programs, and severely dealt with transnational and trans-regional gangs engaged in abducting and trafficking in women and children" (para. 42).
Nov. 14, 2019, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"According to the government and the Children Empowerment Foundation, a leading NGO dealing with trafficking in children, trafficking of children for sexual exploitation remained a problem" (20).
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"IBESR reported that children in orphanages were frequently victims of sexual or physical abuse, were malnourished, did not receive an education, and were often trafficked to work as domestic labor, sex workers, or farm workers" (20).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Comprehensive Anti Trafficking Law 4788 of 2012 criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to eight years’ imprisonment; these penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Inconsistent with international law, Law 4788/12 established the use of force, fraud, and coercion as aggravating factors rather than essential elements of the crime. Articles 129b and 129c of Law 3440/08 also criminalized international trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and forced labor, respectively" (383).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Article 273f of the criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed punishments of up to 12 years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to €83,000 ($95,180) for trafficking offenses involving an adult victim, and up to 15 years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to €83,000 ($95,180) for those involving a child victim. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape" (353). "The BES criminal code criminalized sex and labor trafficking under article 286f, prescribing penalties ranging from six to 15 years’ imprisonment" (355).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2016 Law No.133, On the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illicit Smuggling of Migrants, criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking; it prescribed penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those for other serious crimes, such as rape. The law considered the involvement of a minor or forcing a victim into prostitution as aggravating circumstances for which the penalties increased to 10 to 20 years’ imprisonment. Law No.111, Regarding the Fight Against Terrorism and Other Serious Crimes of 2011, remained in effect, also prohibited sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of 10 to 15 years’...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking under Sections 232 and 233 and prescribed punishments of six months’ to 10 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. The law did not require proof of force or coercion to prosecute suspected sex traffickers when victims were younger than age 21. The complex wording and scope of Section 233 reportedly resulted in state prosecutors sometimes charging suspected traffickers with offenses considered easier to prove than coercion in labor and sex trafficking. As a federal system, jurisdiction for criminal prosecutions in Germany rested with state...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Law 60(I) of 2014 criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment for offenses involving an adult victim and up to 20 years’ imprisonment for those involving a child victim. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with those for serious crimes, such as rape" (174).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2011 anti-trafficking law criminalized some forms of sex trafficking and all forms of labor trafficking. Inconsistent with international law, Cameroon’s law required a demonstration of force, fraud, or coercion to constitute a child sex trafficking offense, and therefore did not criminalize all forms of child sex trafficking. The law prescribed penalties of 10 to 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 50,000 to 1 million Central African francs (CFA) ($83- $1,660), which were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. If the trafficking offense involved a victim who was 15 years old or younger, the penalties increased...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"PACOTIP criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to life imprisonment, a fine of up to 100 million South African rand ($6.97 million), or both. The penalties were sufficiently stringent; however, with regard to sex trafficking, by allowing for a fine in lieu of imprisonment, the prescribed punishment was not commensurate with those for other serious crimes, such as rape. The implementing regulations for PACOTIP’s immigration provisions found in Sections 15, 16, and 31(2) (b)(ii) have not been promulgated, therefore critical sections of the act remained inactive. The Criminal Law (Sexual Offenses and related matters) Amendment Act of 2007 (CLAA) also criminalized the sex trafficking of...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The MSA, applicable to England and Wales, and similar statutes in Scotland and Northern Ireland, criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to life imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Inconsistent with international law, the laws in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland required the element of movement of a victim in the definition of 'trafficking.' However, these jurisdictions criminalized 'slavery and servitude, and forced or compulsory labour' in other provisions of their law, which could be utilized to prosecute trafficking offenses that did not involve victim movement. Scotland, by contrast,...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2009 anti-trafficking law criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed punishments of up to 15 years’ imprisonment, a fine of up to one million Saudi Arabian riyal (SAR) ($266,670), or both; penalties increased under aggravating circumstances, including trafficking committed by an organized criminal group or against a woman, child, or person with disabilities. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. The Council of Ministers’ Decision 166 prohibited withholding workers’ passports as a lesser criminal offense, punishable by fines" (411).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2010 criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of 15 years to life imprisonment, a fine of not less than 5 million Kenyan shillings ($49,120), or both. These penalties were sufficiently stringent. However, by allowing for a fine in lieu of imprisonment for sex trafficking these penalties were not commensurate with those for other serious crimes, such as rape. Sections 14 and 15 of the Sexual Offenses Act of 2006 criminalized the facilitation of child sex tourism and 'child prostitution,' and prescribed punishment of no less than 10 years’ imprisonment; these penalties were sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for other...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Article 104a of the criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of six months to five years’ imprisonment for offenses involving an adult victim, and one to 10 years’ imprisonment for those involving a child victim. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Additionally, Article 217, which criminalized all transnational prostitution, could be applied to sex trafficking cases when a trafficker induced a foreign individual to engage in prostitution by force, fraud, or coercion. The article prescribed penalties of one to 10 years’ imprisonment for offenses involving such means" (85).more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Human Trafficking Prevention and Control Act (HTPCA) criminalized all forms of trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to seven years’ imprisonment and fines up to 5 million New Taiwan Dollars (NT) ($163,460); these penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Observers noted ambiguities in HTPCA provisions could have complicated implementation in cases where victims received some financial compensation. Other HTPCA provisions protected laborers from having to remit 'unreasonable payments of debt' to brokers or supervisors but did not clarify what would constitute an unreasonable payment of debt; observers expressed concern that these provisions were too...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Article 171 of the criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed punishments of five to 12 years’ imprisonment and a fine for offenses involving adult victims and five to 15 years’ imprisonment and a fine for offenses involving child victims. These punishments were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape" (286).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The TVPA, as amended and codified at Title 18 U.S. Code sections 1581, et seq., criminalizes sex and labor trafficking. The penalties prescribed under these provisions, which can include up to life imprisonment, are sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with the penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. U.S. law also prohibits conspiracy and the attempt to violate these provisions, as well as obstruction of the statutes’ enforcement and the financial benefit from these acts. Additionally, a criminal statute on fraud in foreign labor contracting prohibits the use of fraud to recruit workers abroad to work in the United States or on a U.S....more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Article 113 of the criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties ranging from one to 10 years’ imprisonment for offenses involving an adult victim and three to 15 years’ imprisonment for those involving a child victim or other aggravating factors. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. However, inconsistent with the definition of trafficking under international law, Article 113 established the use of force, fraud, or coercion as an aggravating factor rather than an essential element of the crime" (429).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The penal code, together with the Immigration Act, criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking. Article 143 of the penal code criminalized child sex trafficking under its “child commercial sexual exploitation” provision and prescribed penalties of up to 15 or 20 years’ imprisonment, based on the child’s age. Article 145 of the penal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking when the offense occurred within the country. Article 145(2) applied to trafficking offenses involving an element of force, fraud, or coercion; it prescribed penalties of up to 20 years’ imprisonment for offenses involving adult victims and up to 25 years’ imprisonment for offenses involving child victims. Article 145(3) prescribed penalties of...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2017 Law to Combat Crimes of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking, including bacha bazi. The law prescribed penalties between five and eight years’ imprisonment. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those for other serious crimes. Aggravating factors increased the maximum sentence to between 10 and 15 years and the imposition of the death penalty if exploitation for armed fighting resulted in the victim’s death. Article 510 of the new 2018 criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking, including bacha bazi. Article 511 prescribed penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment for trafficking offenses...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Eritrean Penal Code of 2015 criminalized some forms of trafficking in persons. Article 315 criminalized trafficking in women and young persons for sexual exploitation, which was punishable by up to seven years’ imprisonment; these penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with punishments prescribed for other serious crimes, such as kidnapping. Article 297 criminalized enslavement and prescribed penalties of seven to 16 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent. Article 299 criminalized forced labor and prescribed penalties from six to 12 months’ imprisonment or a fine of 20,000 to 50,000 nakfa ($1,330-$3,330). These penalties were not sufficiently stringent" (195).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Sections 154-1 and 154-2 of Latvia’s criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to eight years’ imprisonment for offenses involving adult victims and between three and 12 years’ imprisonment for offenses involving child victims. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Judges and prosecutors had the power to reclassify cases from Section 154-1 to lesser crimes. Trafficking crimes could be charged under Section 164, which criminalized exploiting vulnerability or using deceit to involve individuals in prostitution with prescribed penalties as lenient as community service or a fine. Additionally, law...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2015 anti-trafficking proclamation, No.909/2015, criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking, and prescribed penalties of 15 to 25 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 150,000 to 300,000 Ethiopian birr ($5,350 to $10,700) for offenses involving an adult male victim, and 25 years to life imprisonment and a fine of 200,000 to 500,000 Ethiopian birr ($7,130 to $17,830) for those involving an adult female victim or a child victim. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape" (200)
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Article 151 of the penal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious offenses, such as kidnapping. If the offense involved a child victim of sex trafficking or forced labor similar to slavery, the prescribed penalties increased to five to 10 years’ imprisonment with hard labor. Articles 7 and 8 of the 2009 Labor Code criminalized forced and bonded labor and prescribed sufficiently stringent penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment" (144).