The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for WAM-LAW-1

July 11, 2018, 8 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-LAW-1

"The widespread use of gender stereotypes in the media, notwithstanding the adoption by the national television channel of a code of ethics to monitor discriminatory practices" (page 6).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Ministry of Tourism and Sports (MTD) is applying the policy whereby the sexist use of the female image is to be avoided in advertising campaigns for tourist destinations and in MTD promotional materials" (page 10). "The Audiovisual Communication Services Act was passed in December 2014. Inmujeres and feminist organizations helped promote gender mainstreaming in the text of the Act, which regulates aspects of the form of ownership of the communications media, content management, advertising messages, communications channels, and child protection, among other issues" (page 11).
June 26, 2018, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Jamaica
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Jamaica Broadcasting Commission barred certain lyrics and music videos, including songs referring to violent sex or violence against women, children, and other vulnerable persons, and edited and expunged lyrics deemed inappropriate to broadcast" (8).
June 26, 2018, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"It is illegal to publish material that is 'detrimental to minors’ bodies' or thought processes or that promotes the sexual abuse and harassment of minors, sexual relations among minors, or 'sexual relations'" (8). Roughly half of all "minors" would be girls, so this is important in terms of the portrayal of women and girls in the media (AA-CODER COMMENT).
May 15, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-LAW-1

"The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to address stereotypes and harmful practices by, among other things, revising the national broadcasting code in 2010 to provide for minimum standards within the media and film industries in relation to combating stereotypes. The Committee remains concerned, however, at the persistence of harmful practices and discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, which perpetuate women’s subordination in the private and public spheres. It notes that such stereotypes also contribute to the increase in child marriage, polygamy and wife inheritance and, hence, to the disadvantaged and unequal status of women in society. The Committee...more
April 25, 2018, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-LAW-1

"No law addresses the unfettered availability of sexually explicit cartoons, comics, and video games, some of which depicted scenes of violent sexual abuse and the rape of children. Experts suggested a culture that appears to accept the depiction of child sexual abuse harmed children" (17). While this statement is focused on the exploitation of children, it is probable that majority of the children experiencing abusive depictions are young girls (AA-CODER COMMENT).
April 6, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"Legislative Decree no. 19 (2012), on the protection of national unity, criminalises any call to discriminate against women, with article 1 thereof outlawing the dissemination of ideas calling for the superiority of any gender….. or inciting acts of violence for this purpose, or transmitting, disseminating, printing, broadcasting, rebroadcasting, producing or circulating any content, printed material, audiovisual material or broadcasting or rebroadcasting mendacious rumours designed to bring about the above. Article 2 provides for imprisonment of not more than seven years and a fine of not more than KWD 10,000, together with confiscation for anyone who violates this prohibition. Punishment shall be doubled in the event of repeat violation" (13).more
March 20, 2018, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3, POLY-LAW-1

"The Committee is deeply concerned about the persistence of patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society. It also remains concerned about the very high prevalence of harmful practices, in particular female genital mutilation, child marriage, polygamy and levirate, and the fact that they are not prohibited by law. The Committee urges the State party: (a) To adopt legal provisions explicitly prohibiting harmful practices, such as polygamy, child marriage, female genital mutilation, levirate and unequal inheritance rights for women, provide for adequate sanctions and ensure the effective implementation of the provisions; (b) To expeditiously adopt a comprehensive strategy...more
Feb. 28, 2018, 5:36 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Government has taken deliberate measures to ensure that women are portrayed positively in Kenya by passing the Media Council Act (2013) which contains a Code of Conduct for journalists that calls for objectivity and fairness in portrayal of women and children" (18).
Feb. 14, 2018, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-LAW-1

"The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to combat discriminatory gender stereotypes by promoting the sharing of household duties and parenting responsibilities and to address the stereotyped portrayal of women in the media by strengthening the role of the Advertising Self-Regulation Institute. Nevertheless, it notes with concern: (a) The entrenched stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, perpetuating traditional roles of women as mothers and housewives and undermining their social status and educational and career prospects; (b) The limited measures taken to eliminate stereotypes in the education system, including in school curricula and textbooks; (c) The growing influence of men’s organizations...more
Feb. 14, 2018, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"Unlike other EU countries, Italy still does not have a law addressing stereotypical and sexist attitudes in the media and advertising industry, though since 2010 some draft laws have been filed with the Parliament" (12).
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Government Bill Education and accessibility — public service broadcasting 2014-2019 (Govt Bill 2012/13:164) was adopted by the Riksdag in November 2013. In this Bill the Government states that through their special status and their programming the public service broadcasters Sveriges Radio AB (SR), Sveriges Television AB (SVT), and Sveriges Utbildningsradio AB (UR) have more opportunity than other media companies to influence attitudes in society and that it is therefore natural to make higher demands on public service programming. This is why the broadcasting licences of SR, SVT and UR for the period 2014-2019, which were adopted in December 2013, contain a provision that their programming as a whole is...more
Jan. 17, 2018, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"One local radio station, 'Kol Barama', prohibits the broadcasting of women voices and hiring women presenters. The Attorney General conclusively argued that the radio station cannot eliminate women from public space" (19).
Dec. 8, 2017, 10:30 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1, WAM-LAW-1

"Backpage.com, one of the world’s largest classified ad websites and a frequent target in the political battle against sex trafficking, closed its adult ads section Monday in the United States, claiming to be the victim of a government witch hunt.The extraordinary move came shortly after the release of a scathing U.S. Senate report that accused Backpage of hiding criminal activity by deleting terms from ads that indicated sex trafficking or prostitution, including of children"(para 1-2)."The site [Backpage] has long positioned itself as a champion of online speech freedoms and has relied on the Communications Decency Act of 1996, a federal statute that immunizes website operators from the content of users’...more
Sept. 12, 2017, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"Amnesty International understands that the interrogations focused, in particular, on two local initiatives: a website called 'Feminist School', which posts reports and articles on issues related to feminist theories and practices and the state of women’s rights in Iran and globally; and the Campaign to Change the Masculine Face of Parliament, launched ahead of the February 2016 parliamentary elections in Iran to push for the increased presence of pro-women’s rights candidates in parliament. Members of both initiatives have been pressured to close or suspend their activities and practice heightened self-censorship...The Feminist School website has not been updated since the middle of February 2016"(para 6-7)."The latest target of this intensified crackdown...more
April 24, 2017, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"In recent years, Israel's ultra-Orthodox have lobbied to omit women's faces from advertisements on the side of Jerusalem buses that circulate in religious areas. During recent Jewish holidays, signs appeared in a religious neighborhood of Jerusalem, Mea Sharim, instructing women to keep off the main road and use side streets for the sake of modesty" (9).
Feb. 17, 2017, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Ecuador
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"Additionally, the law requires that advertising be produced domestically and prohibits any advertising deemed to be sexist, racist, or discriminatory in nature" (16).
Jan. 4, 2017, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

“Academics reported the GID must clear all university professors before their appointment and that all research papers, forums, reading materials, movies, or seminars must be approved by the university administration, which in turn clears potentially controversial material through the GID. Commercial foreign films are edited for sexual content before screening in commercial theaters” (16).
Dec. 9, 2016, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Ministry of Gender Equality and Family monitors song lyrics and may ban releases it considers offensive" (8).
Nov. 4, 2016, 8:48 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"What's more, the learned judge found that many newspapers, particularly the popular tabloids, had a case to answer.Discrimination against women and minorities (including immigrants and asylum seekers but also Muslims) 'merit further consideration by any new regulator', he added. [Under the current press complaints system, a group complaint is not ordinarily admissible, but clause 12 outlaws discrimination of this sort]"(para 2-3)
July 4, 2016, 9:14 p.m.
Countries: Argentina
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The passing, in 2009, of Law 26.522 on audiovisual communication services, which explicitly aims to promote balanced and varied images of men and women in the media, taking account of cultural and linguistic diversity and local identities" (12). "The banning of sex trade advertisements, through Presidential Decree 936/11, helps to eliminate cultural patterns that identify women’s bodies as a sexual object of commerce. For that purpose, the Sex Trade Advertisements Monitoring Office was created, as part of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, in which the National Women’s Council participates" (13).
June 27, 2016, 9:53 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"Also, annual awards for media in recognition of their efforts to promote gender equality and eliminate gender biases are granted" (11).
June 20, 2016, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The State Party established a Media and Gender Equality Committee (MGEC) in 2012 in line with Section 16 of MCW on the non-discriminatory and non- derogatory portrayal of women in media and film. MGEC produced the Code of Ethics for Media, Gender Equality Guidelines, and Media Guidelines to Protect Women against Discrimination in Media and Film which were launched in March 2013 for government media, self-regulatory bodies, schools of journalism, information and communication, and national federations and associations to make media more gender sensitive while respecting media’s self-regulation. Memorandum Circular No. 48 was issued in 2013 'directing all concerned government agencies to adopt the gender equality guidelines in the development...more
June 10, 2016, 7:17 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"When encouraging the mass media not to perpetuate sexist role stereotypes, use is made at federal and Länder level of the existing strict constitutional framework, which guarantees freedom of opinion. Pursuant to section 4, No. 1 of the Act against Unfair Competition (UWG), sexist advertising, violating human dignity according to Article 1 of the European Union-Charter of Fundamental Rights or Article 1 of the Basic Law is unfair if it is suited to impairing the freedom of decision of consumers and other market participants in an inhuman manner. Pursuant to section 8 of that Act, the right exists to claim cessation or elimination against such advertising. The German Advertising Council...more
May 31, 2016, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The NCWC in 2008 discussed issues and sensitized the media on the code of conduct and ethics on reporting on women and children. Since then the NCWC has forwarded the guidelines to the Bhutan Info Comm. and Media Authority (BICMA) for incorporation in the media act. Use of mass media, especially post media act and the foreseen emergence of even more media participation, will be extended and strengthened, especially in the far flung and remote areas to raise awareness of women and empower them through advocacy and public awareness campaigns. Feature stories on women and of the already established women in the leadership position will be made to set an...more
May 28, 2016, 6:59 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"Armenian television and radio companies play a significant role in the process of overcoming gender stereotypes. An independent regulatory body functions under the law for the purpose of ensuring the freedom, independence and diversity of the broadcast media. Public and private television and radio companies operate within the Republic of Armenia. When selecting a participant licensed during competitions held in 2010 for carrying out on-air broadcasting of television programmes of republican, metropolitan, regional coverage through the digital broadcasting network, the independent regulatory body takes into account the broadcasting policy programmes of private televisions, one of the components of which is the ability to promote pluralism on the basis of the...more
May 25, 2016, 8:07 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"As part of the efforts to reduce secondary victimization in sexual violence cases, media reporting guidelines for sexual violence cases were created and distributed to news agencies along with related education in 2014" (18).
May 15, 2016, 7:55 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Law on Media (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro 51/02 and 62/02) prohibits publication of information and opinions which incite discrimination, hatred or violence against persons or group of persons because of their belonging or not belonging to a certain race, religion, nation, ethnic group, sex or sexual orientation (Article 23). In addition, the Law guarantees any natural or legal person the right to correction or response when he/she believes that some of his/her rights defined under the Constitution or the Law have been violated by the published broadcasting contents (Article 26)." (17) "Building upon the Constitution of Montenegro which lays down that everyone shall be entitled to...more
April 19, 2016, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1, WAM-LAW-1

"In July 2011, a new law banned media advertisement of cosmetic surgery" (13).
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The Council’s final decision, which the High Court of Justice found no reason to dispute, was that the broadcasters may only offer channels presenting 'soft' erotic content that does not present sexual relations with violence, abuse, coercion, exploitation or humiliation,and does not breach the Telecommunications Law that prohibits exhibiting a human being or his/her body part as an object available for sexual use. The Council also limited pornographic broadcasting with measures such as making it solely available on demand, for a fee, to adults over the age of 18, only during late-night hours, or coded by a personal code, in order to prevent children from viewing the content" (31).more