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Latest items for Afghanistan

Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-4

"In order to ensure the safety of policewomen, in 1395 (2016) MoI developed a guide on prevention of sexual harassment, with one of its main objectives to ensure the implementation of the Anti-Harassment Law" (1).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"[I]n order to ensure safety of women in the workplaces, committees for prevention of harassment are established in most of the government institutions where female victims can register their harassment complaints to be addressed by these committees" (1). "The Anti-Sexual Harassment Committees of the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and Ministry of Women’s Affairs have not received any complaints of sexual harassment since the enactment of the Law on Prevention of Sexual Harassment in 2016" (2). "We are informed that victims of sexual harassment who had initiated complaints to the Committee have had their complaints minimised, with one victim saying that the...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The Anti-Sexual Harassment Committees of the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and Ministry of Women’s Affairs have not received any complaints of sexual harassment since the enactment of the Law on Prevention of Sexual Harassment in 2016" (2). "We are informed that victims of sexual harassment who had initiated complaints to the Committee have had their complaints minimised, with one victim saying that the Committees are 'male-dominated', 'they take the sides of men who harass them' and 'blame women for their dressing'" (2). "The law provided that a committee should be represented by one woman. In practice, committees could be composed of...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"Perpetrators of attacks against women are prosecuted in accordance with the law" (4). "The mode of prosecution in all high-profile cases is to prosecute the lower-ranking suspects to appease the public and most, if not all the higher-ranking suspects who are the brain and the engine behind the crimes walk away" (5).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: GP-DATA-5

"The GoIRA has taken practical measures to enhance women’s accessibility to formal justice system such as: (…) The judicial institutions where women who are victims of violence can seek justice consist of EVAW attorneys in 34 provinces as well as special EVAW courts in Kabul and 15 provinces. Women can seek justice in criminal courts if no special EVAW court exists in the province" (4). "[T]he AGO has established the Deputy Office for EVAW, juvenile delinquency, supporting human rights, primary, appeal, and high investigations attorney directorates in the capital and the provinces, and social interrogators’ departments for EVAW. Women victims can also register their cases and access to justice in...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Under Article 636 of the Penal Code on rape does not define rape as a lack of consent, but a presence of force, threat or intimidation. Sexual harassment is not defined under the Penal Code [it is referred to under the chapter on bacha bazi (‘playing with boys’)]. It is a crime under Article 30 of EVAW Law and has been defined under the Anti-Sexual Harassment law" (5).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"GoIRA has taken various measures to ensure safety of women in the workplaces, such as enforcement of the Law on Prevention of Sexual Harassment in 2016, the Penal Code with specific provisions preventing harassment of women, ensuring human security, physical safety, and psychological safety of women, as well as the draft on Prevention of Discrimination is also prepared. Additionally, in order to ensure safety of women in the workplaces, committees for prevention of harassment are established in most of the government institutions where female victims can register their harassment complaints to be addressed by these committees" (1).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"The Criminal Procedure Code been ratified in 2014. Discriminatory human rights violating elements have been taken out and new provisions regarding protection of women’s rights were included. The criminal procedures law enriches specific provisions on the victim’s rights and protection of evidence" (6). "Chapters 5 and 7 of the Criminal Procedure Code provides witness protection measures which range from physical to psychological protection" (6). "Witnesses may approach the prosecution and the court to apply for protective measures before and during trial (Article 55(1) of the CPC). They do so by submitting their application to the prosecution and court in a sealed envelope, which the prosecution and court shall both review...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"Most victims and witnesses at the early reporting stage have not assessed their protection needs. Some are not equipped to make the assessment without assistance. Others may not be facing a risk at the time of report, but at a later stage in the proceedings. The key issue with protection provisions under the CPC is that the onus is on the victim/witness to request for protection" (6).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"GoIRA has taken various measures to ensure safety of women in the workplaces, such as enforcement of the Law on Prevention of Sexual Harassment in 2016, the Penal Code with specific provisions preventing harassment of women, ensuring human security, physical safety, and psychological safety of women, as well as the draft on Prevention of Discrimination is also prepared" (1). "The Ministry of Women’s Affairs reviewed the law but no amendments were made. Essentially, the law failed to preempt, prevent and address gender-discriminatory practices which are endemic to sexual harassment cases in Afghanistan" (2).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:35 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-LAW-1

"Articles 426 and 427 of the Penal Code, for example, provide for imprisonment as punishment for sexual intercourse outside marriage (zina), but only when the conditions of hadd have not been met or the charge of hadd is dropped. In 2010, the Government confirmed to the Committee on the Rights of the Child that under Shari’a law, zina is punishable with harsher sentences including whipping and stoning" (2-3).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:35 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Qualitative research in 2008 found that physical violence occurred in all 61 case study families, most commonly slapping, verbal abuse, punching, kicking, and hitting with thin sticks, electrical cables and shoes. Less typical violence included shooting at children, tying them up, washing them in cold water outside during winter and public humiliation. Corporal punishment was used on children as young as 2 or 3. No clear difference between punishment of boys and of girls was found" (2). "In the penal system, corporal punishment is lawful as a sentence for crime under Shari’a law. The Juvenile Code prohibits 'contemptuous and harsh punishment' (article 7) but states in article 39 that children...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:35 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"[W]e hope the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women will: raise the issue of corporal punishment of girls in its List of Issues for Afghanistan, asking what progress has been made towards prohibiting and eliminating corporal punishment in all settings, including the home, and recommend to Afghanistan, in the concluding observations on the initial/second state party report, that corporal punishment be explicitly prohibited in all settings, including the home, as a matter of priority" (1). "The initial/second report of Afghanistan to CEDAW (21 December 2011, CEDAW/C/AFG/1-2) provides extensive information concerning violence against women and girls. However, it makes no mention of the violence that may lawfully be inflicted...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:35 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Corporal punishment is prohibited in schools in article 39 of the Education Act (2008) but it continues to be used. In research in government schools in 2008, children were punished – mostly commonly by being beaten with a stick – in 100% of observed classes in boys’ schools and 20% in girls’ schools; children were often authorised to beat other children; the level of physical punishment has reportedly fallen since prohibition" (2, 3).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[A]ttacks on civilian women and children as they go to work or school have increased by 20 per cent in the past 12 months" (8). "Many families think that government and NGOs are not suitable environments for women to work. Many women working in the governmental sector work as teachers" (16). "Teachers usually teach for half a day then the other half of the day is spent doing household chores and taking care of their own children" (17). "To improve rural numbers, Save the Children has implemented high school training programs so girls can become teachers right after graduation" (17).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AOM-DATA-1

"The average age of marriage is 17.9 for women. Women who marry under the age of 15 make up 3% of married women" (13).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-2

"18-year-old Rahmaniya reports that her brother threatens to stab her to death or throw acid in her face if she continues to go to school" (9).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LR-DATA-1

"According to the National Risks and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) 2007 (1386/1387), around 26% of the population were literate which included only 12% of women. The illiteracy rate in urban, rural and between nomads are accordingly 52%, 79% and 94%" (6). "Only 26% of all Afghans, and only 12% of Afghan women, are literate" (7).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"Article 3 of Education Law also states that 'citizens of Afghanistan have the right to education without any discrimination'" (7). "[G]eneral education up to secondary school is obligatory" (9).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"After SaharGul's father died, she went to live with her stepbrother, Mohammed. Despite her hard work, Mohammed's wife resented the girl. At age 13, she was sold for over $5,000 and had to move hundreds of miles away with her new husband, GhulamSakhi. Refusing to consummate the marriage, Sahar would be drugged by her mother-in-law and raped by her husband. Facing physical abuse and torture, she was made to live in the cellar, bound, tied, and sleeping on the floor" (14).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"In June 2013, the Afghan Parliament considered and rejected a measure that would have made it illegal for men to marry girls under the age of 16. Opponents believed the measure went against Islamic principles" (12). "The traditions which lead to child or forced marriages such as BAAD (giving girls as blood price), BADAL (marriage of one boy and one girl with another girl and boy from the other family respectively) and exchange of girls for money, properties, land or loans do exist in the country" (13). "Afghanistan Human Development Report (2007) shows in many marriages, the girls are under 16 to 6 years old and some of the marriages...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Because security is still a problem in Afghanistan, families are unwilling to send their children far outside their villages to receive education. Even families fortunate enough to have automobile transportation still fear sending their children, particularly their daughters, away from the village to go to school" (5, 8). "When educational and higher educational opportunity is concentrated in larger cities, the graduating professionals are generally unwilling to take their degrees and move to rural villages to teach. Afghanistan already has a shortage of female teachers, and getting the few graduates to teach in the countryside is challenging. By developing greater educational systems in rural areas, the Government of Afghanistan can begin...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"Around 5,000 Afghan girls were enrolled in school in 2001. In 2011, there were 2.4 million, a 480-fold increase" (6). "In 2009 approximately 22% – around 446,682 – of female students were considered long-term absentees" (6). "The percentage of girls in universities is increasing year by year. In 2006, girls formed 20% which reached to 22% in 2007 and 24.8% in 2009" (6). "The total number of students in grades 1-12 is 7,381,331 and 2,749,553 of them are girls" (7). "We still have 1.2 million girls of school age who do not have access to schools" (8). While the Paktia Province reports 40,000 females attending school, 31,000 of those girls...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"AIHRC has announced 6.7% of the marriages are forced marriages" (13).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The Afghanistan Government should sponsor and encourage cultural education programs and ambassadorial exchange programs so that leaders and decision-makers can experience how other systems of education can be effective. The exchange programs should focus on the roles gender plays in the host country's culture in order to promote discourse regarding and bring about a change in the traditional belief structure in Afghanistan that women should not be educated" (5).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"Civil Law has determined 18 years of age for men and 16 for women as the minimum age of marriage" (14).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"Despite significant improvements in the field of employment, the level of women employment in governmental offices is only 21%. This is due to many factors; the main factor is the low level of literacy among women" (7).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"NAPWA has a target of 30% women in governmental positions until the end of 2013" (15).
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with concern that abortion for non-therapeutic reasons continues to be criminalized in the State party. It is also concerned about the large number of unsafe abortions carried out in the State party, which is one of the main causes of the high rate of maternal mortality" (15).
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-4

"[T]he committee recommends that the State party:...(g) Continue to increase the number of women judges and police officers" (4-5). "The Committee is particularly concerned about:...The concentration of women judges and police officers in Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif and Jalalabad, owing to the lack of security in other regions, the dearth of trained female police officers assigned to family response units, and their assignment to clerical tasks" (7-8). "[T]he Committee urges the State party:...To increase the number of women judges assigned to units prosecuting violence against women and assign female police officers to family response units throughout the country, ensuring their protection, in particular in provinces and districts where security is...more