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Latest items for Afghanistan

Sept. 13, 2021, 11:20 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, France, Gabon, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Jordan, Macedonia, Montenegro, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Vanuatu
Variables: LRW-SCALE-12

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Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"A woman from western Afghanistan - we will call her Rabia - was suffering from severe fever, so she went to see a doctor. The doctor's diagnosis was Covid-19. Rabia returned home, suffering from pain and fever, and gave her prescription to her husband to buy the medicine for her. But when he saw her name on the prescription he beat her, for revealing it 'to a strange man'. Her story - which was relayed to the BBC through a friend - is not unique. In Afghanistan, family members often force women to keep their name a secret from people outside the family, even doctors" (para 1-3). "Since the fall...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1

"A woman from western Afghanistan - we will call her Rabia - was suffering from severe fever, so she went to see a doctor. The doctor's diagnosis was Covid-19. Rabia returned home, suffering from pain and fever, and gave her prescription to her husband to buy the medicine for her. But when he saw her name on the prescription he beat her, for revealing it 'to a strange man'. Her story - which was relayed to the BBC through a friend - is not unique. In Afghanistan, family members often force women to keep their name a secret from people outside the family, even doctors" (para 1-3). There is a...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1

"The problem starts early, when a girl is born. It takes a long time for her to be given a name. Then when a woman is married her name does not appear on her wedding invitations. When she is ill her name does not appear on her prescription, and when she dies her name does not appear on her death certificate or even her headstone" (para 5). "'Even if the parliament passes the law and President Ghani issues a presidential decree endorsing the inclusion of mother's name on ID cards, we will keep fighting until shame is removed from women's names,' she said" (para 13). "And many women in the...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"But some Afghan women are now campaigning to use their names freely, with the slogan 'Where Is My Name?' The campaign began three years ago when Laleh Osmany realised she was fed up with women being denied what she thought was a 'basic right'. 'The campaign is getting one step closer to achieving its goal of persuading the Afghan government to record the mother's name on a birth certificate,' Ms Osmany, who is 28, said" (para 6-7). "Soon after Ms Osmany began her campaign three years ago, Afghan celebrities began to throw their support behind it, including the singer and music producer Farhad Darya and the singer-songwriter Aryana Sayeed" (para...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-1

"'When we refer to women by their roles, their original and real identity gets lost,' said Mr Darya. 'When men deny women's identities, over time women themselves begin to censor their own identity.' Ms Sayeed, a women's rights activist and one of Afghanistan's most famous singers, said women were entitled to an independent identity. 'A woman is first of all a human and then your wife, sister, mother or daughter, and she has the right to be recognised by her identity,' she said. But she said she feared the campaign had a long road ahead" (para 15-17). "And many women in the country would not support the idea. 'When someone...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MULV-PRACTICE-1

"'When we refer to women by their roles, their original and real identity gets lost,' said Mr Darya. 'When men deny women's identities, over time women themselves begin to censor their own identity.' Ms Sayeed, a women's rights activist and one of Afghanistan's most famous singers, said women were entitled to an independent identity. 'A woman is first of all a human and then your wife, sister, mother or daughter, and she has the right to be recognised by her identity,' she said. But she said she feared the campaign had a long road ahead" (para 15-17). This indicates that societally, women may only be considered to have a fulfilling...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Using a woman's name in public is frowned upon and can be considered an insult. Many Afghan men are reluctant to say the names of their sisters, wives or mothers in public. Women are generally only referred to as the mother, daughter or sister of the eldest male in their family, and Afghan law dictates that only the father's name should be recorded on a birth certificate. The problem starts early, when a girl is born. It takes a long time for her to be given a name. Then when a woman is married her name does not appear on her wedding invitations. When she is ill her name does...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CLCC-PRACTICE-1

"The problem starts early, when a girl is born. It takes a long time for her to be given a name. Then when a woman is married her name does not appear on her wedding invitations. When she is ill her name does not appear on her prescription, and when she dies her name does not appear on her death certificate or even her headstone" (para 5).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"It is easier for women who have left Afghanistan. Farida Sadaat was a child bride and had her first baby at the age of 15. She and her husband later separated and she moved to Germany with her four children. Ms Sadaat told the BBC her husband had not been present in his children's lives, physically or emotionally, and she believes he has no right to have his name printed on their Afghan identity cards. 'I brought up my children all by myself. My husband refused to divorce me so that I cannot get married again,' she said. 'I call upon the Afghan president to change the law and record...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Using a woman's name in public is frowned upon and can be considered an insult. Many Afghan men are reluctant to say the names of their sisters, wives or mothers in public. Women are generally only referred to as the mother, daughter or sister of the eldest male in their family, and Afghan law dictates that only the father's name should be recorded on a birth certificate" (para 4). "The campaign appears to have taken a big step in the past few weeks. A source close to Afghan President Ashraf Ghani said he had instructed the Afghanistan Central Civil Registration Authority (Accra) to look into the possibility of amending the...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1

"Using a woman's name in public is frowned upon and can be considered an insult. Many Afghan men are reluctant to say the names of their sisters, wives or mothers in public. Women are generally only referred to as the mother, daughter or sister of the eldest male in their family, and Afghan law dictates that only the father's name should be recorded on a birth certificate" (para 4).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DMW-PRACTICE-1

"Afghanistan remains a patriarchal society, in which 'male honour' forces women not only to keep their bodies hidden but also to hide their names, according to the Afghan sociologist Ali Kaveh. 'In Afghan society, the best women are those who are not seen and heard. As the saying goes: "The sun and moon haven't seen her",' Mr Kaveh said. 'The harshest and toughest men are the most respected and honourable men in society. If the female members of their family are liberal, they are considered promiscuous and dishonourable'" (para 21-23).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Afghanistan remains a patriarchal society, in which 'male honour' forces women not only to keep their bodies hidden but also to hide their names, according to the Afghan sociologist Ali Kaveh. 'In Afghan society, the best women are those who are not seen and heard. As the saying goes: "The sun and moon haven't seen her",' Mr Kaveh said" (para 21-22).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"It is easier for women who have left Afghanistan. Farida Sadaat was a child bride and had her first baby at the age of 15. She and her husband later separated and she moved to Germany with her four children" (para 27).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-2

"The campaign appears to have taken a big step in the past few weeks. A source close to Afghan President Ashraf Ghani said he had instructed the Afghanistan Central Civil Registration Authority (Accra) to look into the possibility of amending the country's Population Registration Act to allow women to have their names on their children's ID cards and birth certificates. The BBC understands the act has now been amended and forwarded to the President's Office of Administrative Affairs (OAA). Fawzia Koofi, an Afghan former MP and women's rights activist, told the BBC she welcomed the development, which 'should have happened many years back'. 'The matter of including a woman's name...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"Despite a law setting the legal minimum age for marriage at 16 years for girls (15 years with the consent of a parent or guardian or the court) and 18 years for boys, international and local observers continued to report widespread early and forced marriages throughout the country. By EVAW law those convicted of entering into or arranging forced or underage marriages are subject to at least two years’ imprisonment; however, implementation was limited. By law a marriage contract requires verification that the bride is 16 years old (or 15 years old with the permission of her parents or a court), but only a small fraction of the population had...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IRP-LAW-1, PRN-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes sexual exploitation of children. In addition to outlawing the practice of bacha bazi, the penal code provides that, '[i]f an adult male has intercourse with a person younger than the legal age, his act shall be considered rape and the victim’s consent is invalid.' The penal code also treats nonstatutory rape of a child as an aggravated form of the offense, punishable if convicted by up to 20 years’ imprisonment. The EVAW Law prescribes a penalty of 10 to 15 years’ imprisonment for conviction of forcing an underage girl into prostitution. Taking possession of a child for sexual exploitation or production of pornographic films or images constitutes...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minority groups in the political process. The October 2018 parliamentary election produced approximately the same level of female voter turnout as in the 2010 parliamentary election; however, there was an increase in the participation of female candidates. Absent reliable data, civil society, think tanks, and election monitoring organizations assessed that women’s participation across the country varied according to the security conditions and social norms. There was lower female voter turnout in provinces where communities purposely limited female participation in the democratic process, where lack of security was a concern, or both. Conflict, threats, financial constraints, corruption, conservative family members, and a...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"The EVAW presidential decree was first issued in 2009 and was reinforced by another presidential decree in 2018. Implementation and awareness of the law remain a serious challenge. The law criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women, including rape; battery or beating; forced marriage; humiliation; intimidation; and deprivation of inheritance. The penal code criminalizes rape of both women and men. The law provides for a minimum sentence of five to 16 years’ imprisonment for conviction of rape, or up to 20 years if one or more aggravating circumstances is present. If the act results in the death of the victim, the law provides for a death sentence for the perpetrator....more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Women continued to face discrimination and hardship in the workplace. Women made up only 7 percent of the workforce. Many women faced pressure from relatives to stay at home and encountered hiring practices that favored men. Older and married women reported it was more difficult for them than for younger, single women to find jobs. Women who worked reported they encountered insults, sexual harassment, lack of transportation, and an absence of day care facilities. Salary discrimination existed in the private sector. Female journalists, social workers, and police officers reported they were often threatened or abused. Persons with disabilities also suffered from discrimination in hiring" (43).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"In areas controlled by the Taliban, the group enforced a parallel judicial system based on a strict interpretation of sharia. Punishments included execution and mutilation. According to media reporting, in May a Taliban court in Shahrak District, Ghor Province, shot and killed a boy and girl for allegedly having an extramarital affair. In March media reported the Taliban killed a pregnant woman and her unborn child in Sancharak District, Sar-e-Pol Province, for allegedly calling the Taliban’s war against the government 'illegitimate.' The Taliban dragged her from her home, took her to a Talib commander who issued her death sentence, and shot her immediately" (10-11)."Honor killings continued throughout the year. According...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2, IIP-LAW-2

"The Antiharassment Law criminalizes all forms of harassment of women and children, including physical, verbal, psychological, and sexual. By law all government ministries are required to establish a committee to review internal harassment complaints and support appropriate resolution of these claims. Implementation and enforcement of the law remained limited and ineffective. The AIHRC reported more than 85 percent of women and children faced various forms of harassment. Women who walked outside alone or who worked outside the home often experienced harassment, including groping, catcalling, and being followed. Women with public roles occasionally received threats directed at them or their families. Businesswomen faced myriad challenges from the traditional nature of society...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"Authorities placed some women in protective custody to prevent violence by family members. They also employed protective custody (including placement in a detention center) for women who had experienced domestic violence, if no shelters were available to protect them from further abuse. The 2009 Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) presidential decree--commonly referred to as the EVAW law--obliges police to arrest persons who abuse women. Implementation and awareness of the EVAW law was limited, however" (8). "At times women in need of protection ended up in prison, either because their community lacked a protection center or because the local interpretation of 'running away' was interpreted as a moral crime. Adultery,...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifies a minimum number of seats for women and minorities in the two houses of parliament. For the Wolesi Jirga, the constitution mandates that at least two women shall be elected from each province (for a total of 68). The IEC finalized 2018 parliamentary election results in May, and 418 female candidates contested the 250 seats in the Wolesi Jirga in the 2018 parliamentary election. In Daikundi Province a woman won a seat in open competition against male candidates, making it the only province to have more female representation than mandated by the constitution. The constitution also mandates one-half of presidential appointees must be women. It also sets...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women in some areas of the country say their freedom of expression in choice of attire was limited by conservative social mores and sometimes enforced by Taliban in insurgent-controlled areas as well as religious leaders" (21).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

"Some reporters acknowledged they avoided criticizing the insurgency and some neighboring countries in their reporting because they feared Taliban retribution. Insurgent groups coerced media agencies in insecure areas to prevent them from broadcasting or publishing advertisements and announcements of the security forces, entertainment programming, music, and women’s voices" (21).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ASR-DATA-1

"There was a widespread shortage of judges, primarily in insecure areas, leading to the adjudication of many cases through informal, traditional mediation. A shortage of women judges, particularly outside of Kabul, limited access to justice for women. Many women are unable to use the formal justice system because cultural norms preclude their engagement with male officials. During the year only 257 of 2,029, or 13 percent, of judges were women, a slight increase from 2018. The formal justice system is stronger in urban centers, closer to the central government, and weaker in rural areas. In rural areas lacking physical space for judges or prosecutors to operate and adequate security protection,...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Traditional societal practices continue to limit women’s participation in politics and activities outside the home and community, including the need to have a male escort or permission to work. These factors, in addition to an education and experience gap, likely contributed to the central government’s male-dominated composition. The 2016 electoral law mandates that 25 percent of all provincial, district, and village council seats “shall be allocated to female candidates.” Neither district nor village councils were established by year’s end. Women active in government and politics continued to face threats and violence and were targets of attacks by the Taliban and other insurgent groups. No laws prevent minorities from participating in...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The EVAW presidential decree was first issued in 2009 and was reinforced by another presidential decree in 2018. Implementation and awareness of the law remain a serious challenge. The law criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women, including rape; battery or beating; forced marriage; humiliation; intimidation; and deprivation of inheritance. The penal code criminalizes rape of both women and men. The law provides for a minimum sentence of five to 16 years’ imprisonment for conviction of rape, or up to 20 years if one or more aggravating circumstances is present. If the act results in the death of the victim, the law provides for a death sentence for the perpetrator....more