The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Brazil

Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: PRN-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes child pornography. The creation of child pornography carries a prison sentence of up to eight years and a fine. The penalty for possession of child pornography is up to four years in prison and a fine. On March 28, a nationwide operation involving more than 1,500 civil police resulted in the arrest of 141 individuals allegedly involved with child pornography. The Federal Police, in coordination with the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, conducted a series of operations to combat child pornography. On May 23, they executed 28 arrest warrants in eight states" (21-22).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Aos Fatos, a fact-checking NGO, found that an average of nine elected politicians were killed each year in the country between 2007 and 2018. In March police arrested two former police officers, Ronnie Lessa and Elcio Vieira de Queiroz, in connection with the killing of a gay, black, Rio de Janeiro city council member and human rights activist, Marielle Franco, and her driver, alleging that Lessa fired the gun and de Queiroz drove the get-away car. A preliminary trial started on June 7 at the Fourth Criminal Court in Rio de Janeiro. As of October, the date for the final trial had not been scheduled" (3). "...One newly elected state...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. In addition, the Maria da Penha Law criminalizes physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women, as well as defamation and damage to property or finances by someone with whom the victim has a marriage, family, or intimate relationship. Persons convicted of killing a woman or girl in cases of domestic violence may be sentenced to 12 to 30 years in prison" (19). "The law requires health facilities to contact police regarding cases in which a woman was harmed physically, sexually, or psychologically and to collect evidence and statements should the victim decide to prosecute" (20).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. In addition, the Maria da Penha Law criminalizes physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women, as well as defamation and damage to property or finances by someone with whom the victim has a marriage, family, or intimate relationship. Persons convicted of killing a woman or girl in cases of domestic violence may be sentenced to 12 to 30 years in prison" (19).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"According to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Socioeconomic Profile of Refugees in Brazil report, as of February there were 5,314 officially recognized refugees living in the country. The report included results from interviews with a sample of 500 refugees who had settled in seven states and the Federal District. According to the report, 55 percent of the refugees were from Syria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. UNHCR reported 178,575 Venezuelans had requested protection in Brazil as of August. Of those, only 221 had been officially recognized as refugees by the National Committee for Refugees due to a years-long backlog in deciding cases...NGOs reported...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, TRAFF-DATA-1

"While no specific laws address child sex tourism, it is punishable under other criminal offenses. The country was a destination for child sex tourism. In addition, girls from other South American nations were exploited in sex trafficking in the country" (21).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Each state secretariat for public security operated police stations dedicated exclusively to addressing crimes against women. State and local governments also operated reference centers and temporary women’s shelters, and many states maintained domestic violence hotlines. Despite these protections, allegations of domestic violence were not always treated as credible by police; a study in the state of Rio Grande do Sul found 40 percent of femicide victims had previously sought police protection" (20).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men in all circumstances. The government did not enforce the law effectively. According to government statistics, women earned an average 79.5 percent of the wages earned by men. According to the Observatory on Workplace Equality, black women earned 55 percent of the wages earned by white men" (20-21). "...According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men but also had difficulties entering the workplace: 78 percent of men held paid jobs, compared with 56 percent of women. Although the law prohibits gender discrimination in pay, professional training, and career advancement, the law was not...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The law requires parties and coalitions to have a minimum quota of 30 percent women on the list of candidates for Congress and municipalities. By law 20 percent of the political television and radio advertising must be used to encourage female participation in politics. Parties that do not comply with this requirement may be found ineligible to contest elections. In the 2018 elections, some parties fielded the minimum number of female candidates but reportedly did not provide sufficient support for them to campaign effectively. In 2018 the Superior Electoral Court ruled parties must provide a minimum of 30 percent of campaign funds to support the election of female candidates. Women...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived from birth in the country or from birth to a Brazilian citizen parent. Parents are required to register their newborns within 15 days of the birth or within three months if they live more than approximately 20 miles from the nearest notary. Nevertheless, there were many children who did not have birth certificates" (21).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In 2018 the Supreme Court ruled that 20 percent of vacancies for the military services must be filled by Afro-Brazilians, either men or women" (24).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"The federal government maintained a toll-free nationwide hotline for women to report instances of intimate partner violence. Hotline operators have the authority to mobilize military police units to respond to such reports and follow up regarding the status of the case...According to NGOs and public security data, domestic violence was widespread. According to the 13th Public Safety Yearbook released annually by the Brazilian Public Security Forum, there were 66,000 cases of rape in 2018. In cases of femicide, the killer was a partner or former partner of the victim 89 percent of the time. On March 18, in the municipality of Santo Andre, located in the metropolitan area of Sao...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"...According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men but also had difficulties entering the workplace: 78 percent of men held paid jobs, compared with 56 percent of women. Although the law prohibits gender discrimination in pay, professional training, and career advancement, the law was not enforced, and discrimination existed" (32).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (16).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion or involuntary sterilization" (20).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"Labor laws and regulations prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, sex, gender, disability, religion, political opinion, natural origin or citizenship, age, language, and sexual orientation or gender identity. Discrimination against individuals who are HIV positive or suffer from other communicable diseases is also prohibited. The government generally enforced the laws and regulations, although discrimination in employment occurred with respect to Afro-Brazilians, women, persons with disabilities, indigenous persons, and transgender individuals. The Ministry of Economy implemented rules to integrate promotion of racial equality in its programs, including requiring race be included in data for programs financed by the ministry. According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: MURDER-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. In addition, the Maria da Penha Law criminalizes physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women, as well as defamation and damage to property or finances by someone with whom the victim has a marriage, family, or intimate relationship. Persons convicted of killing a woman or girl in cases of domestic violence may be sentenced to 12 to 30 years in prison. According to NGOs and public security data, domestic violence was widespread. According to the 13th Public Safety Yearbook released annually by the Brazilian Public Security Forum, there were 66,000 cases of rape in 2018. In cases of femicide,...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. In addition, the Maria da Penha Law criminalizes physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women, as well as defamation and damage to property or finances by someone with whom the victim has a marriage, family, or intimate relationship. Persons convicted of killing a woman or girl in cases of domestic violence may be sentenced to 12 to 30 years in prison" (19). "During the first half of the year, Congress introduced more than 150 bills related to domestic violence and other issues concerning gender equality. The record number of proposals sought to strengthen criminal penalties, prohibit convicted abusers from...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"According to NGOs and public security data, domestic violence was widespread. According to the 13th Public Safety Yearbook released annually by the Brazilian Public Security Forum, there were 66,000 cases of rape in 2018. In cases of femicide, the killer was a partner or former partner of the victim 89 percent of the time. On March 18, in the municipality of Santo Andre, located in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Manoel Gomes de Oliveira ran over his wife, who was walking on the sidewalk, got out of his car, shot and killed her, and fled. Later that day police arrested him and charged him with femicide" (19).more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual exploitation of children, adolescents, and other vulnerable persons is punishable by four to 10 years in prison. The law defines sexual exploitation as child sex trafficking, sexual activity, production of child pornography, and public or private sex shows. The government enforced the law unevenly. The law sets a minimum age of 14 for consensual sex, with the penalty for statutory rape ranging from eight to 15 years in prison" (21). "In January Josiano Jonatas de Mello was beaten and burned alive by a group of 22 vigilantes in Porto Alegre. According to police, he was 'tried and condemned' by a group of drug traffickers in the local community after...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The legal minimum age of marriage is 18 (16 with parental or legal representative consent). In March Congress passed a law prohibiting the marriage of minors younger than 16. Prior to the change in the law, minors younger than 16 could marry with the consent of their parents if they were pregnant or if they had an older sexual partner who was seeking to avoid criminal charges of statutory rape. The practice of early marriage was common. A study of child marriage in the northeastern states of Bahia and Maranhao found that pregnancy was the main motivation for child marriage in 15 of 44 cases. According to 2017 data from...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"Sexual exploitation of children, adolescents, and other vulnerable persons is punishable by four to 10 years in prison. The law defines sexual exploitation as child sex trafficking, sexual activity, production of child pornography, and public or private sex shows. The government enforced the law unevenly. The law sets a minimum age of 14 for consensual sex, with the penalty for statutory rape ranging from eight to 15 years in prison. While no specific laws address child sex tourism, it is punishable under other criminal offenses. The country was a destination for child sex tourism. In addition, girls from other South American nations were exploited in sex trafficking in the country"...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men in all circumstances. The government did not enforce the law effectively. According to government statistics, women earned an average 79.5 percent of the wages earned by men. According to the Observatory on Workplace Equality, black women earned 55 percent of the wages earned by white men" (20-21).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"There were reports of sexual assault committed by police. In June, two military police officers were arrested for raping a 19-year-old woman in Praia Grande in the state of Sao Paulo. The two officers were offering the woman a ride to a local bus stop when one officer moved to the backseat with her and raped her. As of June 28, the officers were awaiting trial. The Favela Circuit for Rights also reported documented cases of sexual assault by police. In August a 31-year-old lesbian woman reported two military police officers, Sergeants Hugo Borges Gomes and Caio Cesar Borba Brandao, raped and physically assaulted her in the city of Goiania....more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, IIP-PRACTICE-2

"Sexual harassment was also prevalent at public events such as concerts and during Carnival street festivals. The 2019 Carnival celebration was the first one in which sexual harassment was illegal, and police departments throughout the country distributed rape whistles and informed Carnival-goers of the women-only police stations and the sexual assault hotline" (20).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. In addition, the Maria da Penha Law criminalizes physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women, as well as defamation and damage to property or finances by someone with whom the victim has a marriage, family, or intimate relationship. Persons convicted of killing a woman or girl in cases of domestic violence may be sentenced to 12 to 30 years in prison" (19). "The law requires health facilities to contact police regarding cases in which a woman was harmed physically, sexually, or psychologically and to collect evidence and statements should the victim decide to prosecute" (20). "Sexual exploitation of children,...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"State-level ombudsman offices; the National Council of Justice; the National Mechanism for the Prevention and Combat of Torture in the Ministry of Women, Family, and Human Rights; and the National Penitentiary Department in the Ministry of Justice and Public Security monitored prison and detention center conditions and conducted investigations of credible allegations of mistreatment" (7). "The National Commission to Eradicate Slave Labor was created to coordinate government efforts to combat forced and exploitative labor and provide a forum for input from civil society actors. The commission was eliminated by presidential decree in April and recreated in June. The commission faced new limitations, including two-hour meeting durations that may be extended...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"The law provides citizens the ability to choose their government in free and fair periodic elections held by secret ballot and based on universal and equal suffrage" (15).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports of sexual assault committed by police. In June, two military police officers were arrested for raping a 19-year-old woman in Praia Grande in the state of Sao Paulo. The two officers were offering the woman a ride to a local bus stop when one officer moved to the backseat with her and raped her. As of June 28, the officers were awaiting trial. The Favela Circuit for Rights also reported documented cases of sexual assault by police. In August a 31-year-old lesbian woman reported two military police officers, Sergeants Hugo Borges Gomes and Caio Cesar Borba Brandao, raped and physically assaulted her in the city of Goiania....more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1, IRP-DATA-2

"...90 percent of transgender women survived through prostitution because they could find no other employment alternative" (26).