The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for China

Sept. 17, 2021, 10:06 p.m.
Countries: China, New Zealand
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"The government complained to the Chinese embassy following a July 29 incident at the University of Auckland in which three mainland Chinese men verbally and physically assaulted a Hong Kong student while she was at a rally in support of Hong Kong’s antiextradition law protesters. The focus of the government’s complaint was a statement issued by the Chinese consulate in Auckland praising the mainlanders’ actions as 'spontaneous patriotism' and criticizing biased coverage of the Hong Kong situation" (5-6).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

" The Population and Family Planning Law permits married couples to have two children and allows couples to apply for permission to have a third child if they meet conditions stipulated in local and provincial regulations" (66). "State media claimed the number of coerced abortions had declined in recent years in the wake of loosened regulations, including the implementation of the two-child policy. Nevertheless, citizens were subject to hefty fines for violating the law, while couples who had only one child received a certificate entitling them to collect a monthly incentive payment and other benefits that vary by province--from approximately six to 12 yuan (one to two dollars) per month...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Children and migrants were vulnerable to sex and labor trafficking, including in construction and domestic work. The government [in Macau] investigated cases, but there were no convictions during the year" (143).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"Legal aid institutions working to provide counseling and defense to victims of domestic violence were often pressured to suspend public activities and cease all forms of policy advocacy, an area that was reserved only for government-sponsored organizations" (65). "Some women’s NGOs... sought to increase public awareness of sexual harassment..." (66). "The government [in Macau] funded nongovernmental organizations to provide victim support services, including medical services, family counseling, and housing, until their complaints [of rape or domestic violence] were resolved" (140).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"On July 11, a Chengdu court ruled in favor of Liu Li, who used an alias, in a lawsuit against her former employer who she said sexually harassed her. The court ordered the former employer to apologize" (69). "In October the Jing’an District People’s Court sentenced a man to six months in prison after he groped an adult woman and an under aged girl on a subway train on July 1" (69).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-DATA-2

"The most recent information from the PRC’s National Bureau of Statistics stated the boy-girl birth ratio was 111.9 to 100 in 2017, which was lower than the World Bank’s statistic of 115 to 100 for the same year" (69-70).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"Prominent Chinese journalist Huang Xueqin, known for her publications about the #MeToo movement in China, was arrested in Guangzhou in October after she wrote about antigovernment protests in Hong Kong" (33). "There were multiple reports, however, of sexual harassment in housing, the workplace, and in universities [in Hong Kong]" (125). "Cathay’s cabin crew union head Rebecca Sy told the press in August that Cathay Dragon, a Cathay subsidiary, fired her after company officials showed her printouts of proprotest movement postings on her private Facebook account" (128-129).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality in ownership of property" (69). "Rural contract law and laws protecting women’s rights stipulate women enjoy equal rights in cases of land management" (69).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Activists expressed concern that rape was underreported, especially within the ethnic minority community" (124). Underreporting could indicate barriers/taboos against reporting (SFR - CODER COMMENT). "The government [in Macau] made referrals for victims [of rape and domestic violence] to receive medical treatment, and social workers counseled victims and informed them of social welfare services. The government funded nongovernmental organizations to provide victim support services, including medical services, family counseling, and housing, until their complaints were resolved" (140).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law does not safeguard same-sex couples or victims of marital rape" (64). "The law [in Macau] criminalizes rape, including spousal rape" (140).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: VOTE-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process [in Macau], and they did participate" (139).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life'" (69). "The law [in Macau] provides that all residents shall be equal before the law and shall be free from discrimination, irrespective of... gender..." (144).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"North Korean refugees and asylum seekers, particularly young women living on the margins of society, were vulnerable to trafficking and forced marriages as a result of their unrecognized status. Authorities continued to forcibly repatriate North Korean refugees and asylum seekers, including trafficking victims, generally treating them as illegal economic migrants. The government detained and deported them to North Korea..." (58).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IRP-LAW-5

"Persons who forced girls younger than 14 into prostitution could be sentenced to 10 years to life in prison in addition to a fine or confiscation of property. In especially serious cases, violators could receive a life sentence or death sentence, in addition to having their property confiscated. Those who visited girls forced into prostitution younger than 14 were subject to five years or more in prison in addition to paying a fine" (70-71). "The law [in Hong Kong] prohibits the commercial sexual exploitation of children and procuring children for prostitution" (126). "The law [in Macau] specifically provides for criminal punishment for... procurement involving minors.... The law forbids procurement for...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CUST-LAW-2

"Although under both civil law and marriage law the children of single women are entitled to the same rights as those born to married parents, in practice children born to single mothers or unmarried couples are considered 'outside of the policy' and subject to the social compensation fee and the denial of legal documents, such as birth documents and the hukou residence permit. Single women could avoid those penalties by marrying within 60 days of the baby’s birth" (67).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MURDER-DATA-1

"In June 2018 Aytursun Eli died in Kashgar (Kashi), Xinjiang, while being questioned in official custody, according to a recorded interview, released during the year, which her mother gave to the official Xinjiang Women’s Federation. Authorities reportedly targeted the Uighur tour director at Hua An Tourism Company after she returned from a work trip to Dubai. Officials later said she died of a 'medical condition' and prevented family members from examining the body" (3). "A Uighur woman said she and other women were forced to ingest unknown drugs and drink a white liquid that caused them to lose consciousness and in some cases resulted in a loss of menstruation. She...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for the granting of refugee or asylum status. The government did not have a system for providing protection to refugees but generally recognized UNHCR-registered refugees in China" (58). "The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status [in Hong Kong]" (120).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Rural contract law and laws protecting women’s rights stipulate women enjoy equal rights in cases of land management, but experts asserted this was rarely the case due to the complexity of the law and difficulties in its implementation" (69).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"Significant human rights issues included: ...a coercive birth-limitation policy that in some cases included forced sterilization or abortions" (1-2). "There were reports of coerced abortions and sterilizations" (66). "As in prior years, population control policy continued to rely on social pressure... as well as on measures such as mandatory pregnancy examinations and, less frequently, coerced abortions and sterilizations" (67). "According to other international reports, several Uighur women reported they were forced to undergo sterilization while detained in detention centers. A Uighur woman said she and other women were forced to ingest unknown drugs and drink a white liquid that caused them to lose consciousness and in some cases resulted in...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law does not provide for the granting of refugee or asylum status" (58). "The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status [in Hong Kong]" (120).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Nonetheless, official assistance did not always reach victims, and public security forces often ignored domestic violence" (65). "According to women’s rights activists, a recurring problem in the prosecution of domestic violence cases was a failure by authorities to collect evidence, including photographs, hospital records, police records, or children’s testimony. Witnesses seldom testified in court" (65). "The law [in Hong Kong] does not directly criminalize domestic violence, but the government regarded domestic violence against women as a serious concern. Abusers may be liable for criminal charges, such as offenses against person, sexual assault, and illtreatment of a child, depending on which act constituted the domestic violence. The government [in Hong Kong]...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1

"There were few applicants for refugee or asylum status and no successful applicants [in Macau]" (137).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"A 2016 regulation released by the PRC’s National Health and Family Planning Commission, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and the State Food and Drug Administration bans nonmedical fetal sex diagnosis and aborting a pregnancy based on gender selection. It stipulates that no unit or individual should carry out or promote such procedures" (70).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-1

"Gender-biased abortions and the abandonment and neglect of baby girls were believed to be in decline but continued to be a problem in some circumstances due to the traditional preference for sons and the birth-limitation policy" (71).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"Since the national family planning law mentions only the rights of married couples, local implementation was inconsistent, and unmarried persons must pay for contraception" (67).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age for marriage is 22 for men and 20 for women" (70). "The legal minimum age of marriage is 16 for both men and women [in Hong Kong]; however, parents’ written consent is required for marriage before the age of 21" (126). "The minimum legal age of marriage [in Macau] is age 16; however, children from ages 16 to 18 who wish to marry must obtain approval from their parents or guardians" (141).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The Family Violence Law defines domestic violence as a civil, rather than a criminal, offense" (65). "The physical abuse of children is ground for criminal prosecution. The Domestic Violence Law also protects children" (70). "The law [in Hong Kong] does not directly criminalize domestic violence, but the government regarded domestic violence against women as a serious concern. Abusers may be liable for criminal charges, such as offenses against person, sexual assault, and ill-treatment of a child, depending on which act constituted the domestic violence" (124). "The law [in Hong Kong] mandates protection for victims of child abuse (battery, assault, neglect, abandonment, and sexual exploitation)" (125). "The law [in Macau] criminalizes...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"A November 2018 Human Rights Watch survey of 36,000 civil service job advertisements between 2013 and 2018 found one in five specified a requirement or preference for men. Examples of discrimination included job advertisements seeking pretty women, preferring men, or requiring higher education qualifications from women compared with men for the same job. Survey results showed women were less likely to be invited for interviews or called back for a second round of interviews" (85).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IAW-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality in... inheritance rights" (69).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-DATA-1

"State media claimed the number of coerced abortions had declined in recent years in the wake of loosened regulations, including the implementation of the two-child policy" (66). "As in prior years, population control policy continued to rely on social pressure, education, propaganda, and economic penalties, as well as on measures such as mandatory pregnancy examinations and, less frequently, coerced abortions and sterilizations... Regulations requiring women who violate the family planning policy to terminate their pregnancies still exist and were enforced in some provinces, such as Hubei, Hunan, and Liaoning. Other provinces, such as Guizhou and Yunnan, maintained provisions that require 'remedial measures,' an official euphemism for abortion, to deal with...more