The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Egypt

Sept. 13, 2021, 11:20 a.m.
Countries: Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Rep, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Cyprus, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Finland, Gambia, Georgia, Greece, Guyana, India, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, Malawi, Malta, Mongolia, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Trinidad/Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia
Variables: LRW-SCALE-12

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Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It should be noted that in the case of Egypt, the proportion of informal female workers drops to 38%, although there is a remarkable proportion (18%) of informal family labor; women exit the labor force with more informality. ...In all cases, it seems that informality will be higher in... Egypt due to the post-revolution economic developments" (3-4). "For women's unwaged informal labor, the highest proportions are seen in Bahrain (54%) and Lebanon (58%) due to the importance of female domestic labor for female migrant workers... The lowest Informal labor in the Arab countries, with/without agriculture and the government sectorshare is seen in... Egypt (8%) due to the scarcity of women's...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MULV-DATA-1

"For women's unwaged informal labor, the ...lowest share is seen in Tunisia (3%) thanks to the social security systems and in Egypt (8%) due to the scarcity of women's waged labor"(8-9). "The proportion of unwaged family contributing women reaches 46% of all women's labor in Morocco, ...while Egypt (18%)... see[s] significant percentages" (9).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Social and cultural barriers, however, limited women’s political participation and leadership in most political parties and some government institutions. Voters elected a record number of 75 women, 36 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities to parliament during the 2015 parliamentary elections, a substantial increase compared with the 2012 parliament. The House of Representatives law outlines the criteria for the electoral lists, which provides that the House of Representatives must include at least 56 women, 24 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities. The April constitutional amendments introduced a 25 percent quota in the House of Representatives for women and a requirement to better represent workers, farmers, youth, Christians, Egyptians abroad, and...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: IIP-LAW-2

"The penal code defines sexual harassment as a crime, with penalties including fines and sentences of six months’ to five years’ imprisonment if convicted"(44).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"In marriage and divorce cases, a woman’s testimony must be judged credible to be admissible. Usually the woman accomplishes credibility by conveying her testimony through an adult male relative or representative. The law assumes a man’s testimony is credible unless proven otherwise"(46).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 18"(47)."According to the law, a foreign man who wants to marry an Egyptian woman more than 25 years younger than he is must pay a fine of LE 50,000 ($3,030). Women’s rights organizations argued that allowing foreign men to pay a fine to marry much younger women represented a form of trafficking and encouraged child marriage"(47).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or, members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(38)."The House of Representatives law grants the president the authority to appoint House of Representatives members, not to surpass 5 percent of the total number of elected members. If the president opts to use this authority, one-half of his appointments must be women, according to the law. Parliament included 89 women and 38 Christians"(39).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Police often treated domestic violence as a social rather than criminal matter"(43).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is illegal, but it remained a serious problem"(43)."A 2016 amendment to the law designated FGM/C a felony, as opposed to a misdemeanor as it was previously, and assigned penalties for conviction of five to seven years’ imprisonment for practitioners who perform the procedure or 15 years if the practice led to death or “permanent deformity.” The law granted exceptions in cases of “medical necessity,” which rights groups and subject matter experts identified as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue"(44).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"An NCW study found that approximately 1.5 million women reported domestic violence each year"(43).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Prison conditions for women were marginally better than those for men"(7).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"On September 3[2019], the NCCM announced it had received 432 complaints about child marriage cases on its hotline from 18 governorates since the beginning of the year. Families reportedly sometimes forced adolescent girls to marry wealthy foreign men in what were known locally as “tourism” or “summer” marriages for the purpose of sexual exploitation, prostitution, or forced labor"(47).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Media and NGOs reported sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints"(44).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The law does not prohibit domestic violence or spousal abuse, but authorities may apply provisions relating to assault with accompanying penalties.The law requires that an assault victim produce multiple eyewitnesses, a difficult condition for domestic abuse victims"(43).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce the FGM/C law"(43)."In July the “Protecting Her from FGM” campaign was launched by the National Commission for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation and included a doorto-door campaign in all governorates to raise awareness among local communities about the harmful effects of FGM/C, in cooperation with the committees of child protection and rural leaders"(44).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Media, NGOs, and UNHCR staff reported multiple cases of attacks against refugees, particularly women and children. According to UNHCR, refugees sometimes reported harassment, sexual harassment, and discrimination. Refugee women and girls, particularly sub-Saharan Africans, faced the greatest risk of societal, sexual, and gender-based violence(34).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, prescribing penalties of 15 to 25 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment for cases of rape involving armed abduction"(43).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Spousal rape is not illegal"(43).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-DATA-1

"The latest research conducted by the National Population Council shows that the number of girls ages 13-17 subjected to the procedure dropped to 72 percent in 2018"(43).
Aug. 3, 2021, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CUST-LAW-1

"The proposed law also reportedly stipulates that a single mother who has guardianship over her children from a previous marriage must receive written permission from her ex-husband if she wishes to travel.She must also seek similar authorisation from the children’s father with regards to any legal decisions concerning her children. The law does not stipulate similar restrictions on men"(para 20,21)."Currently, Egyptian law stipulates that if a woman remarries, custody of her children from a previous marriage is transferred to the children’s father or grandmother"(para 24).
Aug. 3, 2021, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: PW-LAW-1

"About 50 women’s organisations in Egypt have published a statement laying out basic principles regarding women’s legal rights amid growing controversy over a proposed bill to amend the country’s personal status law[...]Regarding marriage, the statement said the law should ensure that divorce is legalised only through a judge and that polygamy be allowed only through a judge’s authorisation following permission from a man’s first wife.The main articles that have been welcomed by rights groups include amendments that reportedly call for imposing a hefty fine and up to a year in prison on a man if he marries more than one wife at a time, and does so without notifying his...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"The proposed law also reportedly stipulates that a single mother who has guardianship over her children from a previous marriage must receive written permission from her ex-husband if she wishes to travel"(para 20).
Aug. 3, 2021, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-LAW-2

"The Egyptian Centre for Women’s Rights (ECWR), which signed the statement, said in a press release last month it rejected the articles of the draft law because they were unjust and regressive in their approach to personal status issues[...]'In Egypt, we have female ministers in all fields. These women can sign contracts on behalf of the state worth millions of dollars, but under this law, they wouldn’t even have the right to contract their own marriages unless they were previously married,' said Aboul Komsan, who is also a lawyer.'And if they did, a male guardian can file a legal request to annul the marriage contract if he so wishes,' she...more
July 26, 2021, 7 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-DATA-1

"CAIRO – 29 October 2018: Nader Saad, the Egyptian Cabinet's spokesman, promoted for the government's new initiative to limit "alarming" divorce rates in Egypt, saying that about 20 percent of annual marriages in the country end in divorce. In an interview with "al-Mowagaha" (confrontation) program on Extra News, Saad said that of Egypt's annual 980,000 marriages, 198,000 marriages end in divorce. Saad said that 38- 40 percent of the mentioned divorce cases occur in the first three years of marriage, pointing out that divorce spreads among youth with ages from 25 to 35 years old" (para 1-3). "In his speech in January 2017, during the anniversary of the National Police...more
July 26, 2021, 7 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-2

"The marriage rate witnessed a relative increase as well, but the rate of separations was much higher than any other measured by CAPMAS. The marriage rate increased by 4.3 percent in December 2017, compared to the rate measured in December 2016" (para 11). An increase in the marriage rate indicates that marriage is not likely seen as outdated in society (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
July 26, 2021, 7 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-5

"'[Can’t] we issue a law stipulating that divorce becomes invalid except in the [presence of] the marriage official to give people [who decided to get divorce] the chance to rethink their decision?,' Sisi said, calling for invalidating oral divorce. Sisi justified his proposal, saying that the invalidation of oral divorce will help protect families from being affected by only two words that a husband may say while infuriated. In Islam, if a husband voluntarily told his wife 'Anti Taleq' (you are divorced), then the wife is considered divorced unless he was threatened or compelled to say so" (para 6-7).
July 26, 2021, 7 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-3

"The government's Mawada (affection) initiative aims at keeping the unity of Egyptian families, and reducing divorce rates. Saad said that the initiative will be launched soon, adding that it will be submitted to President Abdel Fatah al-Sisi in November" (para 4).
July 21, 2021, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"But highlighting the difficulty of eliminating FGM in Egypt, where there is widespread acceptance of it, no one has been successfully prosecuted under the 2016 law and women’s rights groups say the ban has not been well enforced" (Para 9). "El-Saeed said imposing strict prison terms on doctors and other perpetrators of the crime could prove difficult because there is an entrenched belief in Egyptian society that FGM is not a crime" (Para 11). "Reda El Danbouki, executive director of the Women’s Center for Guidance and Legal Awareness, said the amendments would not help eliminate the practice unless judges, policemen and other law-enforcement officials started to take the issue seriously....more
July 21, 2021, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Egypt’s cabinet has toughened a law banning female genital mutilation (FGM) - imposing jail terms of up to 20 years as part of efforts to stamp out the ancient practice" (Para 1). "Amendments to the FGM law approved by the cabinet on Wednesday include hiking the maximum sentence from the current seven years and banning doctors and other medical staff involved in FGM from practising their profession for up to five years. Under the changes, prison terms of between five and 20 years will be recommended depending on who performed the surgery and whether it caused permanent damage or death, a government statement said. The person requesting FGM will also...more