The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Estonia

Sept. 13, 2021, 11:20 a.m.
Countries: Angola, Bahamas, Brunei, Burkina Faso, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Djibouti, El Salvador, Estonia, Germany, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Laos, Madagascar, North Korea, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uruguay
Variables: LRW-SCALE-12

2.0
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"Women in Estonia are generally more oriented towards higher levels of education than men, their study results are often better and their drop out rate lower. Therefore, they also have more opportunities to choose between different educational pathways" (24).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

"Several measures have been taken both by the state and other stakeholders, such as universities to target the topic of gender equality in the field of media. In 2010 and 2013 wide scale awareness raising campaigns were carried out to tackle gender stereotypes" (11).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"As the year 2007 was the year of parliamentary elections, a gender equality project competition was organized in 2006 with the aim to increase the participation of women in politics through improved cooperation between civic associations and by raising the awareness of the public. Financed activities included seminars, trainings, conferences and roundtables, a series of radio programmes, a compilation of articles and interviews with female ministers, preelection debates, and a film of interviews with women politicians and EU officials" (20).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"In 2012 2016, the Ministry of Social Affairs is co ordinating an implementation of a 2 million EUR programme concerning violence against women funded from the Norway Grants 2009 2014 period. The aim of the programme is to prevent and tackle gender based violence by creating bases for more systematic structures to reduce gender based violence, and support victims of trafficking. Activities financed from the programme include developing services for victims of domestic violence, strengthening cooperation between different institutions and raising awareness among victims, risk groups and the general public. Women who have been subjected to violence receive information on their rights, remedies and victim support services through several sources:...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: IRP-DATA-2

"According to the Ministry of Justice, the main forms of crimes related to trafficking in women in Estonia have been pimping and enslaving. Pimping has been registered as a crime of aiding prostituti on. In 2010 2011, there were 15 registered criminal cases of aiding prostitution in Estonia. According to the Ministry of the Interior, in the years 2006 2012 there were, in total, 19 cases involving prostitution or trafficking i n human beings; 7 of the cases were registered" (17).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The Penal Code also includes a regulation concerning offences against sexual self determination which was modified and improved in 2013. According to these changes, e.g. satisfaction of sexual desire by violence in a manner other than sexual intercourse which was previously a separate offence is now considered rape. Rape is now defined as a sexual intercourse or commission of another act of sexual nature with a person against his or her will by using force or taking advantage of a situation in which the person is not capable of initiating resistance or comprehending the situation. Similarly, compelling a person to engage in sexual intercourse and compelling a person to satisfy...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ATDW-DATA-1

"The number of divorces decreased yearly from 3811 in 2006 to 2989 in 2010 and incr eased slightly in 2011 to 3099. In 2011 the largest number of marriages were divorced after the marriage had lasted 20 years and more (805 divorces). Many divorces took place also after 5 9 years of marriage...Among very young people (age group of 15 19) the number of men getting divorced in 2011 was 3 and the number of women 8. In most cases of divorce there are either no children under 18 years of age (45,37% of all divorces in 2011) or there is one child (35,79% of all divorces in 2011)" (43).more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: AOM-DATA-2

"The number of persons contracting a marriage before reaching the age of 18 has been constantly decreasing. When in 2006 the numbe r of such persons was 53 (2 males and 51 females), then by 2011 the number had decreased to 5 (all female)" (46).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: GP-DATA-6

"In 2012, 68% of judges in the courts of first and second instance were women. Their percentage was 71 among judges of the courts of first instance and 60 among judges of the courts of second instance. The situation was different in the Supreme Court of the Republic of Estonia where only 2 of 19 judges were women. While among the officials working in the Constitutional institutions and State Chancellery the percentage of women and men in 2010 was 67,9% and 32,1% respectively, men still continue to hold vast majority of leadership positions in institutions involved in the review of constitutionality and legality" (21).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: SAB-LAW-1

"An employer has to create suitable working and rest conditions for pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding . Upon assigning work to pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding, employers are to observe the restrictions provided by legislation to ensure their safety. An employer is required to provide pregnant women a time off for ante--natal natal examinations, which is considered working time. Law guarantees to breastfeeding , which is considered working time. Law guarantees to breastfeeding mothers additional breaks to which they are entitled until the child reaches the age mothers additional breaks to which they are entitled until the child reaches the age of 18 months. The breaks...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-3

"In addition, in De cember 2011, the Government of the Republic adopted a new Rules for Good Legislative Drafting and Technical Rules for Drafts of Legislative Acts which foresees an obligation of impact analysis of draft legislation. According to these rules also a social impact, including an impact of the planned regulation to gender relations, has to be analysed. In 2014, the Ministry of Finance made" (8).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"According to the data from NGOs providing services, in 2007, 55 female victims of trafficking were identified by the NGOs. In 2011, the number of victims of trafficking identified by Estonian shelters" (17). "In the framework of two projects carried out in 2005 2008, NGOs opened two women`s shelters and a social and psychological rehabilitation centre for prostituted/trafficked women where 400 sexually exploited women received some help. Services and a system of support personnel were also developed. From 2014, the 2 shelters and the rehabilitation centre were replaced by 1 shelter for all victims of trafficking and 3 open centres for persons involved in prostitution, all run by one NGO....more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ATDW-LAW-2

"Spouses retain the same personal rights upon entering into marriage as they had before the marriage relationship. Equality of the spouses is protected by law" (42).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: SMES-DATA-3

"During the reporting period the re has been a decrease in the number of children whose parents are not married and whose father is not identified when registering the birth. When in 2006 the proportion of such registrations was 15,78% then by 2011 it had decreased to 9,73%" (44).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Since 2008, upon the birth of a child parents with undetermined citizenship have been inf ormed of the possibility to apply for Estonian citizenship for their child by simplified procedure and upon request they are later further personally consulted by the officials. In the course of the counselling, the parents are explained the possibilities to apply for the Estonian citizenship themselves as well. This information dissemination has been well received by the parents and most parents apply for Estonian citizenship for their new born child. In addition, the officials send personal information no tices to the parents of children with undetermined citizenship. Information is also provided in schools and at...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: GP-DATA-4

"In 2009 the mandate was expanded to also monitor compliance with the ETA, the institution of the Gender Equality Commissioner was re organised into the institution of the Gender Equality and Equal Treatment Commissioner, and the regulation concerning the tasks and powers of the Commissioner was moved from the GEA to the ETA" (5). "The first Gender Equality Commissioner was appointed in October 2005. In 2009, when the Commissioner was given also tasks under the Equal Treatment Act, the number of addresses rose to 161 (out of which 51 complaints, 30 of these concerning gender equality). In 2010 the Commissioner received 288 addresses (47 complaints, and 24 of these concerning...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to a major study on gender pay gap carried out in 2009 2010, during 2000 2008 the gen eral gender pay gap in Estonia was an average of 28.6%. Unexplained wage difference formed approximately 85% of the general gender pay gap. The pay gap was largest among women and men aged 25 45, when starting a family and raising children is most likely...In 2006, the gap between gross hourly earnings of women and men was 27%. It increased during the economic growth to 27,6% in 2007, but started to decrease when the economic recession began. In 2008, the gap was 24,4% and in 2010 23,3%. By 2011 the gap...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"The official statistics does not fully reflect the scope of the problem and the real incidence of violence against women. Still, both police statistics and victim support statistics reflect the issue of domestic violence. According to crime victim survey most family violence cases take place between intimate partners. According to Ministry of Justice statistics, 2231 cases related to domestic violence were reported in 2012 in Estonia, which was 15% higher than in the previous year. Domestic violence counted up to 5, 5% of all registered crimes and 28% of all violent crimes. In 80% of cases of domestic violence there was physical abuse or damage to health, in 12% of...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ASR-PRACTICE-1

"Female researchers receive maternity benefit from the state during their maternity leave and parental benefit. The period of maternity (parental) leave is taken into account in the process of evaluation and selection for female applicants for a researchers position or funding" (25).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"According to the Termination of Pregnancy and Sterilization Act, a pregnancy can be terminated only at the woman s own written request and after explanation by a doctor about the biological and medical nature of the abortion and associated risks, including possible complications. Pre abortion and post abortion counselling is provided by gynaecologists" (44).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"In April 2012 amendments were adopted to the Penal Code criminalising all elements of specific crimes of human trafficking in accordance with the relevant international law. The new legislation was drafted in close cooperation with the NGOs. According to the new regulation, trafficking in persons is defined as placing a person in a situation where he or she is forced to work under unusual conditions, engage in prostitution, beg, commit a criminal offence or perform other disagreeable duties, or keeping a person in such situation, if such act is performed through deprivation of liberty, vi olence, deceit, threatening to cause damage, by taking advantage of dependence on another person, helpless...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"Obstetric medical services are provided by hospitals in 13 of 15 counties. Independent antenatal care may be provided by a gynaecologist, midwife or family physician upon the choice of a pregnant woman. Approximately 99.9% of births are attended by skilled health professionals and the estimated antenatal care coverage is 95 99%...To support safe pregnancy, a pregnancy crisis counselling is provided, which was used by 1,648 pe ople 3,641 times in 2011. Services of family schools, antenatal and postnatal counselling and web counselling services for families were also developed. To ensure the safety of women wishing to give birth at home, amendments to legislation regulating the provision of independent midwife support...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-3

"The GEA applies to all areas of societal life. Therefore, also the prohibition of discrimination and other regulation in the act is applied to the field of education. The GEA also includes a specific regulation concerning education. Educational and research institutions and institutions engaged in the provision of education and training must ensure equal treatment of men and women in vocational guidance, acquisition of education, professional and vocational development and re training" (24).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"Estonia is currently mainly a country of origin for human trafficking, but also a transit country and to a very small extent, a destination country. Most victims are women who are exploited in prostitution whether in Estonia or abroad, but for labour trafficking, also men are being recruited and exploited...Exact data on the number of victims of human trafficking though is not available due to the lack of specific anti trafficking legislation until spring 2012 and due to the hidden nature of such crimes. According to the data from NGOs providing services, in 2007, 55 female victims of trafficking were identified by the NGOs. In 2011, the number of victims...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ISTD-DATA-1, ISTD-DATA-2, ISTD-DATA-3, DSFMF-DATA-1

" In 2012, approximately 24 new cases per 100 000 persons were registered (compared to 106,2 in 2001). In 2000 2013, almost 70% of all new cases of HIV were discovered among men, but the share of women has increased. Among young persons (15--24), the proportion of women has been higher in recent 24), the proportion of women has been higher in recent years (63% in 2013). In 2012, the proportion of pregnant women infected with HIV years (63% in 2013). In 2012, the proportion of pregnant women infected with HIV was 1,05%; however, the proportion of vertical infection with HIV of all new cases was 1,05%; however, the proportion...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"After the changes of 2009, in addition to sexual harassment, the GEA considers gender based harassment as a type of discrimination and thereby prohibits it. The GEA also establishes the duty of the employer to ensure that employees do not become victims of gender based or sexual harassment. Some situations call for the employer to take measures to ensure the elimination of harassment. An employer can be deemed responsible for failure to perform the duty of care if the employer is aware or should reasonably be aware that harassment has occurred and fails to apply the necessary measures to terminate such harassment" (14). "Before the amendments of 2009, overlooking or...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: DACH-DATA-1

"Life expectancy at birth has increased for both women and men but has remained remarkably higher for women than for men. In 2006 the life expectancy at birth was 67,36 years for men and 78,45 years for women, in 2011 it was already 71,16 and 81.09 respectively. In 2010, for the first time the difference between the expected lifetime of women and men remained below 10 years. When comparing the healthy life years exp ectancy at birth for years 2006 and 2011, an increase can be seen for both men and women, respectively from 49,7 to 53,9 years for men and from 53,9 to 57,7 years for women" (34).more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Also, among the unemployed women and men the share of long term unemployed has risen compared to 2006, reaching 53,6% for women and 55,4% for men in 2012, which, on the other hand, are lower than e.g. in 2011" (26).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"During the reporting period, several other measures have been taken, by state agencies and NGOs, to promote gender equality, such as publishing handbooks, articles and educational materials. More specific activities are described under relevant articles. NGOs promoting gender equality are able to apply for financing of the projects and c onnected operational costs from the Gambling Tax Council. Project based financing has also been available from the state budget, European Social Fund and other foreign funds, e.g. Norway Grants" (9). "In April 2012 amendments were adopted to the Penal Code criminalising all elements of specific crimes of human trafficking in accordance with the relevant international law. The new legislation was...more