The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Italy

March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1

"According to international statistics, cardiovascular disease has been always considered a disease more common in men. Nowadays this is the number one killer for women between 44 and 59 years and far exceeds all causes of death. There is still a gender bias regarding the approach to cardiovascular problems in women. Although the diagnosis is done in a more advanced stage than men, the prognosis is more severe for the same age" (85). "In December 2006, it was set up the Commission on Health and Migration, whose mandate included...the promotion of the accessibility and usability of health-care services by immigrants, with particular attention to women. Indeed, in 2006, there were...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CUST-LAW-1

"...Act No. 54/2006...has...flipped the relevant custody system, under which children were assigned either to one of the parents according to the discretion of the presiding judge or the court or by understandings reached by the spouses. With the reform, if the parents separate, children are assigned to both parents as a rule, and only as an exception to one of them – in the latter event only if it responds to the best interest of the child" (106).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Legislative Decree No. 196/2007, entitled “'Implementation of Directive 2004/113/EC enforcing the principle of equal treatment between men and women as regards access to goods and services and their supply', by which it has been introduced and regulated the prohibition of all direct and indirect forms of discrimination, grounded on gender" (11). "Among the forms of discrimination, it also includes the sexual harassment, 'namely those unwanted behaviours with sexual connotations, expressed in physical, verbal or non-verbal manner, which have the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular by creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment', as reported by article 55 bis, paragraph 5" (11)....more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"Since 2002 it has been registered the decrease of the trafficking of Albanian women, in parallel to the increase of victims coming from other Eastern European Countries, in particular from Romania, Moldavia and Ukraine" (43). "According to data by the Ministry of Justice, in 2007, 68 individuals were condemned, at the first instance, for slavery subjection (art. 600 of the penal code), 9 persons for trafficking and slave trade (art. 601 of the penal code); 1 person for the alienation and the purchase of slaves (art. 602 of the penal code); 100 persons for the exploitation of the child prostitution; at the second instance (at the appeal level), 10 persons...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"women immigrants remain the most exposed to both domestic violence and harassment at the workplace, as long as they are legally or economically subjected either to their spouses or fathers or to their employers" (75). "Women who suffered or continue to suffer from various forms of violence, especially sexual offenses and mobbing...It is also growing the violence grounded on cultural reasons, especially among immigrant women. As to the latter, the latest figures indicate the reduction of complaints despite the nondecrease of cases of violence" (84).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"As of 31st December 2008, in female prisons and in female wings of prisons there were 2,526 women, that is 4.35% of the whole Italian prison population; the mothers imprisoned who were keeping their babies with them were 53, and the whole number of children in prison with their mothers amounted to 55. Those figures are very changeable, since the stay of the children in our penitentiary structures only lasts for the time necessary to grant an alternative measure to the imprisoned mother...Female prisoners and children...benefit from the services offered by...the medical, nurse and technical staff who work in the prison. Moreover, they...benefit from other specialists: paediatrics, gynaecologist, puericulture specialist...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"99.6% of teachers in the kindergartens are women versus 59.7% of women in the high schools" (54). In the table 'Women teachers between 2006 and 2007' it notes that not only are over 99% of kindergarten teachers are women, but also over 99% of primary school teachers are women as well (54). "Women who suffered or continue to suffer from various forms of violence, especially sexual offenses and mobbing [meaning bullying at work] (In this regard, it may be recalled that there are various types and degrees of violence which women can be subjected to: physical violence and sexual violence but also psychological" (84).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: PW-DATA-1

"Along these lines, the NGO ACMID Donna established a toll free number for abused Muslim women and received 3,600 calls from November 2007 through May 2008. Approximately 56 percent of those cases involved violence or other mistreatment by husbands or relatives, including unwillingly being in a polygamous marriage, a situation affecting an estimated 14,000 women" (30).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1

"Women migrants present in Italy represent approximately 49.8 per cent of all immigrants residing in Italy. But there are huge differences in gender distribution according to nationality: As for the Eastern European countries, women are almost three times more than men; as for African countries the rate is reversed; as for the Far East, there is a marked female predominance, while other Asian countries see the male predominance" (33). "Several projects have been launched in recent years, among them...the initiative, promoted by the Christian Associations of Italian Workers (ACLI), entitled 'Let’s get out of the silence' and referring to domestic work, an area where there is significant presence of immigrants...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: EWCMS-DATA-2

"...it has been registered the rise of both the women’s occupation share and their participation’s rate in the labour market. From ISTAT data, it emerges that more than over 60% of the overall increase in the occupation sector refers to women (2.7 million in 10 years), mostly employed under parttime job contracts...In the decade 1996–2006, the women part-time workers rose over 71% (while men rate reached 9%), contributing to increase the overall rate of employed women from 20% to 26.5%." (69).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The support entails the taking in charge of the children through various means and using resources more varied: from a baby-parking service performed by professionals or volunteers (Florence, Ivrea, Trepuzzi, Venice) to its more structured forms, involving the beneficiaries themselves in looking after children, by providing them with forms of remuneration (a sort of scholarship), payable in turn to each of them (city of Sezze)" (37). "...financial resources for 'non-State driven schools' were increased to 100 million Euros, to be allocated, on a priority basis, to kindergartens, in accordance with art. 1, para. 635, of the 2007 Budgetary Law" (63). "By dividing the Italian territory in three areas, namely North,...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: SMES-DATA-3

"Within the SPRAR (Protection System for Asylum-Seekers and Refugees), it is detected the presence of a large number of beneficiaries alone with their children: 314 of 754 are single-parent families (42 per cent) of these, only two cases of one-parent family were headed by the father" (36).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-LAW-1

"...the above Framework was...designed to encourage Regional Administrations, to reach the following quantified targets, by 2013:...Increasing the percentage of the elderly being the recipients of home-care assistance, from the current 1.6% to 3.5%" (62).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: EWCMS-DATA-1

"As at 31 December 2008, the number of women in the Forces was as follows: In the Army, women amounted to 5.2%, of whom 219 officers, 52 under-officers, 5102 in the troops; In the Navy, 3.3% were women, of whom 305 officers, 133 under-officers, 1024 in the troops; In the Air Force, the presence amounted to 1.4%, of whom 137 officers, 85 under-officers, 388 in the troops; in Carabinieri Corps, the percentage decreases to 0.9%, of whom 168 officers, 295 under-officers, 488 in the troops" (56).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: MISA-PRACTICE-1

"...the Commission on Women’s Health (established in 2006), ...submitted...the so-called 'Action Plan for the Health of Women and Children', whose guidelines is now being implemented [include] Women with addictions caused by physical and mental diseases. It concerns old women who suffer an addiction and have to rely on other people to carry on; and women, whose will depends on substances, such as smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction...and...Women and post-partum depression. They are those being victims of a pathology, which represents another risk profiles recently identified which may also trigger serious health consequences on the child (In this regard, it is worth-recalling some projects developed at the regional level, such as the...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"...the status and progress of female military personnel are covered by the same provisions for the male staff: Decree of the Minister of Defense, 4 April 2000 No. 114, lays down, “Regulation on the suitability of military service and list of defects and diseases that cause unfit for military service; Law of 25 January 2006, No. 29 (Community Law 2005), of which Article 26 makes changes to Act No. 380/1999 by stating that the Minister of Defense may provide military personnel limitations to the recruitment of women only in the presence of motivated requirements linked to the functionality of specific roles, bodies, categories, specialties and specializations of each Force if,...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"On November 13, 2007, the father and two brothers-in-law of a 20-year-old Pakistani immigrant woman killed in 2006 were each sentenced to 30 years’ imprisonment in Brescia: she had been reproved for having adopted a western lifestyle" (30).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, inequalities remain and may widen, if considering...the persistence of gender stereotypes and an unequal share of family responsibilities" (6). "It has been estimated that in Italy there are six million women being inactive, namely those having renounced to look for a job due to their role in the family – since the family care remains a 'private affairs' to be often demanded to women. The low burdensharing between men and women in the family care entails that, in terms of weekly working hours, women work 7 hours and 26 minutes, per day, including Sundays, to be shared between home and office. If comparing this figure to other EU countries,...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"The prostitution is a hidden and unknown phenomenon and the recent trend to exercise it in closed places, like private apartments – so as to abandon the unsecure streets, makes more difficult its disclosure. The girls live irregularly and their dependency from traffickers is psychological and physical. This is true above all for girls from Eastern Europe and Latin America and, recently from China, while the Nigerian prostitution still occurs mainly in the streets" (43). "Among major problems [with immigrant women], it is worth recalling the prostitution, the poor knowledge of contraceptive methods, and the spread of AIDS" (84).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"...the above Framework was...designed to encourage Regional Administrations, to reach the following quantified targets, by 2013: Increasing the percentage of municipalities offering child-care services, from the current 21% to 35%" (62). "In Italy, [maternity] leave lasts five months, to be shared in a flexible way before and after the child-birth...the indemnity is equal to 80% of the average wage (to be calculated on the basis of the last month wage before the beginning of the leave)" (65). "...parental leave, as introduced in Italy, in 2000, may be requested by both parents, if employees and when their child is within the age of 8 and for a term not exceeding ten...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"Tuscany regional Act No. 59/2007, implementing measures to prevent gender-based violence" (27). "ISTAT, the official Italian government statistical agency, reported that 6.7 million women aged 16 to 70, or 31.9 per cent of all women, had been victims of violence at least once in their lives" (27). "In the course of 2006 solely the number of women victims of violence amounted to 1 million and 150 thousand (5.4 per cent)" (27). "Women who suffered or continue to suffer from various forms of violence, especially sexual offenses and mobbing...It is also growing the violence grounded on cultural reasons, especially among immigrant women. As to the latter, the latest figures indicate the...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: GP-DATA-6

"December 2007, there were 3,813 women out of 9,158 male magistrates. This apparent discrepancy stems from the late access of women to the magistracy, as introduced only in 1966, with the additional result of affecting their election/appointment to higher positions. Further, up to 2007, the career advancement was based upon the solely criterion of the length of service...In terms of women’s access to the career, from 2004 onwards, it has been registered a positive trend. In 2007, there were 166 women out of 322 contest winners. Despite difficulties, women within the judiciary are able to acquire specific positions, including at the high-rank levels. At the Supreme Court level (the Italian...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"Approximately 23 per cent of sexual abuses were committed by partners. In fact the data show a worrying situation, where the most familiar places become those at a higher risk" (27). "it is estimated that 6,743,000 women between 16 and 70 years, are victims of violence during their lifetime (equal to 31.9 per cent of the age group considered)" (27). "Domestic violence has affected 2.4 per cent of women; the one outside the household amounted to 3.4 per cent" (27). "The women divorced and separated suffer more violence during their lifetime: 63.9 per cent, twice the average figure" (27).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex is one of the pillars of said system, as authoritatively stated more than once by the Constitutional Court...the Italian Constitution sets forth the inviolable principle, aimed at ensuring the equality of all citizens before the law and at prohibiting that gender...might be a source of discrimination in the legal treatment of people" (6).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-4

"The construction of...'relationships'... with the business realities allowed to build new forms of dialogue,...with the aim of better understanding problems related to the role of women in the labour market, such as...the poor granting of part-time jobs" (17).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-DATA-2

"In general terms, the phenomenon of the prostitution in Italy is deeply tied to immigration: women coming from Eastern Europe, often under the age of 18 (and thus being without any risk of repatriation), are involved in prostitution. The relevant data are scarce due to the irregular living conditions characterising victims. On a general note, it may be noted that trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation mainly affects young women, in particular from Nigeria and Eastern Europe countries" (43).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

"In this perspective, in the last years the National Counsellor for Equality launched specific awareness campaigns on the role of women in the economy" (16). "The Department for Equal Opportunities has...made a major public awareness campaign on...equal opportunity and the fight against stereotypes and discrimination, which consisted of advertising on public transportation (buses) in major Italian cities and on a Eurostar train, named 'the train for equal opportunity' that travelled for a week across various Italian cities" (41). "stereotypes still [exist] in some textbooks and in the mass media culture" (41). "In particular, in 2007, the high school students participated in a contest on 'Women for Women' (launched by the...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ISTD-DATA-1

"The population of pregnant women with HIV is characterized by an average age above 30 years, a good clinical and immunological condition, an increasing proportion of women of non-Italian nationality (40–45%, in recent years), especially from Africa, a high percentage of unplanned pregnancies (at least 50%, in addition to a relatively large proportion of cases in which the diagnosis of HIV infection occurs during pregnancy (23%)" (96).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: GP-DATA-4

"Law Decree No. 223 of July 4, 2006, article 19, paragraph 3, ...the 'Fund for the policies relating to the rights and equal opportunities,' to which it was assigned the sum of 3,000,000 Euros for 2006 and 10,000,000 Euros from the year 2007 onwards, respectively...Then by article 1, paragraph 1261, of Act No. 296/2006 (Finance Act 2007), the Fund has increased the above-mentioned one with 40 million Euros; for each of the years 2007, 2008 and 2009, from which a share for each of said years to be allocated to the National Fund against sexual violence and gender-based violence”" (10). "By Decree of 16 May, the Minister for Rights and...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: MMR-DATA-1

"In this frame, it is worth indicating that maternal mortality has been gradually reduced, going from 490 deaths of the 70’s to fifteen cases at the beginning of 2000" (89).