The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Japan

Jan. 26, 2022, 5:25 p.m.
Countries: Albania, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad/Tobago, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
Variables: IIP-SCALE-1

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Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: VOTE-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women voted at rates equal to or higher than men. In all national elections since the late 1960s, women made up a majority of voters, according to data by the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry. Women, however, have not been elected to any level of office at rates reflecting this" (14).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, TRAFF-DATA-1

"The continued practice of enjo kosai ('compensated dating') and the existence of websites for online dating, social networking, and 'delivery health' (a euphemism for call-girl or escort services) facilitated the sex trafficking of children and other commercial sex industries. The government’s interagency taskforce to combat child sex trafficking in joshi kosei (or 'JK' businesses)--dating services connecting adult men with underage girls--and in forced pornography continued to strengthen its crackdown on such businesses. In 2018 authorities identified 137 of these operations nationwide. A total of 69 individuals alleged to have been engaged in unspecified criminal activities surrounding the JK business were arrested, and seven major prefectures passed ordinances banning JK businesses,...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Reports of child abuse continued to increase. Police protected a larger number of victims while arresting a greater number of abusers (mainly fathers, mothers, stepfathers, or parents’ boyfriends) for physical, sexual, or psychological assaults, killing, or neglect. The MHLW received increased reports of psychological abuse as a result of witnessing domestic violence at home" (19).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"Several acquittals in rape cases called attention to the high legal standard and prosecutorial burden, which NGOs asserted imposed an unfairly high burden on victims and deterred them from coming forward..." (16). "The law prohibits gender discrimination and generally provides women the same rights as men. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office continued to examine policies and monitor developments. Despite these policies, NGOs continued to allege that implementation of antidiscrimination measures was insufficient, pointing to discriminatory provisions in the law, unequal treatment of women in the labor market (see section 7.d.), and low representation of women in high-level elected bodies" (18). "...NGOs helping girls in the JK business...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Several acquittals in rape cases called attention to the high legal standard and prosecutorial burden, which NGOs asserted imposed an unfairly high burden on victims and deterred them from coming forward. In March a Nagoya court acquitted a father accused of raping his 19-year-old daughter despite recognizing that the sex was nonconsensual and that force was involved, concluding that doubt remained whether she had no option other than to submit. In July the Nagoya Prosecutors’ Office decided not to indict a former Diet member for suspected sexual assault against his girlfriend while she was sleeping" (16). "Rape and domestic violence are significantly underreported crimes. According to a survey by the...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law also mandates equal pay for men and women; however, the International Labor Organization noted the law’s protection against such wage discrimination is too limited because it does not capture the concept of 'work of equal value.'...Women’s average monthly wage was approximately 73 percent of that of men in 2018" (28).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities held women prisoners separately from men, and juveniles younger than age 20 separately from adults in prisons and regular detention centers" (2).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-3

"...Abuse of persons with disabilities was a serious concern. Persons with disabilities around the country experienced abuse by family members, care-facility employees, and employers. Private surveys indicated discrimination against and sexual abuse of women with disabilities" (22).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"Rape and domestic violence are significantly underreported crimes. According to a survey by the government’s Gender Equality Bureau, only 2.8 percent of sexual assault victims report the crime to police and nearly 60 percent of rape victims do not report the crime. Observers attributed women’s reluctance to report rape to a variety of factors, including fear of being blamed, fear of public shaming, a lack of victim support, potential secondary victimization through the police response, and court proceedings that lacked empathy for rape victims. Victims of abuse by domestic partners, spouses, and former spouses could receive protection at shelters" (17).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: FSCB-LAW-1

"In April the government passed a law to compensate individuals who were involuntarily sterilized from 1948 to 1996 under a policy that targeted persons with disabilities under the defunct Eugenic Protection Law. Affected persons received approximately 2.57 million yen ($28,000) each and a formal apology. The MHLW estimated 25,000 persons were subjected to forced sterilization surgery under that law" (18).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"The government has a set of measures to prevent sexual harassment, including requiring all senior national government officials to take mandatory training courses as well as setting up a consultation mechanism in each ministry and agency to which the general public can report sexual harassment. Nonetheless, harassment continued in government agencies" (17). "The law prohibits gender discrimination and generally provides women the same rights as men. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office continued to examine policies and monitor developments" (18). "The women’s empowerment law requires national and local governments, as well as private-sector companies that employ at least 301 persons, to analyze women’s employment in their organizations and...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: PRN-PRACTICE-1

"The country was a site for the production of child pornography and the exploitation of children by traffickers" (20).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

"Despite the constitutional right to freedom of expression, in August the governor of Aichi Prefecture shut down, after three days, a section titled 'After "Freedom of Expression”' of an art festival in Nagoya. The section was intended to celebrate freedom of expression by featuring works that had previously been excluded or removed from exhibition in Japan or elsewhere. The exhibit featured a statue symbolizing an estimated 20,000 wartime sex slaves or 'comfort women' and was closed three days after the opening of the festival, one of the country’s biggest international art festivals. While the governor cited safety concerns as the reason for the closing, the mayor of Nagoya publicly stated...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate...The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections..." (14).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes various forms of rape, regardless of the gender of a victim. The law also criminalizes custodial rape of a minor younger than age 18. The law does not deny the possibility of spousal rape, but no court has ever ruled on such a case, except in situations of marital breakdown (i.e., formal or informal separation, etc.). The law mandates a minimum sentence of five years in prison for rape convictions. Prosecutors must prove that violence or intimidation was involved or that the victim was incapable of resistance. Domestic violence is also a crime for which victims may seek restraining orders. Convicted assault perpetrators face up to two...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"The law provides citizens the ability to choose their government in free and fair periodic elections held by secret ballot and based on universal and equal suffrage" (13).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment in the workplace persisted. The law does not criminalize sexual harassment but includes measures to identify companies that fail to prevent it. Prefectural labor offices and the MHLW provided these companies with advice, guidance, and recommendations. Companies that fail to comply with government guidance may be publicly identified, although this has not happened in years" (17). "In May the Diet passed a set of labor law revisions making it mandatory for companies to take preventive measures against power harassment in the workplace. The revisions, which go into effect in April 2020, also created additional requirements for companies to prevent sexual harassment. Press reported that sexual harassment targeting students...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits gender discrimination and generally provides women the same rights as men. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office continued to examine policies and monitor developments. Despite these policies, NGOs continued to allege that implementation of antidiscrimination measures was insufficient, pointing to discriminatory provisions in the law, unequal treatment of women in the labor market (see section 7.d.), and low representation of women in high-level elected bodies" (18). "In June a group submitted a petition to the MHLW calling for a ban on workplace dress codes that require women to wear high heels, citing gender equality and gender-based workplace discrimination, as well as health concerns. The petition...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment in the workplace persisted. The law does not criminalize sexual harassment but includes measures to identify companies that fail to prevent it. Prefectural labor offices and the MHLW provided these companies with advice, guidance, and recommendations. Companies that fail to comply with government guidance may be publicly identified, although this has not happened in years. The government has a set of measures to prevent sexual harassment, including requiring all senior national government officials to take mandatory training courses as well as setting up a consultation mechanism in each ministry and agency to which the general public can report sexual harassment. Nonetheless, harassment continued in government agencies. Public reports...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"No law addresses the unfettered availability of sexually explicit cartoons, comics, and video games, some of which depicted scenes of violent sexual abuse and the rape of children" (20).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The law stipulates that to marry, the male partner must be age 18 or older and the female partner 16 or older. A person younger than age 20 may not marry without at least one parent’s approval. A law creating gender parity in the legal age to marry, 18 for both sexes, comes into force in 2022" (19).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"...Domestic violence is also a crime for which victims may seek restraining orders. Convicted assault perpetrators face up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to 300,000 yen ($2,760). Convicted offenders who caused bodily injury faced up to 15 years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to 500,000 yen ($4,600). Protective order violators face up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine of up to one million yen ($9,200)" (16).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes various forms of rape, regardless of the gender of a victim. The law also criminalizes custodial rape of a minor younger than age 18. The law does not deny the possibility of spousal rape, but no court has ever ruled on such a case, except in situations of marital breakdown (i.e., formal or informal separation, etc.). The law mandates a minimum sentence of five years in prison for rape convictions. Prosecutors must prove that violence or intimidation was involved or that the victim was incapable of resistance. Domestic violence is also a crime for which victims may seek restraining orders. Convicted assault perpetrators face up to two...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"...Domestic violence is also a crime for which victims may seek restraining orders. Convicted assault perpetrators face up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to 300,000 yen ($2,760). Convicted offenders who caused bodily injury faced up to 15 years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to 500,000 yen ($4,600). Protective order violators face up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine of up to one million yen ($9,200)" (16). "Legal experts called for MHLW’s child-care centers and police to share child abuse cases fully to identify and prevent further abuse. The law provides for a simplified process to inspect homes where child abuse is suspected; requires child...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"...Observers attributed women’s reluctance to report rape to a variety of factors, including fear of being blamed, fear of public shaming, a lack of victim support, potential secondary victimization through the police response, and court proceedings that lacked empathy for rape victims" (17).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion or involuntary sterilization. In April the government passed a law to compensate individuals who were involuntarily sterilized from 1948 to 1996 under a policy that targeted persons with disabilities under the defunct Eugenic Protection Law. Affected persons received approximately 2.57 million yen ($28,000) each and a formal apology. The MHLW estimated 25,000 persons were subjected to forced sterilization surgery under that law" (18).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The continued practice of enjo kosai ('compensated dating') and the existence of websites for online dating, social networking, and 'delivery health' (a euphemism for call-girl or escort services) facilitated the sex trafficking of children and other commercial sex industries. The government’s interagency taskforce to combat child sex trafficking in joshi kosei (or 'JK' businesses)--dating services connecting adult men with underage girls--and in forced pornography continued to strengthen its crackdown on such businesses. In 2018 authorities identified 137 of these operations nationwide. A total of 69 individuals alleged to have been engaged in unspecified criminal activities surrounding the JK business were arrested, and seven major prefectures passed ordinances banning JK businesses,...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes various forms of rape, regardless of the gender of a victim. The law also criminalizes custodial rape of a minor younger than age 18. The law does not deny the possibility of spousal rape, but no court has ever ruled on such a case, except in situations of marital breakdown (i.e., formal or informal separation, etc.). The law mandates a minimum sentence of five years in prison for rape convictions. Prosecutors must prove that violence or intimidation was involved or that the victim was incapable of resistance..." (16).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: IRP-LAW-5

"Child prostitution is illegal, with penalties including prison sentences or fines. Statutory rape laws criminalize sexual intercourse with a girl younger than age 13, notwithstanding her consent. The penalty for statutory rape is not less than three years’ imprisonment with mandatory labor. The law was enforced. Additionally, national law and local ordinances address sexual abuse of minors..." (20).