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Latest items for North Korea

Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"There is no direct reference to employment discrimination in the law" (27).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The government appeared to criminalize rape, but no information was available on details of the law or how it was enforced" (19). "The law states that a man who has sexual intercourse with a girl younger than age 15 shall be 'punished gravely'" (21).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"There were no independent domestic organizations to monitor human rights conditions" (18).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The law provides for 12 years of free compulsory education for all children" (20).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Defectors and media also reported that the government carried out infanticide or required mothers to commit infanticide if they were ... raped by government officials or prison guards" (2). "Anecdotal 2017 reports from the South Korea-based NGO Database Center for North Korean Human Rights stated that in some prisons authorities held women in separate units from men and often subjected the women to sexual abuse. Reports from previous years have attributed rape to the impunity and unchecked power of prison guards and other officials. A 2018 Human Rights Watch report provided defector accounts of sexual abuse at detention centers between 2009 and 2013. Victims alleged widespread sexual abuse at holding...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"Despite the law defectors reported the populace generally accepted sexual harassment of women due to patriarchal traditions. They reported there was little recourse for women who had been harassed. Defectors also reported lack of enforcement and impunity enjoyed by government officials made sexual harassment so common as to be accepted as part of ordinary life" (19-20).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection for refugees. The government did not grant refugee status or asylum. The government had no known policy or provision for refugees or asylum seekers and did not participate in international refugee fora" (17).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"KINU reported that discrimination against women emerged in the form of differentiated pay scales, promotions, and types of work assigned to women" (20).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"Defectors continued to report violence against women was a systematic problem both inside and outside the home. According to a KINU survey of defectors conducted from 2013 to 2017, 76.9 percent of respondents believed domestic violence was 'common'" (19). "In their November publication of Inescapable Violence: Child Abuse within North Korea, the Seoul-based NGO People for Successful Corean Unification documented endemic child abuse, including child sexual abuse, in ... homes" (21).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"Additionally, the law allows for capital punishment in less serious crimes such as ... trafficking in persons" (2).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"[T]he UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women expressed concern that North Korea was not taking any protective or preventive measures against such violence" (19).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"Because many girls and young women attempt to flee repressive conditions, poverty, and food shortages for their own survival or the betterment of their family, 2019 international media reports and the 2014 UNCOI report noted they were often subjected to sexual exploitation by traffickers. Traffickers promised these young girls jobs in other parts of the country or in China but then sold them into forced marriages or domestic servitude or made them work in prostitution after being smuggled out of the country" (21).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status" (17).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Significant human rights issues included: ...the use of forced or compulsory child labor; the use of domestic forced labor through mass mobilizations and as a part of the re-education system; and the imposition of forced labor conditions on DPRK overseas contract workers" (1). "Reports noted authorities subjected children to forced labor for up to 12 hours per day and did not allow them to leave the [prison] camps" (21). The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor. Nonetheless, the government mobilized the population for construction and other labor projects. 'Reformatory labor' and 're-education through labor,' sometimes of entire families, were common punishments for political offenses. Forced and compulsory labor in such...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The 2014 UNCOI report found the subjugation of inmates and a general climate of impunity created an environment in which guards and other prisoners in privileged positions raped female inmates... When cases of rape came to light, the perpetrator often escaped with mere dismissal or no punishment. For example, Human Rights Watch reported a 2009 case in which a woman arrested for illegally fleeing the country was raped by a police chief. After she told her lawyer, the lawyer refused to mention it during her trial and said nothing would be done and the woman could be punished more severely for bringing it up" (19).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"In their November publication of Inescapable Violence: Child Abuse within North Korea, the Seoul-based NGO People for Successful Corean Unification documented endemic child abuse, including child sexual abuse, in North Korean schools..." (21). Sexual abuse in schools is likely a barrier to girls going to school (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-1

"Defectors and media also reported that the government carried out infanticide or required mothers to commit infanticide if they were political prisoners, persons with disabilities, raped by government officials or prison guards, or forcibly repatriated from the People’s Republic of China" (2).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women hold equal social status and rights with men'" (20).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: FSCB-LAW-1

"While the state treated veterans with disabilities well, they reportedly sent other persons with physical and mental disabilities from Pyongyang to internal exile, quarantined them within camps, and forcibly sterilized them" (22).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ABO-DATA-1

"Significant human rights issues included: ...coerced abortion" (1). "NGOs and defectors reported that the state security officials subjected women to forced abortions for political purposes, to cover up human rights abuses and rape in particular, and to 'protect' ethnic purity, and not population control. KINU’s white paper for 2019 stated that officials had in some cases prohibited live births in prison and ordered forced abortions as recently as 2013" (20).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"Additionally, the law allows for capital punishment in less serious crimes such as ... distribution of pornography" (2).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"As of 2016 women constituted approximately 3.1 percent of members and 2.8 percent of candidate members of the Central Committee of the WPK and held few key WPK leadership positions. The 2014 UNCOI report indicated only 10 percent of central government officials are women" (17).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"As noted in the KINU white paper for 2018, the law prohibits domestic violence" (19).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Labor laws and directives mandate sex segregation of the workforce, assigning specific jobs to women while impeding their access to others. Women’s retirement age is also set at 55 years, compared with 60 years for men, which has material consequences for women’s pension benefits, economic independence, and access to decision-making positions" (27).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-3

"Defectors and media also reported that the government carried out infanticide or required mothers to commit infanticide if they were political prisoners, persons with disabilities, raped by government officials or prison guards, or forcibly repatriated from the People’s Republic of China" (2). "While the state treated veterans with disabilities well, they reportedly sent other persons with physical and mental disabilities from Pyongyang to internal exile, quarantined them within camps, and forcibly sterilized them" (22).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"When cases of rape came to light, the perpetrator often escaped with mere dismissal or no punishment. For example, Human Rights Watch reported a 2009 case in which a woman arrested for illegally fleeing the country was raped by a police chief. After she told her lawyer, the lawyer refused to mention it during her trial and said nothing would be done and the woman could be punished more severely for bringing it up" (19)
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Children derive citizenship from one’s parents and, in some cases, birth within the country’s territory" (20). This indicates that the child derives their North Korean status from both of their parents (SFR-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"KINU reported that discrimination against women emerged in the form of differentiated pay scales, promotions, and types of work assigned to women, in addition to responsibility for the double burden of labor and housework, especially considering the time and effort required to secure food" (20). This indicates that, in practice, women are expected and relied upon to secure food and perform other caring labors (SFR-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum age for marriage is 18 for men and 17 for women" (21).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Defectors and media also reported that the government carried out infanticide or required mothers to commit infanticide if they were ... raped by government officials or prison guards" (2). "Anecdotal 2017 reports from the South Korea-based NGO Database Center for North Korean Human Rights stated that in some prisons authorities held women in separate units from men and often subjected the women to sexual abuse. Reports from previous years have attributed rape to the impunity and unchecked power of prison guards and other officials. A 2018 Human Rights Watch report provided defector accounts of sexual abuse at detention centers between 2009 and 2013. Victims alleged widespread sexual abuse at holding...more