The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Spain

Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape; it does not distinguish between rapes of women and men. The government generally enforced the law effectively. The penalty for rape is six to 12 years in prison. The law also prohibits violence against women and sets prison sentences of six months to a year for domestic violence, threats of violence, or violations of restraining orders, with longer sentences if serious injuries result" (14).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to Eurostat, female workers earned 14.9-percent less per hour than their male counterparts. Gross salary, according to Eurostat, was 20 percent lower" (25).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3, TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-PRACTICE-2

"...The law permits any foreigner in the country who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally…" (10).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"The government accepted refugees for relocation and resettlement and provided assistance through NGOs such as CEAR and Accem. UNHCR noted the country’s system for integrating refugees, especially vulnerable families, minors, and survivors of gender-based violence and trafficking in persons, needed improvement" (11).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"The penalty for recruiting children or persons with disabilities into prostitution is imprisonment from one to five years. The penalty for subjecting children to prostitution is imprisonment from four to six years. The commercial sexual exploitation of trafficked teenage girls remained a problem" (17).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"On January 15, the interior minister enacted an action plan to combat hate crimes and discrimination and to protect vulnerable groups from abuse based on, inter alia, gender. The plan provided for increased training for security forces to identify hate crimes; digital tools to identify and counteract hate speech on social media; an increase in coordinating efforts with human rights NGOs; increasing attention for victims of hate crimes; and amplifying the legal response to these incidents. The National Office Against Hate Crimes is responsible for coordinating and assisting responses among the ministry and security forces" (14). "In September 2017 congress approved the State Plan against Gender Violence, with a budget...more
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"...The law includes the obligation to grant nationality to those born in Spain of foreign parents, if both lack nationality or if legislation from neither parent’s country of nationality attributes a nationality to the child, as well as to those born in Spain whose parentage is not determined" (12). "Citizenship is derived from one’s parents. All children born in the country, except children of diplomats and children whose parents’ country of origin gives them nationality, are registered as citizens. When a child does not acquire the parents’ nationality, the government may grant it" (16).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: FSCB-LAW-1

"The law allows persons with disabilities to be sterilized after being legally declared incapacitated by a judge and without the requirement to be informed (in cases where consent is at question) of the procedure" (16). This law affects mostly women (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"On August 21, the Ministry of the Interior reported a 0.3-percent decrease in the number of reported rapes during the first three months of the year. The Ministry of the Presidency, Relations with the Parliament and Equality reported that, as of March 31, there were 6,961 persons imprisoned for crimes related to gender-based violence" (14). "On June 21, the Supreme Court reversed a lower court decision from 2018 and declared guilty of rape five men who gang raped an 18-year-old woman in Pamplona in 2016. The lower court originally found the defendants, Jose Angel Prenda, Alfonso Jesus Cabazuelo, Jesus Escudero, Angel Boza, and Antonio Manuel Guerrero, who called themselves 'the...more
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"On International Women’s Day on March 8, hundreds of thousands of women and men demonstrated in most cities to call attention to gender-based violence, wage gaps, and sexual harassment" (25).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum age of marriage is 16 years for minors’ living on their own. Underage marriage is not uncommon in the Romani community" (17).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: IRP-LAW-4

"The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor including by children. The government effectively enforced the law. It maintained strong prevention efforts, although the efforts focused more on forced prostitution than other types of forced labor. The government had an insufficient number of inspectors to enforce the law effectively. The government did not implement new forced labor awareness campaigns. Penalties were sufficiently stringent to deter violations" (23). While this does not completely describe government facilitation of prostitution, it indicates that the government seeks to facilitate to some degree by removing women in situations of forced prostitution from such circumstances (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has bilateral return agreements with Morocco and Algeria. Authorities review asylum petitions individually, and there is an established appeals process available to rejected petitioners. The law permits any foreigner in the country who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally..." (10).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"The constitution provides citizens the ability to choose their government in free and fair periodic elections held by secret ballot and based on universal and equal suffrage" (12).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The minimum age of marriage is 16 years for minors’ living on their own. Underage marriage is not uncommon in the Romani community. In 2018 Catalan police assisted 14 victims of forced marriage, four of whom were minors" (17).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, PRN-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports that criminals subjected children to trafficking in the sex trade and forced solicitation, as well as pornography. Police databases do not automatically register foreign children intercepted at the borders, making them vulnerable to exploitation, including forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation (see section 6, Children)" (24).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"On June 21, the Supreme Court reversed a lower court decision from 2018 and declared guilty of rape five men who gang raped an 18-year-old woman in Pamplona in 2016. The lower court originally found the defendants, Jose Angel Prenda, Alfonso Jesus Cabazuelo, Jesus Escudero, Angel Boza, and Antonio Manuel Guerrero, who called themselves 'the Wolfpack,' guilty of the lesser crime of sexual abuse. Under the updated Supreme Court sentence, each defendant will serve 15 years in prison. On October 31, the provincial court of Barcelona sentenced five men to 10-12 years in prison for committing sexual abuse on a teenage victim in Manresa in 2016. The court ruled that,...more
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace, but few cases came to trial. The punishment in minor cases may be between three and five months in jail or fines of six to eight months’ salary. Harassment continued to be a problem, according to media reporting" (16).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor including by children. The government effectively enforced the law. It maintained strong prevention efforts, although the efforts focused more on forced prostitution than other types of forced labor. The government had an insufficient number of inspectors to enforce the law effectively. The government did not implement new forced labor awareness campaigns. Penalties were sufficiently stringent to deter violations" (23).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"On January 15, the interior minister enacted an action plan to combat hate crimes and discrimination and to protect vulnerable groups from abuse based on, inter alia, gender. The plan provided for increased training for security forces to identify hate crimes; digital tools to identify and counteract hate speech on social media; an increase in coordinating efforts with human rights NGOs; increasing attention for victims of hate crimes; and amplifying the legal response to these incidents. The National Office Against Hate Crimes is responsible for coordinating and assisting responses among the ministry and security forces" (14).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"The SPT received complaints from female convicts in various prisons of limited opportunities for physical exercise, education, and job training for eventual release. It reported discrimination against women in facilities that also incarcerated men" (3).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C and authorizes courts to prosecute residents of the country who committed this crime in the country or anywhere in the world. Doctors must ask parents residing in the country who originate from countries that practice FGM/C to sign a declaration promising their daughter(s) will not undergo FGM/C when they visit countries where the practice is common. Once a family returns to the country, a doctor must examine the girl(s) again and may start legal action against the parents if examination finds that the minors underwent FGM/C during their trip. The State Plan against Gender Violence includes FGM/C as a form of gender- based violence" (16).more
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has bilateral return agreements with Morocco and Algeria. Authorities review asylum petitions individually, and there is an established appeals process available to rejected petitioners. The law permits any foreigner in the country who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally. Although potential asylum seekers were able to exercise effectively their right to petition authorities, some NGOs, such as the Spanish...more
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: GP-DATA-5

"In September 2017 congress approved the State Plan against Gender Violence, with a budget of one billion euros ($1.1 billion) over five years, to support efforts to counter the problem. On August 9, the government approved an additional 20 million euros ($22 million) to municipalities to fight gender violence until June 30, 2020, under the framework of plan. It also allocated more than 5.26 million euros ($5.77 million) to institutional campaigns to combat gender-based violence, trafficking, and childhood sexual abuse within the existing framework of the plan" (15).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape; it does not distinguish between rapes of women and men. The government generally enforced the law effectively. The penalty for rape is six to 12 years in prison. The law also prohibits violence against women and sets prison sentences of six months to a year for domestic violence, threats of violence, or violations of restraining orders, with longer sentences if serious injuries result" (14). "On June 21, the Supreme Court reversed a lower court decision from 2018 and declared guilty of rape five men who gang raped an 18-year-old woman in Pamplona in 2016. The lower court originally found the defendants, Jose Angel...more
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"...The Ministry of the Presidency, Relations with the Parliament and Equality reported that, as of March 31, there were 6,961 persons imprisoned for crimes related to gender-based violence" (14).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law prohibits using a minor 'to prepare any type of pornographic material' as well as producing, selling, distributing, displaying, or facilitating the production, sale, dissemination, or exhibition of 'any type' of child pornography by 'any means.' The penalty is one to five years’ imprisonment; if the child is younger than age of 13, the length of imprisonment is five to nine years. The law also penalizes knowingly possessing child pornography" (17).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"The commercial sexual exploitation of trafficked teenage girls remained a problem" (17). "There were reports that criminals subjected children to trafficking in the sex trade and forced solicitation, as well as pornography. Police databases do not automatically register foreign children intercepted at the borders, making them vulnerable to exploitation, including forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation (see section 6, Children)" (24).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-4

"The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor including by children. The government effectively enforced the law. It maintained strong prevention efforts, although the efforts focused more on forced prostitution than other types of forced labor. The government had an insufficient number of inspectors to enforce the law effectively. The government did not implement new forced labor awareness campaigns. Penalties were sufficiently stringent to deter violations" (23). While this datum does not describe a reintegration policy, it helps to identify women forced into prostitution. Enforcement of penalties to deter such acts coupled with prevention efforts may indicate the presence of reintegration policies (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"In 2018 Catalan police assisted 14 victims of forced marriage, four of whom were minors" (17).