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Latest items for Ukraine

Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"A 2017 HRMMU special report on sexual and gender-based violence in the conflict, the most recent one available, noted that both sides committed these abuses, and that the majority of cases occurred in the context of detention. In these cases both men and women were subjected to sexual violence. Beatings and electric shock in the genital area, rape, threats of rape, forced nudity, and threats of rape against family members were used as a method of torture and mistreatment to punish, humiliate, or extract confessions. The HRMMU noted that women were vulnerable to sexual abuse at checkpoints along the contact line" (20). This part of the report discusses the conflict...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum age for marriage is 18. A court may grant a child as young as 16 permission to marry if it finds marriage to be in the child’s interest. Romani rights groups reported early marriages involving girls younger than 18 were common in the Romani community" (45).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape of men or women. The penalty for rape is three to 15 years’ imprisonment. Sexual assault and rape continued to be significant problems. On January 11, amendments to the criminal code increasing liability for sexual, domestic, and gender-based violence came into force. The amendments expanded the definition of rape and introduced stricter punishment for sexual coercion by up to three years of prison and forced abortion or sterilization by up to five years" (42-43). "While the law prohibits coercing a person to have sexual intercourse, legal experts stated that safeguards against harassment were inadequate" (43). "Penalties for child abuse range from three years to life, depending...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Either birth in the country or to Ukrainian parents conveys citizenship. A child born to stateless parents residing permanently in the country is a citizen. The law requires that parents register a child within a month of birth, and failure to register sometimes resulted in denial of public services" (44). "Under both Ukrainian law and laws imposed by Russian occupation authorities, either birthplace or parentage determines citizenship. Russia’s occupation and purported annexation of Crimea complicated the question of citizenship for children born after February 2014, since it was difficult for parents to register a child as a citizen with Ukrainian authorities. Registration in the country requires a hospital certificate, which...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"According to the NGO La Strada, the conflict in the Donbas region led to a surge in violence against women across the country. Human rights groups attributed the increase in violence to posttraumatic stress experienced by IDPs fleeing the conflict and by soldiers returning from combat. IDPs reported instances of rape and sexual abuse; many claimed to have fled areas controlled by Russia-led forces because they feared sexual abuse" (43). "... According to the Romani women’s foundation, Chirikli, local authorities erected a number of barriers to prevent issuing national identification documents to Roma. Authorities hampered access to education for persons who lacked documents and segregated Romani children into special schools...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape of men or women. The penalty for rape is three to 15 years’ imprisonment. Sexual assault and rape continued to be significant problems. On January 11, amendments to the criminal code increasing liability for sexual, domestic, and gender-based violence came into force. The amendments expanded the definition of rape and introduced stricter punishment for sexual coercion by up to three years of prison and forced abortion or sterilization by up to five years" (42-43). "Penalties for child abuse range from three years to life, depending on severity. The law criminalizes sexual relations between adults and persons younger than 16; violations are punishable by imprisonment of up...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit the participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Following the July parliamentary election, the proportion of women in the parliament increased from 12 percent to 20 percent" (40).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"As of late September the government operated 24 shelters for victims of domestic violence and 21 centers for social and psychological aid across the country for victims of domestic violence and child abuse" (43).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"...On February 9, police clashed with demonstrators, including members of violent radical group C14 and activists from the 'Who Ordered Katya Handziuk' civic initiative, in Kyiv protesting at a rally by the Batkyvshchyna political party held because the one of the party’s members was allegedly complicit in the 2018 high- profile killing of activist Kateryna Handziuk (see section 1.a.). Police beat demonstrators, sprayed tear gas, and detained approximately a dozen persons. At the police station, the detained individuals were met by a crowd of supporters, who allegedly attempted to storm the station and attacked and used tear gas against police. Police reported that three officers were injured and hospitalized. An...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-2

"Events organized by women’s rights activists or the LGBTI community were regularly disrupted by members of violent radical groups…" (32). "...Civil society groups remained concerned, however, about the lack of accountability for crimes committed by radical groups in cases documented in 2018. During the year members of such groups committed violent attacks on ethnic minorities (especially Roma), LGBTI persons, feminists, and other individuals they considered to be 'un-Ukrainian' or 'anti-Ukrainian.' The HRMMU noted that the failure of police and prosecutors to prevent these acts of violence, properly classify them as hate crimes, and effectively investigate and prosecute them created an environment of impunity and lack of justice for victims" (42).more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"According to UNHCR, gaps in housing and social support for unaccompanied children left many without access to state-run accommodation centers or children’s shelters. Many children had to rely on informal networks for food, shelter, and other needs and remained vulnerable to abuse, trafficking, and other forms of exploitation. UNHCR noted a lack of educational programs and vocational activities for those in detention for extended periods" (38). This information about child refugees being at risk for trafficking was included because the trafficking variables ask for laws concerning the trafficking of both women and children and the enforcement of those laws (JLR-CODER COMMENT). "Sexual exploitation of children, however, remained significantly underreported. Commercial...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ADDL-DATA-1

"According to the Nash Mir, radical groups consistently tried to disrupt LGBTI events with violence or threats of violence. For example, on April 11, members of radical groups Tradition and Order and Katechon attacked participants of the European Lesbian Conference in Kyiv. Perpetrators broke into the premises and sprayed tear gas, injuring 10 persons. Police intervened and detained the attackers; the attackers were subsequently released, and no charges were filed" (51).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"There were reports of societal violence against Roma. For example, according to press reports, on October 24, an unknown assailant in Zaporizhzhia attacked Romani rights activist Anzhelika Belova with a knife. According to press reports, the attacker followed her home from a supermarket into her apartment building, where he stabbed her. Belova survived, and police arrested the alleged perpetrator. An investigation was under way" (49). This may indicate that women are able to participate in movements that are not related to gender issues, but that such participation as activists may put them in danger (JLR-CODER COMMENT). "Detainees were often denied access to a lawyer during interrogation. For example, on May...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"...According to the CPT, in some pretrial detention centers, detainees did not have consistent access to food and water. According to the UN SRT, most hygienic products including toilet paper, soap, and feminine hygiene products were not provided, and detainees relied on supplies provided by family or donated by humanitarian organizations. In some facilities cells had limited access to daylight and were not properly heated or ventilated. UN and other international monitors documented systemic problems with the provision of medical care. The CPT observed a lack of medical confidentiality, poor recording of injuries, and deficient access to specialists, including gynecological and psychiatric care. There was a shortage of all kinds...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women received lower salaries due to limited opportunities for advancement and the types of industries that employed them. According to the State Statistics Office, men earned on average 23 percent more than women. The gap was not caused by direct discrimination in the setting of wages, but by horizontal and vertical stratification of the labor market: Women were more likely to work in lower-paid sectors of the economy and in lower positions. Women held fewer elected or appointed offices at the national and regional levels. In July government research on women and men in the energy sector was presented to identify possible ways to resolve the problem of gender imbalance...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"The law prohibits the commercial sexual exploitation of children, the sale of children, offering or procuring a child for child prostitution, and practices related to child pornography. The minimum prison sentence for child rape is eight years. Molesting a child younger than 16 is punishable by imprisonment for up to five years. The same offense committed against a child younger than 14 is punishable by imprisonment for five to eight years. The age of consent is 16" (45).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"On January 11, amendments to the criminal code increasing liability for sexual, domestic, and gender-based violence came into force. The amendments expanded the definition of rape and introduced stricter punishment for sexual coercion by up to three years of prison and forced abortion or sterilization by up to five years. Domestic violence against women remained a serious problem. Spousal abuse was common. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 761 cases of domestic violence were registered during the first nine months of the year. Police issued approximately 44,000 domestic violence warnings and protection orders during the first nine months of the year. Punishment included fines, emergency restraining orders of up...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"According to UNHCR, gaps in housing and social support for unaccompanied children left many without access to state-run accommodation centers or children’s shelters. Many children had to rely on informal networks for food, shelter, and other needs and remained vulnerable to abuse, trafficking, and other forms of exploitation. UNHCR noted a lack of educational programs and vocational activities for those in detention for extended periods" (38). Insufficient programs left refugee children at risk for trafficking (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"Domestic violence against women remained a serious problem. Spousal abuse was common. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 761 cases of domestic violence were registered during the first nine months of the year. Police issued approximately 44,000 domestic violence warnings and protection orders during the first nine months of the year. Punishment included fines, emergency restraining orders of up to 10 days, ordinary restraining orders from one to six months, administrative arrest, and community service. Human rights groups noted that the ability of agencies to detect and report cases of domestic violence was limited. Human rights groups asserted that law enforcement often did not consider domestic violence to be...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: DV-LAW-1, FSCB-LAW-1

"On January 11, amendments to the criminal code increasing liability for sexual, domestic, and gender-based violence came into force. The amendments expanded the definition of rape and introduced stricter punishment for sexual coercion by up to three years of prison and forced abortion or sterilization by up to five years" (43).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"According to the NGO La Strada, the conflict in the Donbas region led to a surge in violence against women across the country. Human rights groups attributed the increase in violence to posttraumatic stress experienced by IDPs fleeing the conflict and by soldiers returning from combat. IDPs reported instances of rape and sexual abuse; many claimed to have fled areas controlled by Russia-led forces because they feared sexual abuse" (43).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: IRP-LAW-5, PRN-LAW-1

"The law prohibits the commercial sexual exploitation of children, the sale of children, offering or procuring a child for child prostitution, and practices related to child pornography…" (45).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide citizens the ability to choose their government in free and fair periodic elections held by secret ballot and based on universal and equal suffrage" (39).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"In the Russia-induced and -fueled conflict in the Donbas region, Russia-led forces reportedly engaged in killings of civilians; forced disappearances and abductions; torture; unlawful detentions; and committed gender-based violence" (2).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"While the law provides that women enjoy the same rights as men, women experienced discrimination in employment. According to the government commissioner on gender policy, women on average received 30 percent lower salaries than men. The Ministry of Health maintained a list of 50 occupations that remain prohibited for women" (44). "Women received lower salaries due to limited opportunities for advancement and the types of industries that employed them. According to the State Statistics Office, men earned on average 23 percent more than women. The gap was not caused by direct discrimination in the setting of wages, but by horizontal and vertical stratification of the labor market: Women were more...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: MURDER-LAW-1

"There were reports that state actors ordered or took part in targeted attacks on civil society activists and journalists in connection with their work, which in some cases resulted in death. For example, on February 11, the Prosecutor General’s Office arrested and charged the head of the Kherson regional legislature, Vladyslav Manger, with organizing the 2018 fatal acid attack on public activist and advisor to the Kherson city mayor Kateryna Handziuk. The same day the Prosecutor General’s Office announced that it was investigating the deputy governor of Kherson Oblast, Yevhen Ryshchuk, for involvement in Handziuk’s killing. In March investigative reporters at Slidstvo.info published allegations by one of the men who...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion or involuntary sterilization" (44).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: PRN-PRACTICE-1

"Domestic and foreign law enforcement officials reported that a significant amount of child pornography on the internet continued to originate in the country. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported that children from socially disadvantaged families and those in state custody continued to be at high risk of trafficking, including for commercial sexual exploitation and the production of pornography. For example, on September 4, the Pechersk District Court in Kyiv authorized the arrest of a Kyiv resident who allegedly produced and disseminated pornography of his two children. An investigation was underway as of October" (45-46).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While the law prohibits coercing a person to have sexual intercourse, legal experts stated that safeguards against harassment were inadequate. The law puts sexual harassment in the same category as discrimination and sets penalties ranging from a fine to three years in prison. Women’s rights groups reported continuing and widespread sexual harassment, including coerced sex, in the workplace. Women rarely sought legal recourse because courts declined to hear their cases and rarely convicted perpetrators" (43-44). "The government did not effectively enforce the law, and employment discrimination reportedly occurred with respect to gender, disability, nationality, race, minority status, sexual orientation or gender identity, and HIV-positive status. The agriculture, construction, mining, heavy...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-2, MURDER-DATA-1

"There were reports that state actors ordered or took part in targeted attacks on civil society activists and journalists in connection with their work, which in some cases resulted in death. For example, on February 11, the Prosecutor General’s Office arrested and charged the head of the Kherson regional legislature, Vladyslav Manger, with organizing the 2018 fatal acid attack on public activist and advisor to the Kherson city mayor Kateryna Handziuk. The same day the Prosecutor General’s Office announced that it was investigating the deputy governor of Kherson Oblast, Yevhen Ryshchuk, for involvement in Handziuk’s killing. In March investigative reporters at Slidstvo.info published allegations by one of the men who...more