The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Venezuela

Jan. 26, 2022, 5:25 p.m.
Countries: Albania, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad/Tobago, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
Variables: IIP-SCALE-1

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Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"While no official statistics were available, a women’s shelter reported recurring problems with gender-based violence and trafficking of refugee women. NGOs reported Venezuelans crossing through informal border crossings controlled by armed groups faced significant protection risks, including gender-based violence. Individuals were often forced to pay a form of taxation at the informal border crossing or be indebted to those controlling them, exposing them to risks of exploitation, harassment, and sexual violence, as well as recruitment into drug trafficking and other armed groups" (21). "With the refugee status determination process centralized at the National Refugee Commission (CONARE) headquarters in Caracas, asylum seekers often waited for years to obtain a final decision....more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-DATA-1, TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"While no official statistics were available, a women’s shelter reported recurring problems with gender-based violence and trafficking of refugee women. NGOs reported Venezuelans crossing through informal border crossings controlled by armed groups faced significant protection risks, including gender-based violence. Individuals were often forced to pay a form of taxation at the informal border crossing or be indebted to those controlling them, exposing them to risks of exploitation, harassment, and sexual violence, as well as recruitment into drug trafficking and other armed groups" (21).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"On June 1, members of the DGCIM arrested Karen Palacios Perez, a clarinetist, for 'instigating hate.' Palacios posted tweets critical of the regime after losing her position with the National Philharmonic Orchestra for signing a petition in opposition to Maduro. On July 16, Palacios was released from prison, one month after a judge ordered her immediate release" (13).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"The law provides women with property rights equal to those of men" (28).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived by birth within the country’s territory. According to UNICEF, 81 percent of children younger than five were registered at birth, based on 2011 statistics provided by the government" (28).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LRCM-DATA-2

"According to UNICEF and NGOs working with children and women, child abuse, including incest, occurred but was rarely reported. The former regime made efforts to detain and prosecute some perpetrators of child abuse. Although the judicial system acted to remove children from abusive households, the press reported public facilities for such children were inadequate. According to NGOs, in many cases children were returned to their homes without proper reintegration measures or follow-up" (28).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LRCM-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-5, PRN-LAW-1

"By law sexual relations with a minor younger than 13, with an 'especially vulnerable' person, or with a minor younger than 16 when the perpetrator is a relative or guardian, are punishable with a mandatory sentence of 15 to 20 years’ imprisonment. The law prohibits the forced prostitution and corruption of minors. Penalties range from 15 to 20 years’ imprisonment in cases of forced labor and some forms of sex trafficking of women and girls. The law requires a demonstration of force, fraud, or coercion to constitute child sex trafficking. The law prohibits the production and sale of child pornography and establishes penalties of 16 to 20 years’ imprisonment" (28).more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is illegal and punishable by fines and a prison sentence of one to three years. Although allegedly common in the workplace, sexual harassment cases were rarely reported" (27).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28). "The constitution provides for equality before the law of all persons and prohibits discrimination based on 'sex...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"While no official statistics were available, a women’s shelter reported recurring problems with gender-based violence and trafficking of refugee women. NGOs reported Venezuelans crossing through informal border crossings controlled by armed groups faced significant protection risks, including gender-based violence. Individuals were often forced to pay a form of taxation at the informal border crossing or be indebted to those controlling them, exposing them to risks of exploitation, harassment, and sexual violence, as well as recruitment into drug trafficking and other armed groups" (21). "Local police and private security forces allegedly prevented LGBTI persons from entering malls, public parks, and recreational areas. NGOs reported the former Maduro regime systematically denied legal...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Local police and private security forces allegedly prevented LGBTI persons from entering malls, public parks, and recreational areas. NGOs reported the former Maduro regime systematically denied legal recognition to transgender and intersex persons by preventing them from obtaining identity documents required for accessing education, employment, housing, and health care. This vulnerability often led transgender and intersex persons to become victims of human trafficking or prostitution" (32).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"There were two women’s prisons, one each in Miranda and Zulia States. The law stipulates women in mixed prisons must be held in annexes or separate women’s blocks. A local NGO reported that male and female prisoners intermingled. Former Maduro regime security forces and law enforcement authorities often held minors together with adults, although separate facilities existed. Because institutions were filled beyond capacity, hundreds of children accused of infractions were confined in juvenile detention centers, where they were reportedly crowded into small, unsanitary cells" (6). "...The OVP reported a generalized lack of medical care, drugs, equipment, and physicians for prisoners. Inmates often received the same pills regardless of their symptoms,...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes physical, sexual, and psychological violence in the home or community and at work..." (27). "Sexual harassment is illegal and punishable by fines and a prison sentence of one to three years. Although allegedly common in the workplace, sexual harassment cases were rarely reported" (27). "Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"The law criminalizes physical, sexual, and psychological violence in the home or community and at work. The law punishes perpetrators of domestic violence with penalties ranging from six to 27 months in prison. The law requires police to report domestic violence to judicial authorities and obligates hospital personnel to notify authorities when admitting patients who are victims of domestic abuse. Police generally were reluctant to intervene to prevent domestic violence and were not properly trained to handle such cases. The law also establishes women’s bureaus at local police headquarters and tribunals specializing in gender-based violence, and two-thirds of states had specialized courts. The Public Ministry’s Women’s Defense Department employed a...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, GP-DATA-1

"No law limits participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The former regime had high-level female politicians and ministers, while the opposition lacked high-level female and minority representation" (24).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"Many advocates observed there was a lack of public awareness among women regarding resources and support available to prevent and combat domestic violence. The former regime offered some shelter and services for victims of domestic and other violence, but NGOs provided the majority of domestic abuse support services" (27). "State-run facilities, already filled to capacity, were unable to support the influx of children in need. Private institutions denounced the former regime’s refusal to provide subsidized food benefits to support their population. NGOs noted young girls made up close to one-half of the children living on the streets. The significant shift posed particular challenges for shelters, which historically managed predominantly male...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2, GP-DATA-3, GP-DATA-5

"The law criminalizes physical, sexual, and psychological violence in the home or community and at work. The law punishes perpetrators of domestic violence with penalties ranging from six to 27 months in prison. The law requires police to report domestic violence to judicial authorities and obligates hospital personnel to notify authorities when admitting patients who are victims of domestic abuse. Police generally were reluctant to intervene to prevent domestic violence and were not properly trained to handle such cases. The law also establishes women’s bureaus at local police headquarters and tribunals specializing in gender-based violence, and two-thirds of states had specialized courts. The Public Ministry’s Women’s Defense Department employed a...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"The constitution provides for an independent judiciary, but the former Maduro regime judiciary lacked independence and generally judged in favor of the former regime at all levels. There were credible allegations of corruption and political influence throughout the judiciary. According to reports from the International Commission of Jurists, as many as 85 percent of all judges had provisional appointments and were subject to removal at will by the TSJ Judicial Committee. Provisional and temporary judges, who legally have the same rights and authorities as permanent judges, allegedly were subjected to political influence to make proregime determinations. In January Ediluh Guedez Ochoa, a juvenile court judge in the state of Yaracuy,...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, making it punishable by a prison term of eight to 14 years. A man may legally avoid punishment by marrying (before he is sentenced) the person he raped. The law allows authorities to consider alternative forms of punishment, including work release, for those convicted of various crimes, including rape, if they have completed three-quarters of their sentence" (27). "By law sexual relations with a minor younger than 13, with an 'especially vulnerable' person, or with a minor younger than 16 when the perpetrator is a relative or guardian, are punishable with a mandatory sentence of 15 to 20 years’...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age for marriage is 18 for women and men, but with parental consent the minimum age is 16" (28).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"The 1999 constitution, the country’s 26th since independence in 1811, provides citizens the ability to change their government through free and fair elections, but regime interference, electoral irregularities, and manipulation of voters and candidates restricted the exercise of this right in the 2018 presidential and municipal elections" (22). If women are recognized as citizens then according to this datum they should be granted the right to vote (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion or involuntary sterilization" (27).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LRW-LAW-4, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, making it punishable by a prison term of eight to 14 years. A man may legally avoid punishment by marrying (before he is sentenced) the person he raped. The law allows authorities to consider alternative forms of punishment, including work release, for those convicted of various crimes, including rape, if they have completed three-quarters of their sentence" (27).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: IRP-DATA-2

"...There was also an unprecedented influx of disease, drugs, prostitution, forced labor, and other illegal activities in the mining areas, putting indigenous communities at risk" (31).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, MARR-LAW-3

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28). "The constitution prohibits employment discrimination of every citizen. The law prohibits discrimination based on age, race, sex,...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"The law prohibits all media from disseminating messages that incite or promote hate or intolerance for religious, political, gender-related, racial, or xenophobic reasons; incite, promote, or condone criminal acts; constitute war propaganda; foment anxiety in the population or affect public order; do not recognize legitimate government authorities; incite homicide; or incite or promote disobedience of the established legal order. Penalties range from fines to the revocation of licenses. The threat of nonrenewal of operating licenses systematically led to self-censorship on the part of several media outlets" (14).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"By law sexual relations with a minor younger than 13, with an “especially vulnerable” person, or with a minor younger than 16 when the perpetrator is a relative or guardian, are punishable with a mandatory sentence of 15 to 20 years’ imprisonment. The law prohibits the forced prostitution and corruption of minors. Penalties range from 15 to 20 years’ imprisonment in cases of forced labor and some forms of sex trafficking of women and girls. The law requires a demonstration of force, fraud, or coercion to constitute child sex trafficking. The law prohibits the production and sale of child pornography and establishes penalties of 16 to 20 years’ imprisonment" (28)....more
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:43 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"The NGO Refugees International in April criticized the government of Curacao for failing to provide temporary status to Venezuelan refugees and other displaced Venezuelans. They found that many migrants and displaced Venezuelans without legal status ended up living on the fringes of society, with no protection against abuse from neighbors or from employers in the informal sector. They noted that some migrant women had been forced into commercial sex" (7-8). These women had migrated to the Netherlands (JLR-CODER COMMENT).