The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ACR-PRACTICE-1

June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"In Poland 27 clinics performing in vitro fertilization were registered under the European IVF Monitoring (EIM)" (66).
April 27, 2021, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1, ACR-PRACTICE-1

"A Chinese man and five Cambodian women arrested alongside the 32, and a Cambodian man and a Chinese woman arrested since, were also sentenced on Monday for their roles in organizing the commercial surrogacy, said court spokesman Y Rin. The spokesman said the sentences among the 40 convicted ranged from three to 16 years, declining to give a breakdown. The surrogates...were set to earn about $10,000 each, more than six times the average annual salary" (para 3-5). "Cambodia was a popular international destination for couples looking to have babies through commercial surrogacy, a practice made illegal in 2016 after an uptick in the trade following a ban by neighboring Thailand...more
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Pending the legislative development that will follow the decisions of the Constitutional Court, it is worthy of mention that, at the operational level, in Italy, there are 276 centres authorized by Regions to apply MAP techniques" (90).
April 22, 2021, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"In an interview on Milele FM in July 2020, the bill's sponsor, Senator Kihika, clarified her initial intent: 'What drove me to come up with the bill was majorly to help couples that could not be able to conceive. I wanted to come up with a legislative framework that could bring in IVF and surrogacy. In my role as representative of the people over time, I have come across multiple couples who could not get the services. Even though it is available, there are no laws that govern it and it is extremely expensive that only the very wealthy in the society are able to access'" (para 16). "If the...more
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The HIV positive women often refused in the services of assisted reproductive technologies, especially in vitro fertilization (IVF). The regulatory acts of Ukraine stipulate HIV infection as a contraindication to the infertility treatment in women by means of assisted reproductive technologies for budget funds" (25).
Dec. 31, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"They addressed why an infertility diagnosis is particularly devastating to “Generation IVF;” the first generation of women to grow up with the reproductive freedom to delay pregnancy and have access to in vitro fertilization" (para 7) "Tsigdinos, who had her first fertility workup at age 29, noted that well-intentioned friends and family members often exacerbate the sense of loss with statements like “just keep trying” or “you’re still young” when fertility struggles are confided. When Tsigdinos eventually stopped fertility treatments without becoming pregnant and shared her story in her memoir, she received emails from women around the world. Some told her she was bitter or that she didn’t try hard...more
Nov. 6, 2020, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“Thailand…used to be [a hub] for overseas commercial surrogacy, particularly for prospective parents from China, until it was banned in 2015…respectively” (para 29) This quote is taken from an informative text box inserted into the article following paragraph 29 (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 6, 2020, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“Taiwan bans all surrogacy. But since same-sex marriage was legalised in May 2019, commercial surrogacy agencies from the United States have marketed their services to gay couples on the island, including from Asian countries like China” (para 29) This quote is taken from an informative text box inserted into the article following paragraph 29 (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 6, 2020, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“Cambodia used to be [a hub] for overseas commercial surrogacy, particularly for prospective parents from China, until it was banned in…2016 respectively” (para 29) This quote is taken from an informative text box inserted into the article following paragraph 29 (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 6, 2020, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“Taiwan bans all surrogacy. But since same-sex marriage was legalised in May 2019, commercial surrogacy agencies from the United States have marketed their services to gay couples on the island, including from Asian countries like China” (para 29) This quote is taken from an informative text box inserted into the article following paragraph 29 (MLB-CODER COMMENT). “Thailand…used to be [a hub] for overseas commercial surrogacy, particularly for prospective parents from China, until it was banned in 2015…respectively” (para 29) This quote is taken from an informative text box inserted into the article following paragraph 29 (MLB-CODER COMMENT). “Cambodia used to be [a hub] for overseas commercial surrogacy, particularly for prospective...more
Nov. 6, 2020, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“Gay couples will soon be able to access surrogacy in Israel, after the country's top court ruled against a law that excludes them in February, giving the government a year to pass a new one. Tens of thousands of people protested against the law, which gave single and infertile women access to state support for surrogacy, when it was passed in 2018” (para 29) This quote is taken from an informative text box inserted into the article following paragraph 29 (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Oct. 1, 2020, 9:06 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Hungary will offer free IVF to childless couples in its latest bid to boost its declining population instead of welcoming more migrants. Right wing Prime Minister Viktor Orban announced the policy yesterday saying he wants 'Hungarian children instead of immigrants'. The government has already taken over six private fertility clinics to provide the free service from February 1" (para 1-3). "Last month the government announced it was buying six private fertility clinics, four in the capital Budapest and two elsewhere" (para 12). "He also described fertility clinics as being 'of national strategic importance' and advised private firms against investing in them as 'they will not get permits'" (para 14).more
July 14, 2020, 4:50 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Lying in rows of cots in a small hotel on the outskirts of Kyiv, 51 babies born to surrogate mothers are stranded in Ukraine as the coronavirus lockdown is preventing parents from the US, Europe and elsewhere from collecting them" (para 1). "Lyudmyla Denisova, the human rights ombudsman for the Ukrainian parliament, said that the video showed the country had a 'massive and systemic' surrogacy industry where babies were advertised as a 'high quality product'. She suggested looking into changing the law to allow only Ukrainian parents to use such services" (para 7-8). "At BioTexCom, a surrogate mother receives about $15,000-$17,000. Parents arrive from all over the world including the...more
Dec. 14, 2019, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The ever-increasing chasm in female-to-male sex ratios has been exacerbated by the plummeting cost of sex-selection IVF procedures and abortions in even the most remote parts of India" (para 33).
March 11, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

Since 2010, the list of free medical services and medicines has included in vitro fertilization (in 2011 — 350 cycles; 2012 — 600 cycles; 2013 — 600 cycles, 2014 — 600 cycles, 2015 — 820 cycles, 2016 — 813 cycles, 2017 — 900 cycles)" (32).
Feb. 3, 2019, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with concern: (e) The inaccessibility of in vitro fertilization for women in the public health sector owing to the delay in implementing legislation authorizing its application. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (e) Speed up the implementation of the provisions of Decree No. 39210-MP-S of 10 September 2015 authorizing the application of in vitro fertilization in the public health sector" (10-11).
Jan. 7, 2019, 12:03 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The Special Rapporteur also expressed concern about commercial surrogacy and the lack of a regulatory body to oversee the practice" (para 9).
June 1, 2018, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is also concerned about the persistence of gender role stereotyping in the educational system, resulting in girls’ concentration in lower-skill areas of vocational and technical education, as well as the lack of action of the State party to combat the persistent underrepresentation of women in the high education technical and engineering fields" (7).
May 29, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is also concerned about the persistence of gender role stereotyping in the educational system, resulting in girls’ concentration in lower-skill areas of vocational and technical education, as well as the lack of action of the State party to combat the persistent underrepresentation of women in the high education technical and engineering fields" (7).
Dec. 13, 2017, 11:29 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The Cambodian ban will likely increase surrogacy costs globally, driving foreigners to countries like Ukraine, Georgia, Greece, Canada and the US which have protective laws in place. However surrogacy costs in the US can be as high as $200,000 while agencies charge far less in developing countries like Cambodia" (para 7).
Aug. 24, 2017, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“As a longtime fertility doctor, Minas Mastrominas has helped couples in Greece give birth to thousands of bouncing babies. But recently, disturbing trends have escalated at his clinic. Couples insisting on only one child. Women tearfully renouncing plans to conceive. And a surge in single-child parents asking him to destroy all of their remaining embryos. ‘People are saying they can’t afford more than one child, or any at all,’ Dr. Mastrominas, a director at Embryogenesis, a large in vitro fertilization center, said as videos of gurgling toddlers played in the waiting room” (para 1-3). “As the [economic] crisis persisted, Anastasia Economopoulou, 42, pushed back her dream of having several children....more
Aug. 21, 2017, 7:22 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“By far the biggest problem associated with the new [anti-surrogacy] law is its lack of enforcement provision. The government has enacted no mechanism to police the new law. In a country as large and populous as India, how can these positive elements of the legislation be implemented and monitored?” (para 14). “A related and equally problematic aspect of the surrogacy law is that there is no budget created to carry it out. The only monies provided by the government will be to conduct the meetings of the National Surrogacy Board and associated State Boards. Without funding to carry out implementation and enforce the law’s provisions, it is nothing more than...more
Aug. 7, 2017, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"A real danger exists that women will be coerced by their families to act as a surrogate for siblings or other relatives who are infertile" (para 17). "What will become of the innumerable surrogacy factories located throughout the vast country of India? Infamous surrogate profiteer Nina Patel has long planned her under construction industrial one-stop-shopping surrogacy conveyer belt" (para 18). "What about the black market in surrogacy that operates in India? As documented on the US television show 'Vice,' a reporter went underground and was offered a live baby; one of the discarded infants created through surrogacy" (para 19).
July 31, 2017, 2:23 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"A Thai man who attempted to smuggle six vials of human semen to be used by surrogate mothers through a border checkpoint has been arrested. Nithinon Srithaniyanan, 25, was traveling to Laos when he was caught with a nitrogen tank containing the sperm, according to officials. He admitted doing the same thing a dozen times before - for a payment of 5,000 Thai baht (£113) on each occasion. He was trying to take the fluids to a fertility clinic when he attempted to pass through the Nong Khai checkpoint between northern Thailand and neighbouring Laos. Nithinon was fined 200,000 Thai baht for smuggling forbidden goods out of the kingdom and...more
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Stigma is rarely an issue for those who outsource pregnancy to poor, desperate women in India, but there is plenty levelled at surrogate mothers. Many choose to leave home during their pregnancy, as it is not seen as a respectable way to earn money, particularly if they are from rural India....In India, though, the industry – built on sex, race and class supremacy – is not only legal but estimated to be worth more than $1bn (£690m) a year. Surrogates are paid about £4,500 to rent their wombs at this particular clinic, a huge amount in a country where, in 2012, average monthly earnings stood at $215 and a fifth...more
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"it is common practice to plant embryos in two or more surrogates and to perform abortions if more than one pregnancy takes hold. Similarly, if several embryos are implanted in one surrogate and a multiple pregnancy occurs, unwanted foetuses will often be aborted. 17. Approximately 12,000 foreigners come to India each year to hire surrogates, many of them from the UK" (p 16)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"According to [Dr.] Amin, the surrogates she hires are middle class or upper class. ‘Recently we [hired] three Brahmin [a high caste] girls, all educated. We have about 25% of that class. About 85% [of all surrogates] are quite well off.’ I suspect this is a lie. Research by pressure group Stop Surrogacy Now shows that, aside from rare cases, it is the poorest women from the lowest castes who become surrogate mothers" (p 37)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, ACR-PRACTICE-1

"I have heard several stories of women being forced or coerced into surrogacy by husbands or even pimps, and ask Mehta if she is aware of this happening. ‘Without the husbands’ [of the surrogates] consent we don’t do surrogacy. We don’t give all the money before the delivery. We take from you but we hand it over to her once she hands over the child to you. We give her in instalments so she will also take care she will deliver the baby no problem.’ Mehta said they try to avoid the women forming bonds with the baby by giving them drugs to stop lactation. ‘She will not produce milk...more
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"...while surrogates are usually from poorer backgrounds, the implanted eggs are selected from women up to the age of 25, usually highly educated and screened for any hereditary illness. All surrogates who go through these clinics are told what and when to eat and drink, and monitored to ensure they are taking their medication and maintaining their personal hygiene" (p 12-13)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"‘caucasian [egg] donors [price from] £2,500 to £3,000, Indian donor £1,000’" (p 33)