The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for AFE-PRACTICE-2

April 28, 2024, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo

"Girls in rural areas are particularly disadvantaged. According to a 2017-2018 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey, girls in rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), for example, were 23 percentage points less likely than boys in rural areas, and 46 percentage points less likely than boys in urban areas, to enter grade 12. A whole set of factors conspire to scare and dissuade girls from reaching the educational attainment they deserve, such as social norms that favor early marriage" (para 4-5).
Jan. 16, 2024, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Enrolment statistics show that girls enrolled more than boys in secondary and tertiary education. However, the likelihood of attaining secondary and tertiary education is higher among men compared to women" (7). This suggests there may be societal attitudes that university education is more important for men than women (VMH - CODER COMMENT). "The percentage of men with University education (15%) was significantly higher than that of women (10%) who attained the same level of education" (29).
Sept. 22, 2023, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Angola

"There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events" (10).
Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas

"There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events" (7).
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"To contain opportunity costs, there are no primary school enrolment fees, and middle and secondary school fees are capped at 10,000 CFA francs per pupil, with the option to spread payment over several months. Failure to pay can under no circumstances lead to the expulsion of a pupil, because Senegal is striving to create schools of fairness and equal opportunities. Through the PAEF-Plus project, Senegal sought to test certain initiatives with a view to duplicating them if they were successful." (9). "In order to encourage women and men to move into non-traditional sectors and careers, the State has taken the following measures: Increasing the resources allocated to vocational training and...more
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"[S]pecific barriers faced by girls to enrolling and remaining in school at the secondary and tertiary levels, includ[e] poverty, negative parental attitudes and preference given to the education of boys, disability, child marriage and early pregnancy" (11).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“Above all, women are less likely than men to consider going into business for themselves, and those who do establish a company are more likely to fail than men (see Section 3.2). Currently, only 6 per cent of the overall population of Bulgarian women manage or own their own company. Women, even though they are more highly educated than men, believe that they do not possess the necessary skills to become an entrepreneur (70 per cent), compared with only 64 per cent of men who were interviewed. Women also tend to view entrepreneurship as an inappropriate role for women (34 per cent), contrasting with only 17 per cent of men...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Out of the total number of those who completed their undergraduate studies in the academic year 2019/2020, 56.7 per cent were women, and 43.3 per cent were male. When it comes to postgraduate studies, 55.8 per cent of students in specialist studies were women, and 44.2 per cent were men. As for those studying for the master’s degree – 60.4 per cent were women and 39.6 per cent were men...Among those who received their PhDs in 2019, there were 12 men and 8 women. Following a look into the data on the number of those who received their Ph.D. degree from 2010 to 2019, it can be concluded that the...more
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"According to a study, traditional attitude, norms and value of the Chepang community and family towards education and gender have changed drastically. They have perceived education as the best tool for employment creation, income generation, knowledge and better life. As a result, there is high enrolment rate of Chepang girls in primary schools." (14)(NF - CODER COMMENT- This change in attitude can imply that society can be more accepting of girls having a higher level of education).
Feb. 18, 2023, 9:51 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"A Japanese court on Thursday ordered a Tokyo medical school to pay around 8.05 million yen ($63,000) in damages to 13 women for rigging its entrance exams in favor of male candidates, in what is believed to be the first ruling of its kind following a series of manipulations of exam results found in Japan" (Para.1). "The Tokyo District Court ruled that the women had suffered emotional distress as a result of Juntendo University's gender-based discrimination, awarding each between 300,000 yen and 900,000 yen in compensation. The plaintiffs had sought a combined 54 million yen" (Para.2). "Having applicants take entrance examinations while concealing the acceptance criteria 'constitutes illegal behavior as...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"At University level, more females graduate than males. The number of female graduates in traditionally male dominated courses such as Medicine, Engineering and other hard sciences has also increased exponentially in the last few years." (12). "The Namibian government through Namibia Students Financial Assistance Fund (NSFAF) provides loans to students from low income families to pursue their tertiary education. The private sector often provides bursaries and grants to those who have met their requirements." (16)(NF -CODER COMMENT - The creation of a national scholarship along with separate, private scholarships signals a growing support for women and girls to continue their education). "Institutions of higher learning have in recent years recorded...more
Jan. 19, 2023, 10:27 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Hundreds of women marched from Herat University on Sunday morning demanding their right to education" (para 10). Women who attend university are not fully supported by the government (MV-coder comment).
Jan. 12, 2023, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"They were prevented from owning property, accessing health care, directly receiving salaries, or attending formal education….'It was hard because there was no education, no protection for children...'" (para 4-5). "Before 1979, there were no educational provisions for children of any gender under six years old. Schooling post-13 was rare" (para 28).
Jan. 7, 2023, 11:15 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"[I]n Afghanistan...teenage girls must stay home, but a young woman lucky enough to have been in college when the Taliban seized power can still legally pursue her degree. A lack of professors to teach the women alongside strict dress codes appears to have kept many college-age women home, however" (para 21). "It's unclear... if the Taliban will allow new female college entrants" (para 26).
Dec. 19, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

“…[W]omen were more often widowed and tended to have somewhat higher education as measured by the prevalence of high-school or college/university academic degrees” (3)
Dec. 8, 2022, 3:20 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Meanwhile, older girls above 13 years old have also yet to be allowed back to schools and colleges" (para 21).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"In 2018, the overall male-female ratio of upper secondary education was 46 percent male and 54 percent female (Figure 4, Annex 1). The male-female ratios tell that there is a majority of male students choosing programs containing a more technical (htx) and commercial profile (hhx) whereas female students tend to choose programs with a broader common profile containing for instance more foreign languages (stx and hf)" (19). "More women than men complete a higher education and almost the same number of men and women achieve a Ph.D..." (19). "...Women irrespective of their ethnic background more often than men take an education. Ethnic minority women follow the success of ethnic Danish...more
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Although national data on the position of women in higher education show that women pursue higher education more than men, data gathered through the Suriname Enterprise Survey, Compete Caribbean 2011, show gender inequality in privately owned domestic firms, particularly in the manufacturing and services sector. The survey suggests that firms with women in management positions or with women in ownership positions in the services industry are most likely to be foreign owned" (21). "According to the last Census (2012), women have a higher representation (47 per cent) than men (21 per cent) in occupations which require higher education, while men are proportionally better represented (73 per cent) in the occupations...more
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates

"While education is equally accessible, federal law prohibits coeducation in public universities, except in the United Arab Emirates University’s Executive MBA program and in certain graduate programs at Zayed University. A large number of private schools, private universities, and institutions, however, were coeducational. According to officials, local women represent more than 70 percent of national higher education students" (29).
Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize

"Despite legal provisions for gender equality and government programs aimed at empowering women, NGOs and other observers reported women faced social and economic discrimination. Although participating in all spheres of national life and outnumbering men in university classrooms and having higher high school graduation rates, women held relatively few top managerial or government positions" (12).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"The societal attitudes whether a university education is more important for a boy than girl depends where you are in Somalia. In the major cities, education is equally important for both boys and girls. In fact, the capital city of Somalia, women are pursuing higher education. Boys are either driving tuk tuks or enrolling into the military or rebel groups" (1).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Women experienced economic discrimination due to social norms that favored men, and their access to education and employment was limited" (23). "The constitution provides for tuition-free universal education, and the law provides for compulsory schooling of children between the ages of six through 15. Nevertheless, many children did not attend school. Parents often had to pay their children’s school fees as well as provide their uniforms and supplies. Other factors affecting school enrollment included distance to the nearest school, lack of transportation, shortages of teachers and instructional materials, and lack of school feeding programs. Girls' enrollment was lower than that of boys at all levels due to poverty, a cultural...more
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption of the following:…(h) Gender strategy for higher education institutions, in 2016" (2).
Sept. 14, 2021, 9:15 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Tachira is a member of the Konkomba people, and girls born into that community are not educated. They’re kept at home, doing all the household chores until their parents effectively sell them into servitude to another family through arranged marriage. Most remain illiterate, vulnerable, and dependent for the rest of their lives" (para 8). This indicates a societal view that education is not important for women. (JLR-CODER COMMENT)
Aug. 27, 2021, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

“On family life, the interviews highlighted that the parents of all the study’s participants strongly valued learning and had high expectations of their daughters when it came to education, a factor that the women said influenced their study and career choices. The women also noted no incongruence between practicing religion and working in science, two actions that can be at odds in other cultures. In Muslim cultures, physics is seen as a subject that serves societal goals, such as advancing technology or saving humanity, which align with religious goals” (para 5).
June 25, 2021, 2:16 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Millions of girls have gone back to school in the last 14 years, but access to higher education has been limited" (para 7).
May 15, 2021, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: China

"The ten-year-old daughter is scared to hear her father’s name. Though safe in her mother’s home village, she cannot start middle school this September unless her father hands over the family’s household-registration book, or hukou, which is needed to enroll her. Even a screenshot would do, the school principal says. Alas, Ms Wang’s mother-in-law has told her grand-daughter by telephone: 'Your schooling is not our business'" (para 2).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:26 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Girls and women are typically kept at home but SSO has opened primary schools and enrolled 547 girls since 2006. Graduates hope to gain admission to secondary schools in cities and eventually universities" (para 11).
Dec. 23, 2020, 3:19 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Girls are consciously given lesser educational, employment and food resources" (para 22).
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Women in Bahrain…are active in tertiary education" (3).