The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ATDW-LAW-1

June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"In the course of divorce proceedings, a spouse could apply for alimony. It was enough to file a motion for alimony during proceedings in the presence of the other spouse orally or in writing. The court’s decision as to which party is at fault for the breakdown of marriage was decisive in this respect. Pursuant to the Family and Guardianship Code, a spouse who was in need and was not found solely at fault for the breakdown of marriage could demand alimony from the divorced spouse to the extent corresponding to his/her justified needs and to the earning and property potential of the obligor. The obligation to provide the divorced...more
May 15, 2021, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, ADCM-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1, ADDL-DATA-1

"Judges routinely refuse first requests for divorce, obliging plaintiffs to come back after a cooling-off period of up to three months. The policy should exclude cases involving violence, but many judges are too scared to declare a husband an abuser. Some judges fear being assaulted themselves. Others worry about presiding over a case that leads to a family murder. Women reporting abuse pose no threat, so they are brushed aside. But men who threaten violence are sometimes bought off with property or even child custody, especially when a son is involved...Judges are quick to spot those who arrive in court desperate for a divorce or for custody of a child....more
March 6, 2021, 9:44 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"In 2019 and 2020, UAE authorities introduced minor amendments to the personal status law, but a woman in the UAE can still lose her right to financial maintenance from her husband if she refuses to have sexual relations with him without a 'lawful excuse'" (para 8). "A judge can also deem a woman in breach of her spousal obligations if she leaves the house or takes a job deemed outside “the law, custom, or necessity,” or if the judge considers it against the family’s interests. This change was made gender neutral but prevailing social norms mean judges are more likely to consider it unnecessary for a woman to work than...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-1, ADCM-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"In Syria, divorce is a frightening prospect for women. Although citizens have equal rights in civil law, family law and divorce falls within the realm of sharia. Men, but not women, can unilaterally divorce with only a verbal decree. If a woman divorces through court proceedings, she rarely gets alimony, and she loses custody of young children if she remarries" (para 33).
Dec. 18, 2020, 6:58 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

“Couples will soon be able to get a quickie divorce without playing the blame game, it was claimed last night” (para. 1). “Currently, the law in England and Wales states a speedy separation can only happen if the married couple agree to it” (para. 3). “If only one spouse is seeking a divorce, they must prove their partner is guilty of adultery, desertion or showing unreasonable behaviour” (para. 4). “But Mr Gauke’s planned shake-up will make it easier for couples to divorce without having to blame each other. The current law is 50 years old and has been blasted for forcing spouses to list their partner’s bad behaviour” (para. 5)....more
Sept. 28, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The proposed marriage law, which parliament has yet to finalize at time of writing, seeks to outlaw child marriage, but it does not adequately protect women's property at divorce. Without legal protection, many women could be left homeless or without a means of income after their marriage ends or if their husband dies" (para 9). "Current laws on marriage and divorce do not conform to the country's constitution, which provides that spouses have equal rights and responsibilities" (para 10). "The Matrimonial Causes Act technically allows for equitable distribution of property between spouses at divorce, considering direct and indirect contributions, such as raising children and caring for the family and household"...more
Aug. 26, 2020, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

“Mrs Akhtar is powerless to claim significant sums of money or property from Mr Khan in the same way a legally married spouse can because they did not also have a legal civil ceremony… Leading family law barrister Camini Kumar [said,]…[‘E]ven though they have…lived together for almost two decades [Mrs. Akhtar] will have 'limited' claims to [Mr. Khan’s] assets…The judgment confirms that when their relationship breaks down these women cannot make the financial claims against their husband that they would be entitled to if they had married in a qualifying ceremony. They are to be treated as any other cohabiting couple in the eyes of the family court'… The couple,...more
Aug. 11, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

“Hindu Adoption Maintenance Act, 1956 : Section 18-A provides for obligations of husband to maintain his wife. Section 18(2) provides right of wife to live separately and S. 19 provides for maintenance of widow by her father-in-law” (para 5). “In Mohammed Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano (AIR 1985 SC 945), the Supreme Court granted equal right of maintenance under Section 125 of Cr. P.C. 1973 to a divorced married woman notwithstanding the personal law. The Supreme Court also held that ‘large segments of society which have been traditionally subjected to unjust treatment, women are one such segment.’ The Court invoked Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which applies...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 7:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"There is no legal concept of matrimonial assets for both Sunnis and Shias, and inheritance rights between women and men are unequal for both Sunnis and Shia, although there are exceptions to the general rule. The Civil Code and the SPSL details the inheritance shares of beneficiaries. In many instances, women are entitled to half the share of the estate as compared to man" (6).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"Married women share the ownership of family property with their husbands. Women are entitled, without regard to their income, to possess, use and dispose of the family property on the basis of equality with men. In the case of divorce, they can claim the right to their private property, with family property divided by mutual agreement. In case of failure in agreement, the court settles the problem in consideration of the actual situation of both parties and on the principle of protecting the interests of the children and the wife" (31). "The Family Law provides that divorce may be granted if a marriage cannot be continued because one party has...more
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, ADCM-LAW-1

"In Christian and Shia, Sunni, and Druze personal status codes, there is no recognition of marital property and there is no compensation for non-economic contributions, including work in the home or childcare, to the marriage. Christian personal status laws dictate that each spouse maintains separate ownership of his or her property and has the right to manage and use it and the fruit of his or her labor, unless the spouses agree otherwise in writing.249 Although these provisions allow for spouses to agree to joint ownership of assets, in recognition of the direct or indirect contributions each spouse makes in the earnings of the other, in reality, this sort of...more
Dec. 31, 2019, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-7, ATDW-LAW-1

"Likewise, the amended law clarifies that both male and female household members enjoy equal rights to the household’s land. In China, where it is customary for a newlywed woman to move into her husband’s village, women are often at risk of being denied their rightful share of land in their new household. The equal rights amendment guarantees women an equal share of their household land, and ensures they will retain those rights in the event of divorce" (para. 6).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"In regards to women’s rights, crucial legislation like the Matrimonial Property Law was gutted so that women were not automatically entitled to 50 percent of the assets accrued during their marriage but only to their 'contribution,' a formula that distinctly favors men" (4).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for divorce. Legal annulments and separation are possible, and courts generally recognized foreign divorces if one of the parties is a foreigner... Muslims have the right to divorce under Muslim family law" (27).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The law does not entitle a divorced woman to alimony in some cases, such as if she gave up her right to alimony to persuade her husband to agree to the divorce" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, CUST-LAW-1, ATFPA-LAW-1

"No time frame is envisaged for repealing discriminatory legislation, including provisions in the Civil Code regulating, inter alia, the matrimonial home (art. 108), the status of head of household and paternal power (arts. 213 to 216), the legal capacity of a married women (arts. 506 and 507), remarriage (arts. 228 and 296), the exercise of guardianship over children (arts. 389 to 396 and 405) and the distribution of marital assets (art. 818)" (4).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-1

"Divorce is available to both men and women. Many divorcees received no alimony, since there was no system to enforce such payments. The law requires a divorced woman to wait 40 days before remarrying; a man may remarry immediately" (Pg 28).
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: MARR-LAW-3, ATDW-LAW-1, CUST-LAW-1

"The Muslim Personal Law of 1961 is highly discriminating to the women giving the overall authority to the men in the areas of marriage, divorce, maintenance and custody of children" (13).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-1

"Article 950 of the Civil Code states that a woman may not remarry until 120 days have elapsed from the day of the dissolution or annulment of her previous marriage. This is intended to allow for the determination of fatherhood of any children. Article 950, paragraph 2, of the Civil Code states that ‘in the case that a women becomes pregnant before the previous marriage was dissolved or annulled and has given birth, or in the case that a woman has a medical certificate from a doctor declaring that she is not pregnant, the marriage can proceed without the 120-day waiting period’" (34).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, ADCM-LAW-1

"The State party has no legal regime recognizing, defining or setting out rules for control over marital property during marriage or the division of marital property on an equal basis between spouses upon divorce" (13).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The lack of adequate legislative measures to guarantee the property rights of women upon divorce, taking into account the gender-based economic disparities between spouses resulting from sex segregation in the labour market and from the greater share of unpaid work being performed by women" (15).
June 25, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The lack of inclusion of intangible assets, such as pension, insurance and work-related benefits, in the definition of property under the community property regime, which leads to the unequal division of property between men and women upon divorce, and this in the absence of mechanisms to compensate women for economic disparities between spouses" (14).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"In divorce proceedings, women must demonstrate legally specified grounds for divorce, but men can divorce without giving cause. In doing so, men must pay immediately an amount of money agreed at the time of the marriage that serves as a one-time alimony payment. Men can be forced, however, to make subsequent alimony payments by court order. The government began implementing an identification system based on fingerprints that was designed to provide women more reliable access to courts. The previous system required women to present themselves at court in the presence of a male relative to prove their identity if they declined to unveil their faces" (Pg 39).more
June 20, 2019, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"Afghan law regarding marriage and divorce explicitly discriminates against women" (2).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The NGO SOS noted that it was often difficult for women to defend their property rights in divorce proceedings due to the widespread belief that the property belongs to the man. In inheritance traditions there were instances of women ceding their property and inheritance rights to men, but this practice continued to decline. A consequence of these factors was that men tended to be favored in the distribution of property ownership" (Pg 26).
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"Women may seek divorce without the consent of their husbands in limited circumstances such as abandonment, spousal abuse, or in return for waiving financial rights. The law allows retention of financial rights under specific circumstances, such as spousal abuse" (32).
June 7, 2019, 11:46 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, CUST-LAW-3

"When a marriage is terminated in Afghanistan, the husband is liable to provide maintenance for the iddat (waiting period) only. Maintenance is defined in the law as taking care of the basic needs of the wife. Women have no legal right to reside in the marital home without the consent of the husband and his family. This weakens a woman’s position in cases of violence, as raising a complaint, and subsequent dissolution of marriage, would potentially mean losing her home" (Pg 16).
May 28, 2019, 9:34 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that the State party has a community property regime. It is concerned, however, that intangible assets, including work-related benefits, accrued pension rights and savings, in addition to future earning capacity, are not considered to be a part of the joint property to be divided upon the dissolution of a marriage and there is no other mechanism to compensate for the lack of their distribution. The Committee notes with concern that the economic rights of women in de facto unions are not recognized, including upon the dissolution of their relationship" (12).
May 28, 2019, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The Committee also reiterates its concern that the State party’s current legislation on the distribution of property upon divorce does not fully take into consideration differences in the earning potential and human capital of spouses and may not adequately address gender-based economic disparities between spouses resulting from existing sex segregation in the labour market, persistent gender pay gaps and women’s greater share of unpaid work" (11)
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1

"Women cannot marry without permission of their male guardians; do not have equal rights in inheritance, divorce, or child custody; and have little legal protection" (38).