The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ATDW-PRACTICE-1

May 15, 2021, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"China’s family courts are places of peril for women...Chinese judges earn promotions by handling cases quickly and for avoiding complaints and appeals. (A typical judge in a family court may hear 200 cases a year.) They are rewarded for pressing plaintiffs to withdraw divorce suits and try once more to patch up their marriages...Judges routinely refuse first requests for divorce, obliging plaintiffs to come back after a cooling-off period of up to three months. The policy should exclude cases involving violence, but many judges are too scared to declare a husband an abuser. Some judges fear being assaulted themselves. Others worry about presiding over a case that leads to a...more
Feb. 10, 2021, 11:42 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

'I am not scared of divorce. I know I will start a new life, but I am scared that my daughter will be taken from me,' she said. 'I will die without her. A mother's heart burns if her child is taken from her' (para 16).
Feb. 10, 2021, 11:41 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"'I am not scared of divorce. I know I will start a new life, but I am scared that my daughter will be taken from me,' she said. 'I will die without her. A mother's heart burns if her child is taken from her'" (para 16).
Jan. 18, 2021, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women also continue to face discrimination in relation to marriage, family, divorce, and decisions relating to children (e.g. child custody)" (para 23).
Dec. 23, 2020, 3:19 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Girls/women experience wide variety of violence; it could be physical ranging from slapping to burning; verbal such as taunting, use of bad language; mental like threats of divorce and actual divorce; and sexual in the form of rape and incest" (para 36).
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"All marriages are sealed with the marriage contract. The contract stipulates the terms of the union, including the rights of a woman to divorce. If a clause allowing the woman to initiate a divorce is included in the marriage contract, women have broader legal rights under Sharia law" (5).
Sept. 28, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"The proposed marriage law, which parliament has yet to finalize at time of writing, seeks to outlaw child marriage, but it does not adequately protect women's property at divorce. Without legal protection, many women could be left homeless or without a means of income after their marriage ends or if their husband dies" (para 9). "Current laws on marriage and divorce do not conform to the country's constitution, which provides that spouses have equal rights and responsibilities" (para 10). "The Matrimonial Causes Act technically allows for equitable distribution of property between spouses at divorce, considering direct and indirect contributions, such as raising children and caring for the family and household....more
Sept. 26, 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Kuwaiti personal status law, which applies to Sunni Muslims who make up the majority of Kuwaitis, discriminates against women [ . . . ] women must apply to the courts for a divorce on limited grounds, unlike men who can unilaterally divorce their wives" (para 17).
Sept. 14, 2020, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Articles 81 - 116 on divorce and repudiation limits that right to men only, ignores women’s will thus creating many problems. Articles 107 and 108 on repudiation in case of husbands absence for long periods, does not allow women to divorce except after waiting four years. Article 108 (2-B) states that ‘the wife of the missing person shall not be divorced if the husband has money or a guardian who provides for her’. This is an outright unfair curtailing of women’s freedom" (2).
Aug. 30, 2020, 12:33 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"She got a legal separation and, with her three daughters, returned to her parents' home" (para 6). The ability of da Penha to obtain a legal separation suggests that women are able to obtain divorces in Brazil (RAO-CODER COMMENT).
Aug. 10, 2020, 7:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Divorce rights between Muslim men and women are not equal. Both the Civil Code and the SPSL provide for three different mechanisms for divorce: (i) unilateral repudiation (talāq) by husbands; (ii) judicial divorce (fasakh) by wife on fault grounds; and (iii) redemptive divorce (khul’) by wife with consent of husband. The marriage may also be annulled. Under both the Civil Code and SPSL, the husband may unilaterally repudiate a marriage, which may be effectuated without much restrictions" (5). "Both Sunni and Shia husbands may delegate their unilateral right to divorce to their wives (isma) through a stipulation in the marriage contract, thus permitting her to pronounce talāq upon herself (talāq-i-tafwid),...more
May 29, 2020, 12:04 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Sometimes they do. One of the women I photographed, her husband's family is an elite family. They gave her complete freedom [after her husband died of cancer]. They help the family financially. They were educated and they came from a different class. They were a very famous family of musicians who are trying to preserve their Afghan music. We do see that. I don't think it's very often" (para 12). This statement is referring to the possibility of a widow or divorcee receiving financial support from their husband's family (MM-CODER COMMENT).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-4, MARR-LAW-4, ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Article 89 (3) of Decree Law No. 106 of the Head of Government (Civil Code) was repealed. That provision established that a woman could not marry until 300 days had passed following the dissolution of her previous marriage or de facto union or the annulment of the marriage, unless she gave birth during that time or one of the spouses was materially separated from the other or absent for the above-mentioned period. If the marriage was annulled owing to the husband’s impotence, the woman need not wait to remarry" (41).
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"While restrictions on the termination of marriage extend equally to both men and women, there are instances which allow men more grounds for divorce or annulment than women such as under the Orthodox church, a man can be granted a divorce if he discovers his wife is not a virgin after they marry" (68). "First, while spousal violence is grounds for desertion spousal violence short of attempted murder is insufficient to obtain a prompt end to a marriage as explained in the following section. Spousal violence overwhelmingly affects women in Lebanon. This is a problem in all Christian personal status laws in Lebanon, but particularly for Catholics since violence is...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 5:21 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"'Triple talaq', as it's known, allows a husband to divorce his wife by repeating the word "talaq" (divorce) three times in any form, including email or text message" (para. 2). "There have been cases in which Muslim men in India have divorced their wives by issuing the so-called triple talaq by letter, telephone and, increasingly, by text message, WhatsApp and Skype. A number of these cases made their way to the courts as women contested the custom" (para. 12).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"'Khula' divorce allows a Muslim woman to obtain a divorce without her husband’s consent, provided she forgoes all her financial rights, including alimony, dowry, and other benefits. The Coptic Orthodox Church permits divorce only in rare circumstances, such as adultery or conversion of one spouse to another religion. Other Christian churches sometimes permitted divorce on a case-by-case basis." (43-44). "In marriage and divorce cases, a woman’s testimony must be judged credible to be admissible. Usually the woman accomplishes credibility by conveying her testimony through an adult male relative or representative. The law assumes a man’s testimony is credible unless proven otherwise." (44).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Legal annulments and separation are possible, and courts generally recognized foreign divorces if one of the parties is a foreigner. These options, however, are costly, complex, and not readily available to the poor. The Office of the Solicitor General is required to oppose requests for annulment under the constitution. Informal separation is common, but brings with it potential legal and financial problems" (27).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced discrimination in divorce settlements, especially in regard to retaining property and financial assets" (24).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-1

"Divorce is available to both men and women. Many divorcees received no alimony, since there was no system to enforce such payments. The law requires a divorced woman to wait 40 days before remarrying; a man may remarry immediately" (Pg 28).
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Muslim women are required to present some form of admissible evidence in order to be able to file for divorce, and their testimony alone is insufficient to prove grounds for divorce, while Muslim men may unilaterally repudiate a marriage without any condition or reason" (12).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4, ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"On August 6, the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the practice of refunding the bride price after the breakdown of a customary marriage. Chief Justice Bart Katureebe wrote, “the practice of refunding bride price suggests that women are held on loan and can be returned and money recovered.” The court, however, rejected the argument that bride price itself was unconstitutional. Mifumi, a women’s rights organization that brought the case to court, stated bride price encouraged domestic violence and led men to believe they had paid for their wives’ sexual and reproductive capacity" (Pg 30).
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is further concerned about the absence of a statutory framework regulating de facto unions and ensuring the economic equality of women and men, in particular upon the dissolution of such a union" (15).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-5, ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Due to family pressure, young women, especially adolescent girls, often dropped out of school to marry. The law protects women’s rights in marriage and family matters, but families often pressured female minors to marry against their will. Religious marriages were common substitutes for civil marriages, due to the high marriage registration fees associated with civil marriages and the power afforded men under religious law. In cases of religious marriages not registered with the government, husbands simply repeated a phrase in front of two witnesses to divorce their wives. Husbands also used these officially unregistered religious marriages to prevent wives from accessing family assets and other rights in the event of...more
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

Despite statutory law to the contrary, under customary law a divorce is not final until the wife and her family return the full dowry to the husband’s family. As a result, families often dissuaded women from divorce. Traditional courts usually ruled in favor of the husband’s family in most cases of child custody, unless children were between three and seven years of age" (Pg 37).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The law provides that either spouse has the right to acquire property and stipulates that gifts, payments, or dowries upon marriage are nonrefundable, allowing women in unhappy marriages to divorce without being forced to return dowries. Since the law defines 'property' as mutually owned land and because land outside of Freetown is generally communal or family property, however, it was difficult to prove a couple owned the land together and that a widow thus had a right to it" (Pg 20).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"A husband who verbally (rather than through a court process) divorces his wife or refuses to sign final divorce papers continues to be her legal guardian" (Pg 38). "In divorce proceedings, women must demonstrate legally specified grounds for divorce, but men can divorce without giving cause. In doing so, men must pay immediately an amount of money agreed at the time of the marriage that serves as a one-time alimony payment. Men can be forced, however, to make subsequent alimony payments by court order. The government began implementing an identification system based on fingerprints that was designed to provide women more reliable access to courts. The previous system required women...more
June 19, 2019, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-PRACTICE-1, RISW-PRACTICE-1

"Decree No. 27-2010 amending the Civil Code and the Penal Code to eliminate provisions that discriminate against women in relation to marriage, divorce and the presumption of paternity" (2).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women’s rights advocates indicated that in rural areas women often forfeited land and property rights to their husbands in divorce proceedings" (57)
June 7, 2019, 11:46 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"When a marriage is terminated in Afghanistan, the husband is liable to provide maintenance for the iddat (waiting period) only. Maintenance is defined in the law as taking care of the basic needs of the wife. Women have no legal right to reside in the marital home without the consent of the husband and his family. This weakens a woman’s position in cases of violence, as raising a complaint, and subsequent dissolution of marriage, would potentially mean losing her home" (Pg 16). "Women across Afghanistan were required to withdraw their official complaints, upon the initiation of divorce proceedings. UNAMA found that perpetrators of violence used the threat of divorce or...more
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"In the province of Vorarlberg, a platform named Lawyers for marriage and family law informs women about divorce and socio-economic consequences of divorce" (31).