The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

Nov. 17, 2022, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Because of numerous advocacy activities around women’s land rights, it is made to believe that women are included in decision-making, but in practice it is not the case. Several women explain to me during field visits that they would only know when the land deal has already been done because the customary law is used to silence them" (para 14). "This has been a concern from place to place and because of customary laws and traditions, in most rural communities, women are expected to take the back seat during public engagements. Especially if a woman is married, she must not dare to talk or take decisions in the presence of...more
Nov. 17, 2022, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"...[W]omen often renounce inheritance in favour of their male relatives, in which way they are left without property and may end up in a situation of economic dependence on their partners, descendants and other male relatives, and not being able to participate in decision-making on household management" (13). "Economic dependence makes it more difficult or impossible for women to decide equally with men on the economic aspects of household management" (14).
Oct. 28, 2022, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, DV-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-3

"As men control decision making in households, women having control over resources such as land titles is regarded as taboo. In addition, polygamous practices also present challenges to women’s decision-making roles and opportunities, as a woman’s status within her household can become a source of tension. One male respondent shared that, 'a woman with land under her name is dangerous—I will never allow my wife to be friends with her.' In fact, communities reported that domestic violence can take place in front of family members and children as a means to enforce 'discipline' over wives" (para 11).
Oct. 7, 2022, 6:09 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Since her divorce six years ago, Xhani has lived with constant financial insecurity, trying to find jobs that paid her enough to raise her son by herself. Things got worse when two years ago her former father-in-law registered the house under his name without her knowledge, and tried to get her evicted" (para 2). "Women’s right to property is a complicated issue in Albania. Although the Albanian civil and family law recognize women’s equal right to land and property, only a small percentage of women—8 per cent—own land, because the laws are not implemented and women continue to be marginalized in matters of inheritance. When it comes to informal settlements,...more
Sept. 30, 2022, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, ATFPA-LAW-1

"FLL provides that a household head or household members over the age of 18 can apply for Form 7. The language of the law allows either men or women to apply for Form 7. In practice, government officials rely predominately on the household head system to allocate land titles. This system is based on traditional norms which assume that the oldest male is the household head, unless there is no adult male in the home" (9).
Sept. 30, 2022, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"The study by bank Credit Agricole, conducted jointly with the Ariadna research organisation, also revealed that 84 percent of the female respondents did not feel controlled by their partner when it came to spending, while 6 percent said they always had to ask their partner for money" (para 2). "The survey also found that women, by themselves, supervise the domestic budget in 52 percent of households, and in 32 percent of the cases they do it together with their partner" (para 5).
Sept. 30, 2022, 8:39 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Almost all the women interviewees perceived that they shared decision-making power over family land (notably around registering Form 7) with their husbands and other family members. However, the majority of male respondents stated that they made the decision to register their land alone, or consulted their family before making the final decision themselves on this topic. Although the male and female interviewees were not from the same households, this difference in the responses highlights the complexity of collective decision making; perceptions of roles and influence can significantly differ and be very subjective. The male respondents did not seem to make choices which ignored their wives’ or other household members’ preferences;...more
Sept. 28, 2022, 10:03 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In rural Peru it is still common for women to have little control in the home or a say in family decisions" (para 1). "Subsequently, in this culture, men are seen as superior to women. Within a typical family, the man is the head, who financially supports his family and makes important decisions, while his wife remains home to raise the children and maintain the home, and does not have a say in decisions. Although Peru has shifted away from this culture in recent years, movement toward a more equal society is focused more in the larger cities. And consequently, the machismo culture still persists in rural communities" (para 6).more
Sept. 28, 2022, 4:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In the 21st century, many North Korean women are the breadwinners in their families. The economic prominence of women is seen as self-evident when you talk to the North Koreans. In widely-known jokes in the country, husbands are mocked as being as useless as 'daytime lamps,' 'pet dogs,' and 'pictures on the house walls.' It is clear that this change in income also means a serious change in family relations" (para 7).
Sept. 26, 2022, 7:36 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"'There are men who do not value women’s work. We always had to stay in the house, cooking, cleaning, washing while they went out to the street to have fun. We also have rights,' said Pastora Sevilla, 66, when she gave her testimony to a group of women farmers in Condega, in the region of Estelí, Nicaragua" (para 3). "30-year-old Mary Luz Matute, a member of the New Horizon Cooperative, owned land because she inherited it from her father, but it was her husband Eliú Cárcamo, 31, who was in charge of tending to it and managing the money from the harvest. Mary Luz also did not participate in the...more
Sept. 23, 2022, 12:56 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: LO-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Botswana has a pluralistic legal system comprised of five primary sources namely, the Constitution, Roman Dutch law, statutory law, Case law and Customary law. Customary law in Botswana generally puts women on a subordinate position in comparison with men. Women have limited authority in their homes, tribes or clans and over immovable and movable property" (2).
Sept. 23, 2022, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In the Bhutanese family...most of the decisions are made by the women actually, because women are like the family bankers. Finance is kept with the women also. As far as property inheritance is concerned, Bhutan is more or less like a matriarchal society and the daughter inherits the property. And in our society, once we get married it is not that uncommon that the bride and bridegroom move to the brides house." This excerpt occurs at 0:25 (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 22, 2022, 9:17 p.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Under national law, men and women share equal rights. Equal rights for inheritance to male and female children are stipulated through the 1980 Inheritance Act. However, customary practices may determine ground-level reality. This can benefit women, depending on whether they are part of matrilineal (western and central regions) or patrilineal (south and east) systems found in Bhutan. Nevertheless, in general women enjoy more freedom and equality than many other developing countries. This extends to land ownership, which is often registered in the names of women. In economic terms there are a couple of qualifications here. Firstly, the land market is small, and women are less likely than men to use...more
Sept. 19, 2022, 9:59 p.m.
Countries: Benin
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"With regard to the fields given to women for use upon marriage, the different ethnic groups in Benin proceed differently. For example, the INEF research team in northern Benin learned that among the Peulh (Fulbé), women are allowed to keep these fields for life, even in the event of the husband's death or divorce. However, among the Bariba living in the same area, the woman is deprived of the field in both these cases. The husband can also claim the field for himself at any time for other reasons" (para 9).
Sept. 16, 2022, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Byanju says that she does the majority of the farming work on the land, along with her daughters-in-law. Byanju plants the paddy seeds, then weeds and harvests the crop. But all responsibilities related to sale or transfer of the property, much like other major household decisions, are in the hands of her husband. 'We do what men tell us to do,' she says. 'If I buy or sell land on my own, there would be a big quarrel'" (para 5-6). "But sociocultural norms prevent women from managing fixed assets the way a man does, Gautam says. Many women in rural areas are still confined to household chores and cannot make...more
Sept. 16, 2022, 10:49 a.m.
Countries: Malta
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In practise, the existence of stereotypical gender roles continues to exist despite efforts made by the government: Women are considered mothers or caregivers while men are typically perceived as the head of the household (CEDAW, 2010)" (3). "In practise, it appears that stereotypical perceptions regarding the role of women are still perpetuated and remain a serious issue. Women are still considered to play a subordinate role to the male spouse concerning decision-making. As a result, there is evidence to suggest the existence of discriminatory practices that would potentially limit a women’s legal right to the enjoyment and free use of her non-land and land assets (CEDAW, 2010)" (7).more
Sept. 13, 2022, 11 a.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Spouses have equal rights regarding the ownership, enjoyment and disposition of joint property, regardless of whether it was acquired from the earnings or income of the husband or the wife. According to Articles 32, 33 and 37 of the Family Code, property acquired by spouses during marriage is their joint property even if it is registered in the name of one of the spouses. In the event of the division of property jointly owned by the spouses, the spouses are awarded equal shares" (para 1-2).
Sept. 8, 2022, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LO-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Spouses have equal property rights, and any property purchased during the marriage is owned jointly (Family Code, Articles 1 and 26). Both spouses must agree on the administration of marital property (Family Code, Article 1; Civil Code, Articles 191, 192). Any property that the wife owns before marriage remains hers alone as does any property that she is given or inherits once she is married (Civil Code, Article 201)" (7).
Sept. 5, 2022, 9:07 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LO-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"According to a general rule, the property acquired during marriage is common joint owned (the portions are considered equal and nondivided) between spouses, except for the following cases: personal use property (clothing, footwear, etc.), except for jewellery and luxury items, which is the ownership of the spouse who has of use that property; donated or inherited property; and the property received by one of the spouses as a gift or succession in the course of marriage shall be in his or her ownership. It is allowed to conclude a marital contract and define a matrimonial regime other than that presented in the law. It should be noted that the spouses...more
Sept. 3, 2022, 1:41 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, ATFPA-LAW-1

"During the privatization of land following the breakup of the Soviet Union, property was assigned to heads of households. In this process, women acquired land exclusively in the absence of a male-head household" (9).
Sept. 2, 2022, 12:49 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LO-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, ATFPA-LAW-1

"Past land reform programmes, together with the break-up of communal land holdings, have led to the transfer of exclusive land rights to males as heads of households. This ignores both the existence of female-headed households and the rights of married women to a joint share. However women, living in the customary law system, are often unaware of their statutory rights..." (5).
Sept. 1, 2022, 5:46 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"The COVID-19 crisis has demonstrated that, unfortunately, women are still more vulnerable than man when it comes to their professional and economic well-being. Two-thirds of those who lost their jobs during the crisis were women. The reasons for this can be traced down to two main factors – the still unequal role of women on the labour market (in terms of participation, likeliness of full-time employment, positions, pay, etc.) and a traditionalist culture that sees women as primary caregivers in the household" (para 20).
Sept. 1, 2022, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Argentina
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, VOTE-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"'When I was born, women did not vote, we did not inherit, we could not manage our assets, we could not have bank accounts, we didn’t have credit cards, we couldn’t go to university,' Senator Silvia Sapag said in an emotional speech after the vote. 'When I was born, women were nobody.' Now, she added, for all the women who fought for those legal rights and more, 'let it be law'" (para 3-4).
Aug. 26, 2022, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In terms of gender equality, the Special Regime establishes that in situations of jointly owned property, acquired during marriage or de facto union, the name of the spouse/partner whose name is not mentioned in property documents be referenced in the land cadastre and registry. Nonetheless, in informal de facto unions, a very common situation in Cabo Verde, this requires formal recognition of the union, which dependents on the will of both partners. In most cases of jointly owned property with only one name on documents, it is the man’s name that is stated, which means women, in particular those in non-formalized de facto unions, are in a weaker position, due...more
July 29, 2022, 6:48 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Women suffered from discrimination in inheritance claims and were entitled to a smaller portion of an estate than male children or a deceased husband’s brothers. Women did not often have exclusive control over assets that they brought to a marriage or that they earned" (40).
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, CBMC-PRACTICE-1

"Awareness-raising is conducted through parenting education programmes conducted at community-level under the MSSI family related policies.52 These programmes, implemented in 2 municipalities, promote harmony in the family and challenge traditional patriarchal values during community sessions,53 especially by emphasizing the significant role of fathers and equal participation of men in the caring and rearing of their children" (13).
June 28, 2022, 2:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"About one-third (32%) of currently married women with cash earnings decide independently on how their earnings will be used, while 60% decide jointly with their husband" (199). "Overall, 59% of currently married women participate in all three specified household decisions (regarding their own health care, household purchases, and visits to family or relatives), whereas 12% are not involved in any of these decisions" (199). "The proportion of women who decide on the use of their earnings jointly with their husband increases from 50% among those age 15-19 to 62% among those age 40-44 before declining after age 44. Women age 15-19 were most likely to report that their husband mainly...more
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Mothers/Women have the last say in the household. When it comes to making decisions for the household and the children, women have the last say" (1).
Oct. 19, 2021, 11 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In Pakistan, much of society nurtures the traditional belief that the ideal woman is quiet, unopinionated and keeps her life private for the safety and honour of her family. Yet, thousands of ordinary Pakistani women, such as Dananeer, are breaking these tropes on Instagram, YouTube and TikTok by sharing their lives, and opinions, with openness on public accounts" (para 3).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Women in Qatar are living under a system of 'deep discrimination' – dependent on men for permission to marry, travel, pursue higher education or make decisions about their own children, according to a new report" (para 1). "'The government in Qatar don’t want women to know the rules,' she said. 'They want men to have power and control. So if laws are changed, the government don’t inform women and when they introduce restrictions they don’t tell them that clearly, either. These laws exist in a nefarious way and women have to base decisions on an assumption that they must be obedient to men'" (para 8).