The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for AW-LAW-1

Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"No comprehensive legislation provides for granting refugee status or asylum. The Department of Justice’s Refugee and Stateless Persons Protections Unit (RSPPU) determines which applicants qualify as refugees in accordance with an established, accessible system that appeared to provide basic due process" (19-20).
Dec. 27, 2021, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status, and authorities have not established a system for providing protection to refugees... All PRC citizens unlawfully present are required by law to be returned to the PRC, although Taiwan allows PRC asylum seekers to remain in Taiwan on a case-bycase basis" (8).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The government issued lists of 'safe countries of origin' and 'safe third countries.' Both lists included Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. UNHCR repeatedly objected to the government’s designation of Serbia as a safe third country on the grounds that it does not have effective asylum procedures. In 2018 parliament modified the constitution to state that persons arriving in the country 'through a country where he or she was not exposed to persecution or a direct risk of persecution should not be entitled to asylum.' Parliament also amended the asylum law and restricted the right to asylum to only those persons who arrived in Hungary directly from a place where...more
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"Sint Maarten and Curacao are required to follow the European Convention on Human Rights. The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status. Foreigners requesting asylum are processed as foreigners requesting a humanitarian residence permit. If an individual is unable to obtain a humanitarian residence permit, authorities deport the person to their country of origin or a country that agreed to accept them. Curacao requested and received guidance and training from the Netherlands on asylum-processing procedures" (8).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status" (17).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"NGOs and independent observers identified difficulties in asylum procedures, including inconsistency of standards applied in reception centers and insufficient referral rates of trafficking victims and unaccompanied minors to adequate services" (11). This indicates that women are potentially granted asylum in cases of trafficking but services may be limited (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has bilateral return agreements with Morocco and Algeria. Authorities review asylum petitions individually, and there is an established appeals process available to rejected petitioners. The law permits any foreigner in the country who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally. Although potential asylum seekers were able to exercise effectively their right to petition authorities, some NGOs, such as the Spanish...more
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees" (25).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"OFPRA stated that priority attention [for asylum] was given to female victims of violence, persons persecuted on the basis of their sexual orientation, victims of human trafficking, unaccompanied minors, and victims of torture" (14).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The country adheres to the EU’s Dublin III regulation, which permits authorities to turn back or deport individuals who entered the country through 'safe countries of transit,' which include the EU member states, and Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. 'Safe countries of origin' also include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ghana, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Senegal, and Serbia. The government did not return asylum seekers to Syria. The NGO Pro Asyl pointed out that refugees who under the Dublin III regulation fell into another EU state’s responsibility but could not be returned to that country often remained in a legal gray zone. They were not allowed to work or participate in...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection for refugees. The government did not grant refugee status or asylum. The government had no known policy or provision for refugees or asylum seekers and did not participate in international refugee fora" (17).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for the granting of refugee or asylum status. The government did not have a system for providing protection to refugees but generally recognized UNHCR-registered refugees in China" (58). "The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status [in Hong Kong]" (120).
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"Refugee and migrant women who were victims of gender-based violence were legally eligible for temporary shelter in government-run homes and for legal and psychosocial assistance, but few of them reported abuse"(14).
June 17, 2021, 11:03 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"A woman who was raped and beaten by a husband and a partner in Mexico for expressing feminist views — like saying she had the right to be treated equally and hold a job — is eligible for asylum in the United States because she would face persecution in her homeland, a federal appeals court ruled Monday. 'Those men mistreated her because she expressly asserted to them her political opinion that she was their equal,' the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco said in finding Maria Rodriguez-Tornes eligible to remain legally in the United States after fleeing Mexico... she fled to the United States in 1993, settled...more
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"Pursuant to article 13(1) of the Act of 13 June 2003 on granting protection to foreigners in the territory of the Republic of Poland (Dz. U. of 2012, item 680), a foreigner is granted refugee status, if as a result of a well-founded fear of persecution in his home country on account of race, religion, nationality, political convictions or belonging to a specific social group, he/she cannot or does not want to enjoy the protection of that country" (38).
Feb. 13, 2021, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: AW-LAW-1

“O.G.O. v. the United Kingdom (no. 13950/12) (18 February 2014 (strike-out decision)): The applicant, a Nigerian national, who claimed to be a victim of human trafficking, complained that her expulsion to Nigeria would expose her to a real risk of re-trafficking. The Court decided to strike the application out of its list of cases, in accordance with Article 37 (striking out applications) of the Convention, noting that the applicant was no longer at risk of being removed as she had been granted refugee status and an indefinite leave to remain in the United Kingdom. Moreover, the United Kingdom authorities had accepted that she had been a victim of trafficking” (13).more
Feb. 13, 2021, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: AW-LAW-1

“Collins and Akaziebie v. Sweden (8 March 2007 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicants, Nigerian nationals, are mother and daughter. They alleged that they would be subjected to female genital mutilation if they were returned to Nigeria, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. The Swedish Migration Board rejected their applications for asylum, refugee status or a residence permit, stating, inter alia, that female genital mutilation was prohibited by law in Nigeria and that this prohibition was observed in at least six Nigerian states. Thus, if the applicants returned to one of those states it would be unlikely that they would be forced...more
Oct. 3, 2020, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

“Izevbekhai v. Ireland (17 May 2011 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicant and her two daughters claimed the girls risk female genital mutilation if the family was returned to Nigeria, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. They alleged that the mother’s eldest daughter died aged one from profuse bleeding after female genital mutilation was performed by an ‘elder’. The family left Nigeria for Ireland in the face of pressure from the father’s family to perform female genital mutilation on the two younger girls. Their request for asylum was unsuccessful. The Court declared the application inadmissible as being manifestly ill-founded. It found in...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

“Sow v. Belgium (19 January 2016): The applicant complained that she risked being subjected to a further excision procedure in the event of her removal to Guinea, her country of origin, and that no effective remedy had been available to her in respect of her complaint. The Court held that there would be no violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention in the event of the applicant’s removal to her country of origin, finding that she had failed to substantiate a real risk of being subjected to a further excision procedure in the event of her removal to Guinea. The Court also held that...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: AW-LAW-1

“Omeredo v. Austria (20 September 2011 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicant, born in 1973, fled Nigeria in 2003 to avoid female genital mutilation. Her sister had already died of the consequences and she alleged there was a risk villagers would kill her if she refused and that her mother had told her she must co-operate. Her request for asylum was unsuccessful. The Court declared the case inadmissible as being manifestly ill-founded. It was not in dispute that subjecting any person, child or adult, to female genital mutilation would amount to ill-treatment contrary to Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. The Court noted, however, that...more
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status" (31).
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status. Nonetheless, the country hosted an estimated 1.5 million refugees" (20).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The government permitted UNHCR-recognized refugees to stay in the country temporarily pending identification of a durable outcome, including third-country resettlement or voluntary repatriation. The government generally did not grant asylum or accept refugees for resettlement from third countries" (32).
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: CWC-DATA-3, AW-LAW-1

"While noting the position of the State party that, as a small, densely populated city State with limited land, it is not in a position to accept refugees, the Committee remains concerned about the lack of national asylum and refugee legislation and procedures, including for ensuring respect for the principle of non refoulement, and that refugees and asylum seekers remain in detention until a durable solution is identified" (11).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, AW-LAW-1

"The law allows victims of trafficking and witnesses who cooperate with pending court cases to work legally during and up to two years after the end of their trial involvement" (page 23).
June 8, 2019, 3:40 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"The law will come into effect in 18 months, during which time the state will form rehabilitation mechanisms for sex workers, to allow them to find alternative livelihoods." (para 4).
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The country’s laws do not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government lacked a formal system of protecting refugees" (21).
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The Austrian Asylum Act states that interviews of asylum seekers whose sexual self-determination has been violated must be conducted by a person of the same sex if the applicant does not prefer the opposite. Asylum seekers must be evidently informed about this option. The Act also states that applications by asylum seekers who are likely to be suffering from a pathological psychological stress disorder due to torture or other severe forms of psychological, physical or sexual violence must not be turned down immediately at the beginning of the asylum procedure. The special needs of these applicants must be taken into account over the course of the asylum procedure" (29-30).more
June 3, 2019, 7:47 p.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"The laws provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has not granted asylum since 2005" (p. 18).
March 25, 2019, 2:20 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law forbids the forced return of refugees, their families, or other persons who may be subjected to persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and the government generally respected those rights for refugees. The government provides a prima facie mode of recognition for Ivoirian refugees, meaning Ivoirian refugees arriving in Liberia because of the 2011 postelectoral violence in Cote d’Ivoire do not have to appear before the asylum committee to gain refugee status; the status is granted automatically" (16). "Voluntary repatriation of Ivoirian refugees, which resumed in December 2015 following a 16-month suspension due to Ebola concerns, continued during the...more