The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for BR-PRACTICE-2

Aug. 4, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, BR-PRACTICE-2

"Some women pointed out that the government had already barred employers from asking women about their marital or childbearing status in 2019, and the problem was weak enforcement. The government has often encouraged women to retreat to more traditional gender roles, in an effort to increase the birthrate" (Para 24).
July 9, 2021, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-1, BR-PRACTICE-2

"South Korea has a shiny side that it wants to proudly show the world: K-pop, K-quarantine during COVID-19, hi-tech industries. But what it is less keen to show are the areas where it catastrophically fails. South Korean society does not know how to protect or treat women as equals to men and as valuable and indispensable entities of society. Rather, South Korean women, myself included, live in a country that views women as objects —beautiful things whose sole function is bearing children. This is not just a societal construct, this is unabashed discrimination against women that is encouraged by my government. For example, in January 2021, the Seoul city government...more
Feb. 6, 2021, 1:25 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“On the other hand, the Chinese government is taking draconian measures to slash birth rates among Uighurs and other minorities as part of a sweeping campaign to curb its Muslim population, even as it encourages some of the country's Han majority to have more children” (para. 12). “'The intention may not be to fully eliminate the Uighur population, but it will sharply diminish their vitality, making them easier to assimilate,' said Darren Byler, an expert on Uighurs at the University of Colorado. 'It's genocide, full stop. 'It´s not immediate, shocking, mass-killing on the spot type genocide, but it´s slow, painful, creeping genocide,' said Joanne Smith Finley, who works at Newcastle...more
Dec. 31, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"In their talks, Tsigdinos and Vodar emphasized the importance of solidarity among infertile women in an age when female bonding so often occurs around motherhood. They addressed why an infertility diagnosis is particularly devastating to “Generation IVF;” the first generation of women to grow up with the reproductive freedom to delay pregnancy and have access to in vitro fertilization. Like Tsigdinos and Vodar, these women were raised to believe that science can surpass Mother Nature in the tricky dance of conception" (para 6).
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"As expected, almost all women age 15-19 (90%) have never given birth. However, this proportion declines sharply to 6% to 7% among women age 35-49, indicating that childbearing is almost universal" (81). "Since voluntary childlessness is rare, this is often viewed as a measure of primary infertility or the inability to bear children" (81).
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"In Nigeria, 2% of currently married women age 45-49 have never given birth. Since voluntary childlessness is rare, this is often viewed as a measure of primary sterility" (99).
March 29, 2020, 6:41 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"Almost all women age 15-19 (99%) have never given birth. However, this proportion declines sharply to less than 4% of women age 45-49, indicating that childbearing is almost universal" (69). The near-universality of childbearing indicates that becoming a mother is very important to society and fulfillment in the Maldives (RAO- CODER COMMENT). "In the Maldives, only about 2% of currently married women in their 40s have never given birth. Since voluntary childlessness is rare, this is often viewed as a measure of primary infertility or the inability to bear children" (69).
Jan. 2, 2020, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"The Office for National Statistics said falling fertility rates were mainly responsible for the fall, but said difficulties conceiving among couples who choose to delay having families was also a major factor. It said ‘women are progressively delaying childbearing to older ages’ and are now most likely to have children in their 30s. This is because women are more likely to go to university and delay marriage while they pursue their careers" (para 4-6). "The ONS said women have been more likely to have babies in their early 30s than in their late 20s since 2004. It listed reasons for postponing having a family as 'greater participation in higher education',...more
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:15 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"'Society made me feel like a failure for being in my 30's and not yet a wife or mother,' Baeck said. 'Instead of belonging to someone, I now have a more ambitious future for myself'" (para 4).
Feb. 8, 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-1, BR-PRACTICE-2

"Women’s ability to make decisions regarding reproduction was limited, and many lacked information on sexual and reproductive health. Women faced pressure to defer to their husbands and family on reproductive matters, including the number, spacing, and timing of pregnancies" (page 21).
Jan. 8, 2019, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: DMW-PRACTICE-1, BR-PRACTICE-2

"Miscarriages of justice have become shockingly commonplace, in a pious, macho culture which endorses the aggressive persecution of women deemed guilty of rejecting their principal roles as mothers" (para 4).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

Women who seek to utilize family planning strategies must overcome cultural biases in favor of large families (page 15). "Kuki: there is intense pressure placed on Kuki women to bear their husbands male children. KWHRO has received cases of women who do not give birth to a son or cannot bear children who are mistreated or forced out of their family when their husband passes away. In other cases, the husband would grow angry and divorce the woman. Source: Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organisation (KWHRO) and Kuki in Sagaing Region" (page 85).
Oct. 27, 2018, 7:47 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

Even those who marry later will often rush to make up for lost time in a society that frowns upon childless women (para 14). "'The women in the community are really dependent on their husbands and they are the ones making the decisions to have babies or not,' said Dr Selma Xavier, a rural GP who regularly visited the community" (para 16).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-1, BR-PRACTICE-2

"Social and cultural pressures to have large families reportedly led some husbands to ask health workers to terminate the use of contraceptives by their spouses" (page 16).
Oct. 19, 2018, 10:12 p.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"Generally, married women who voluntarily remain childless are relatively rare in the Comoros" (page 61). "As one would expect, the proportion of women who don't want any more children increases with the number of living children: it increases from less than 1% of women without any children to 15% of women who have 3 and reaches 54% among women who have at least 6 living children. The women who don't want any more children have, in principle, attained their desired posterity. . . We observe that 98% of childless women want a child, and the majority of these women (48%) want one within the next two years . . ....more
May 31, 2018, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"Around two in three currently married women age 15 to 49 want to have another child. Twenty-two percent want to have that child soon, while 42% would like to wait at least 2 years before adding another child to their family. Most other women want to limit childbearing, that is, they do not want to have any more children (26%) or are sterilised (3%). Overall, women are slightly more likely than men to want to limit childbearing (22%). The likelihood of not wanting more children increases with the number of children the woman already has. Among currently married women with two living children, 11% want no more children or are...more
Feb. 14, 2018, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"On May 27th, 2015, the Minister of Health Beatrice Lorenzin announced a national ‘Piano per la fertilità’ (Fertility Plan). The main goal of the Plan is 'placing Fertility at the centre in our country’s health and educational policies'. Unlike the Anti-Violence Plan (sse paras. 1.3 and 1.4 of this report), for its implementation the Fertility Plan received the conspicuous sum of €150,000. Such policy is directly discriminatory, as the Government is devoting a more intense effort, in terms of advertising and funding, to incentive the maternal role of women, instead than tackling the prejudices relating to the traditional role of women within the society and eradicate domestic and witnessed violence....more
Oct. 4, 2017, 7:02 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"Like many women, I always thought that after university and finding some financial stability, I would marry and have children. I guess the fact that I grew up in a progressive and supportive family made me forget that the experiences of Afghan women are unlike those of many women around the world. I forgot, for a second, that as a woman unless you can have children, your education, career, and marriage are considered meaningless. I was not prepared for feeling that in the eyes of my community, my only worth as a woman is to bear children in the end"(para 2)."Even though I had support from my husband and my...more
July 31, 2017, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Georgia
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"The young brides are supposed to have their first child within the first years of marriage" (para 8).
Feb. 2, 2017, 7:39 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2, BR-DATA-1

"It’s not that women aren’t choosing to pursue careers, sometimes at the expense of family, in ever increasing numbers. The low fertility rate in Japan is primary evidence of that" (para 12).
Jan. 26, 2017, 3:08 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"Poverty, illiteracy and limited access to health services coupled with early marriage, absences of premarital counseling, pressure for early child bearing and poor nutritional status are the more influential factors for the overall lower health status of women" (11).
Jan. 26, 2017, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

"Once married, women are generally under social pressure to have children as soon as possible. Data from the 2006 and 2011 I-MICS confirm that only 1 percent of married women use contraception before having at least one child" (9).
Sept. 14, 2016, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“Voluntary childlessness is rare in Nigeria; therefore, it is likely that married women with no births are unable to have children” (71). “More than four-fifths of women age 15-19 (83 percent) have never given birth (Table 5.4). However, this proportion declines to 9 percent among women age 30-34 and 5 percent or less among women age 35 and older, indicating that childbearing among Nigerian women is nearly universal” (71).
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:50 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“Because voluntary childlessness is rare in Kenya, it might be assumed that most married women with no births are unable to physiologically bear children” (71).
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:45 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“The results show that among all women, more than one in three does not have any children. Among married women, only 7 percent do not have children” (45).
Aug. 23, 2016, 5:13 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-1, BR-PRACTICE-2, ABO-PRACTICE-1, ABO-LAW-1

"Despite the existence of some reforms concerning the status of women in Turkey during the AKP period, there are still some important issues that made advocates of women’s rights criticise the government seriously. The announcement of Prime Minister Erdogan that all Turkish women should have three children and that the AKP would draft a law that would ban abortion outright or the turning of the State Ministry Responsible for Women’s Affairs into Ministry of Family and Social Affairs in 2012 can be regarded as various examples of those issues"(para 9)
May 1, 2016, 2:08 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“Women who voluntarily remain childless are relatively rare in Rwanda, where the population is still strongly prenatal” (29).
April 27, 2016, 9:05 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“The percentage of women with no children decreases rapidly to 8 percent among women age 25-29, and by age 40 only about 2 percent of women are childless. This indicates that childbearing is nearly universal among women in Sierra Leone” (56). “At the time of the survey, 19 percent of all women were childless. On average, women nearing the end of their reproductive years have attained a parity of 5.7 children, which is higher than the total fertility rate of 5.1 births per woman” (56). “At the time of the survey, less than one in ten currently married women (7 percent) were childless. Again, this suggests that childbearing is universal...more
April 26, 2016, 2:17 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: MULV-PRACTICE-1, BR-PRACTICE-2

“Voluntary childlessness is not common in Cambodia, and currently married women with no children are likely to be those who are unable to bear children (primary infertility)” (73). “Whereas 57 percent of currently married adolescent women are childless, this proportion decreases to 9 percent among currently married women age 25-29 and continues to decline with increasing age. The percentage of childless women among currently married women at the end of the reproductive period (age 45-49) shows that primary infertility among currently married women is low (2 percent)” (73).
April 26, 2016, 2:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-2

“Overall, the TFR declined by just over 2 births between the 1997 and 2013 surveys. The decline in TFR has been consistent across surveys: 6.5 children per woman in 1997, 6.2 children per woman in 2003, 5.2 children per woman in 2006, and 4.4 children per woman in 2013” (44). “Only 2 percent of currently married women age 45-49 have never had a child. If the desire for children is universal in Yemen, this percentage represents a rough measure of primary infertility or the inability to bear children” (45). “Another indication of the decline in fertility in Yemen is the fact that the mean number of children ever born to...more