The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CIWM-PRACTICE-1

Dec. 23, 2020, 3:19 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Extensive gender gaps exist in education; nutrition, health care and employment" (para 5). "Girls are consciously given lesser educational, employment and food resources" (para 22). "Except the post-delivery period in case of the male baby, when higher allowances are given so that boy can be breastfed, generally meager nutritional allocation and repeated pregnancies make them malnourished" (para 35). "In case of female fetus, pregnant woman is given less nutritious food and rest, not registered for antenatal care, neglected and even abused" (para 40). "Women experience excessive reproductive morbidities and mortality because of nutritional deficiencies, repeated pregnancies, violence and use of abortion as a contraceptive method" (para 41).
Aug. 26, 2020, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

“Christopher Ochner, a researcher of obesity, eating disorders and nutrition at Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center in Manhattan, said the ads [of the NYC Girls Project campaign] could be effective because they offered a more realistic picture than ‘the media’s portrayal of ideal beauty, which is still this stick-thin, crazy-thin’ standard. Average girls, he added, look at fashion models and say, ‘If I’m not like that, then nobody’s going to need me or love me.’ City officials cited evidence in The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing and elsewhere that more than 80 percent of 10-year-old girls are afraid of being fat, that girls’ self-esteem drops at age 12 and does...more
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

“We’re working…on combating outdated traditional practices which constrain women…Today there are customs which prevent women from eating meat, drinking milk, [and] eating eggs” (para 10, 12).
May 31, 2020, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"The prevalence of undernutrition is almost the same among girls and boys" (293). "Twenty-three percent of women age 15-49 are thin, 21 percent are overweight or obese, and 56 percent have a BMI in the normal range. Eleven percent of women age 15-49 years have a height below 145 cm" (300). "Twenty percent of men age 15-49 are thin, 19 percent are overweight or obese, and 61 percent have a BMI in the normal range. The mean body mass index for men (21.8) is similar to that of women (21.9)" (301). "Among these food groups, women consume dark green, leafy vegetables most often. Almost half (47%) of women consume dark...more
March 4, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"According to CWS, an NGO working in Afghanistan, “often women lack folic acid and iron, and fruits and vegetables remain missing from their daily intake of food because of poverty”. As such, CWS notes that Afghan women often face health problems such as hypertension, iron deficiency and Anemia." (8).
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania

"Traditional forms of mistreatment of women continued to decline. One of these is the forced feeding of adolescent girls prior to marriage, practiced by some Beydane families. Increased government, media, and civil society attention to the problem, including the health risks associated with excessive body weight, continued to lessen traditional encouragement of female obesity" (page 18).
Feb. 27, 2019, 6:37 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"The girls eventually work up to consuming 16,000 calories a day, being force fed kilos of porridge, couscous, drink litres of sweetened camel's milk, as well as chicken, vegetable and more couscous at lunch and dinner" (para. 9).
Jan. 2, 2019, 10:32 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Leblouh refers to the practice of force-feeding young girls for marriage. Heavier girls and women are viewed as beautiful, wealthy and socially-accepted while their slimmer counterparts are considered inferior and bring shame on their families in Mauritanian society. In Mauritanian culture, being thin is unappealing. A fat girl symbolizes wealth and social class. This practice, also known as gavage, dates back to a time when Mauritania’s population consisted of lowly, white Moor Arabs. Back then, a Mauritanian man was considered wealthy and well-respected if his wives did not engage in housework. Since they spent most of their time just sitting and being lazy by not doing any work, these wives...more
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee expresses concern that harmful practices, such as child and forced marriage, polygamy, female genital mutilation and other forms of excision, humiliating and degrading widowhood practices, force-feeding, levirate and sororate, remain prevalent and unpunished in the State party" (page 6) (Coder comment: the practice of force-feeding in Mali is intended to give young girls a rounder, more "mature-looking" body so that they can be married as soon as possible - ARR). "The Committee is concerned about the persistently high rates of . . . acute malnutrition affecting women" (page 10).
March 14, 2018, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Senegal

"The Committee welcomes the adoption of Law No. 99-05 of 29 January 1999 criminalizing female genital mutilation and of a second national action plan to accelerate the elimination female genital mutilation (2010-2015), as well as the measures taken to raise public awareness of harmful practices. It is concerned, however, at the persistence of adverse cultural norms, practices and traditions as well as patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles, responsibilities and identities of women and men in the family and society. It notes that stereotypes contribute to the persistence of violence against women as well as harmful practices, including female genital mutilation, levirate and sororate, child marriage, polygamy, repudiation,...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Among women age 15-49, 6% are of short stature (below 145 cm). The mean BMI for women age 15-49 is 22.5. Sixteen percent of women are thin (BMI below 18.5), while 60% have a normal BMI (between 18.5 and 24.9); 25% are overweight or obese, and 6% are obese" (171).
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama

"Access to health care was a significant problem in the indigenous comarcas as reflected in high rates of maternal and infant mortality and malnutrition"(24)
Dec. 17, 2017, 3:41 p.m.
Countries: Colombia

"According to the United Nations Refugee Agency, 7.4 million people in the country have been displaced by conflict between government security forces, paramilitary groups, and armed insurgency groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN). Among the millions affected by this violence, women and children are particularly vulnerable to crime, exploitation, sexual assault and malnutrition" (4).
Dec. 5, 2017, 1:08 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia

"In Mongolia, 28,107 women beneficiaries were supported with food stamps for 1 year to cushion the impact of the food and fuel crises (ADB 2011d)"(52)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:52 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Take-home rations for pupils can be particularly effective in improving girls’ school enrollment. This strategy was used in Afghanistan, where the gender parity index (the enrollment of girls in schools as compared to boys) remains very low, at 0.35 in 2008 (WFP 2012, p. 32). There has been significant improvement since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, but cultural and religious norms, lack of separate sanitation facilities, and security concerns continue to have strong effects. To bridge this gap, the WFP distributes a monthly ration of 3.7 liters of vegetable oil to girls, conditional upon a minimum school attendance of 22 days per month. Take-home rations may be an...more
Nov. 30, 2017, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan

"In Pakistan, the provision of take-home rations to girls attending school for at least 20 days a month boosted overall enrollment by 135% from fiscal year 1999 to fiscal year 2004 (WFP 2012, p. 53)"(62)."Private initiatives have sometimes supported take-home rations programs. A cooperative based in the United States, Land O’Lakes, working with funding by the United States Department of Agriculture, launched such a program in March 2010 in the province of Jacobabad, Pakistan. Enrollment rates of girls there were very low at the start of the program, at 36%, and half the girls’ primary schools were reportedly closed due to lack of participation of teachers and pupils. A take-home...more
Nov. 30, 2017, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"In Cambodia, since October 2008, ADB [Asian Development Bank] has supported the Emergency Food Assistance Program. It relies principally on cash-for-work and food-for-work components to improve incomes and support access to food for women from poor rural households, and to construct infrastructure that can benefit them (Box 7)"(56). "According to a recent assessment of the program, 22,756 female headed households benefited from free rice distribution (around 12,000 tons of rice was distributed during the food lean period of late Oct/early Nov 2008); 31,555 girls benefited from a school feeding program; 5,510 girls were awarded scholarships; 6,453 female-headed households had access to a food-for-work program; 127 female volunteer teachers for the...more
Nov. 29, 2017, 4:11 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka

"Indeed, while sub-Saharan African countries consistently rank lower than South Asian countries in Human Development Index (HDI) indicators, women- and child-specific nutrition indicators—such as infants born with low birth weights and the percentage of undernourished children below 5 years of age—are generally better in the sub-Saharan Africa region. Sri Lanka is the major exception to this pattern"(18). Low birth weight in children could be a manifestion that women do not gain enough weight during pregnancy, possibly due to lack of calories (ENB-Coder Comment)
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:54 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia

"A survey of households in rural Java, Indonesia revealed significant nutritional effects in 1997–1998. Mothers were found to buffer children’s caloric intake, resulting in increased maternal wasting. Reductions in consumption of high-quality food increased the prevalence of anemia in both mothers and children. The effects of maternal undernutrition were particularly severe for babies conceived and weaned during the crisis (Block et al. 2004)"(14)."In both Thailand and Indonesia, food prices increased significantly in 1997–1999. In Thailand, no significant nutritional outcomes were detected except for a reported increase in the incidence of anaemia in pregnant women. Indonesia, however, evidenced increased prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (especially vitamin A) in children and women of...more
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:44 p.m.
Countries: Laos

"In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic—where girls’ enrollment can be very low, particularly in rural areas and within some ethnic groups—pupils receive a take-home family ration of canned fish, rice, and iodized salt as an incentive for parents to send them to school. Though both girls and boys benefit, the effect on girls’ attendance has been most significant because of girls’ lower enrollment rate. From 2002 to 2008, enrollment rates in primary schools benefiting from the program increased from 60% to 88% for boys and from 53% to 84% for girls (WFP 2012, p. 49)"(62)
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: India

"In 2008, maternal undernutrition (where a mother has a body mass index of less than 18.5 kg per square meter) affected more than one-fifth of women in south central and southeastern Asia, and more than two-fifths of women in India and Bangladesh"(12)."Agarwal highlights work done in Andhra Pradesh in south India by the nongovernment organization (NGO) Deccan Development Society. Groups of 5–15 poor, low-caste women in a drought-prone region were able to lease or purchase land with the support of government schemes (Agarwal 2003). The women typically would not have been able to buy or cultivate land on an individual basis. Group farming allowed planting of a wide range of...more
Nov. 29, 2017, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Institutions that build solidarity among such women [female-headed households and widows] can lessen some of these impacts [lower income and higher food prices], as seen among certain indigenous ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh (Mallick and Rafi 2010)"(12)."In 2008, maternal undernutrition (where a mother has a body mass index of less than 18.5 kg per square meter) affected more than one-fifth of women in south central and southeastern Asia, and more than two-fifths of women in India and Bangladesh"(12)."Bangladesh’s Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction—Targeting the Ultra-poor, launched in 2002 by the NGO BRAC, is a prime example of such a program. During its first phase (2002–2006),...more
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Malawi

"In Malawi, the introduction of take-home rations of 12.5 kg of maize per month for girls and orphans attending at least 80% of school days led to a 37.7% rise of girls’ enrollment (WFP 2012, p. 52)"(62)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea

"According to the Hidden Gulag IV report, since late 2008, Jongo-ri (Camp 12) in North Hamkyung Province was expanded to include a women’s annex. Camp 12’s women’s annex holds approximately 1,000 women, most of whom were imprisoned after being repatriated from China. The existence of this women’s annex was corroborated by satellite imagery and defector testimony. Defector testimony cited food rations below subsistence levels, forced labor, and high rates of death due to starvation at Camp 12"(3)
Nov. 3, 2017, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"A national survey of women aged 18 to 65 by the Moroccan High Commission for Planning found that in 2009 nearly two-thirds – 62.8 percent – had experienced physical, psychological, sexual, or economic violence"(1). Economic violence against women may limit or control women's spending and make food more scarce (ENB-Coder Comment)."Women and girls said they had few places to go to escape domestic violence. The small number of shelters that take in domestic violence survivors are run by nongovernmental organizations with little bed capacity and meager resources. Only a few get any government funding, and staff from one shelter said that the funding was not enough to cover even food...more
Aug. 11, 2017, 10:32 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Even today, postnatal women keep in dirt, inhumane cowshed in Bajura, Humla and Mugu. They are so far behind from the popular activities of government such as regular pregnancy check-up, safe delivery, nutrition"(para 1)."Have awareness raising program but they do not like to leave their tradition. Don't give milk, ghee, curd to postnatal women. Don't give meat for a month"(para 26). This statement was made by Dhan Bhadur Phadera, acting chief of Rugin Health Chauki (ENB-Coder Comment)
Aug. 8, 2017, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom

"Leading nutritionists employed by the Ministry of Food at the time [of World War II] were also keen to use the opportunity to improve the nutrition of pregnant women and children, who often had poorer nutrition if from poorer backgrounds. So the nutritional needs of pregnant women, babies, and children were prioritised"(68)
Aug. 8, 2017, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Norway

According to Figure 3.5, the percentage of women (aged 40-44) with a BMI greater than 30, signifying obesity, decreased from about 11% in 1965 to about 7.5% in 1985. It then increased to about 14% in 2000-20002. The percentage of men with a BMI greater than 30, signifying obesity, increased from about 5% in 1965 to about 16% in 2000-2002 (ENB-Coder Comment)
Aug. 8, 2017, 5:48 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

"Cash transfers to women in poor urban areas led to higher consumption of foods rich in protein, with a larger effect than predicted (Angelucci et al., 2012)"(62)
July 15, 2017, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1

¨Child marriage disproportionately affects women and for too many girls, an early marriage is an escape from poverty. Many families force their daughters into an early marriage so that they have one less mouth to feed, according to a report by Human Rights Watch¨(para 6)