The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CL-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 28, 2024, 6:55 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The restaurant owner knows it’s illegal to employ children, but they work for less than half of what she would pay an adult and she knows that without a job they will go hungry. There’s no shortage of children willing to work, but she’s often exasperated and threatens to sack them because at the first chance to play, they’re off. Kouffia, 13, is a quiet, shy and devoted granddaughter. 'My mother is in the village, she can’t look after me. I was still small, I don’t remember my father, but I do have memories of my village. I begin my day at sunrise sweeping the yard, I help prepare the...more
Jan. 16, 2024, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

“Available evidence (Botswana AIDS Impact Survey I, II, III and IV) shows that more women and girls…shoulder the heavy burden of care and support of people living with HIV (PLHIV)” (19). "The majority of rural women do not have a partner supporting them with the day-to-day management of the household nor contributing financially to children growth and development. This traditional family construct contributes to the overrepresentation of women among poor rural households” (35). "Access to water remains a challenge for rural women in Botswana. Although the rights of access to land generally include access to surface water resources, subject to existing rights, women’s plots tend to be far from water...more
Nov. 21, 2023, 5:44 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The ACTU noted Australia currently had one of the lowest-paid parental leave schemes in the world and poor levels of shared parenting, leaving women unfairly carrying the burden of caring for children" (para. 13). This expansion of paid parental leave indicates prior societal expectations that women perform unpaid caring labor (MD - CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 3, 2023, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

“When Yuna turned up for her first day at work, as a clerk at a major bank, she was not expecting the tasks she would be assigned. First was to make lunch for her team. Later, she was ordered to take the hand towels from the men's toilet home and wash them. These jobs fell to her, she was told, as the newest female member of staff. At first she politely refused. Could the men not take their own towels home to wash, she asked her boss, but he replied incredulously: 'How can you expect men to wash towels?'” (para 1-2). “What tipped her over the edge was not just...more
Oct. 15, 2023, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Pretending to lever maintenance for children from absent fathers to give to mothers, it fails again and again. There is a deep political, cultural and legal bias that lets fathers get away with it. It’s the same women-are-to-blame instinct that tilts the benefit system" (para 3). Women are expected to care for children without monetary contributions from the father (ET - CODER COMMENT). "From the National Audit Office today comes yet another report on the CMS’s abysmal performance. The audit office gets more complaints on this 'than any other single issue'. Hardly surprising, when only a third of mothers receive full maintenance and just 56% have any maintenance arrangements in...more
Oct. 10, 2023, 3:49 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

“'Before this legislation, too often, when a pregnant worker needed a minor change in workplace duties or policies because of pregnancy, she was forced to take unpaid leave or be pushed out of work entirely—at a moment when she and her family could least afford it'" (para 6). Because of pregnancy, women are uniquely expected to care for children without working (ET - CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 30, 2023, 4 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee commends the State party for favouring the involvement of fathers in childcare, including through the promotion of paternity leave. However, it is concerned about the following: Discriminatory gender stereotypes limit women’s roles to domestic work and childcare, undermining the empowerment of women in the economic, social and political spheres" (p.7). "The Committee welcomes the progress made by the State party in promoting access for women to employment. It also notes that discrimination in the workplace is prohibited under article 6 (2) of the Labour Code. However, the Committee is concerned that the following factors impede the full achievement of equality at work: (c) The restriction of women’s rights...more
Sept. 18, 2023, 2 a.m.
Countries: Bhutan

"Also of concern is the burden on women as caretakers and unpaid workers in the home, which may hinder or entirely preclude professional development. In the case of divorce, Bhutanese law grants custody of children under nine years old to the mother, a statute that may further ingrain the stereotype of women as primary caregivers. A 2001 study found that, in rural areas, women were responsible for cooking, washing clothes, and preserving food for over 80 percent of households; urban regions presented an even starker figure, with more than 90 percent of households leaving cooking, cleaning, washing and food purchasing to women. These time-consuming tasks undeniably present a barrier to...more
Sept. 18, 2023, 2 a.m.
Countries: Bhutan

"Also of concern is the burden on women as caretakers and unpaid workers in the home, which may hinder or entirely preclude professional development. In the case of divorce, Bhutanese law grants custody of children under nine years old to the mother, a statute that may further ingrain the stereotype of women as primary caregivers. A 2001 study found that, in rural areas, women were responsible for cooking, washing clothes, and preserving food for over 80 percent of households; urban regions presented an even starker figure, with more than 90 percent of households leaving cooking, cleaning, washing and food purchasing to women. These time-consuming tasks undeniably present a barrier to...more
Sept. 12, 2023, 11:48 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

" 'The Communist Party aggressively perpetuates traditional gender norms and reduces women to their roles as reproductive tools for the state, dutiful wives, mothers and baby breeders in the home,' Leta Hong Fincher, a Hong Kong-American writer, wrote in the Washington Post" (para 8). " 'The gender stereotypes or the historical traditional norms are still there today very much,' Valarie Tan, an analyst at the Mercator Institute for China Studies in Germany, told Al Jazeera. 'I would say even more so under Xi Jinping, the expectation is that women eventually have to get married, they have to take care of the children, grow old and take care of grandchildren,' Tan...more
Aug. 24, 2023, 1:08 a.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[T]extbooks [contain] discriminatory stereotypes about the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society" (5). Females are culturally required to stay in the home (MV-coder comment). "[G]ender stereotypes are [persistent and] a root cause of the assignment of a disproportionate burden of unpaid domestic work, child-raising and care of family members to women and the insufficient maternity leave afforded to women, thereby limiting their access to the labour market;" (9). "[T]he equal sharing of family and domestic responsibilities between mothers and fathers [is not promoted]" (10). "[R]ural women continue to carry a disproportionate burden of unpaid care work compared with rural men" (12).more
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation the various initiatives aimed at promoting the economic empowerment of women. It is concerned, however, about: (c) The disproportionate burden of unpaid work carried by women, limiting their professional opportunities" (13).
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[The state does not] promot[e] the equal sharing of domestic and family responsibilities between women and men, providing sufficient and adequate childcare facilities and providing parental leave for fathers" (12). Women are expected to provide unpaid caring labor while men join the formal employment sector (MV- coder comment).
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"In addition to the social norms which shape girls’ educational focus and which direct the labour force engagement, unpaid care work in the home remains the key challenge to women’s full and robust labour force participation. Women spend on average six hours a day on unpaid care work in the home, as compared to men who spend 3 hours a day on average. Women’s overall monthly earnings are MVR 7,510 (approximately USD$487) as compared to MVR 11,977(approximately USD$776) for men. For many women in Male, and on the islands, day care is either unavailable or unaffordable. In a country where extended families living in a household is common, the lack...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the amount of unpaid work of women increased, women were more vulnerable in the labour market and with lower earnings than men" (21). "In terms of unpaid work (domestic work, child care, care of the elderly and the sick), the total female population was incomparably more burdened than men – research shows that women worked 92 per cent more than men in the field of unpaid care and domestic work. At the end of 2018, women’s contribution to the GDP of Montenegro stood at 43.71 per cent, while the GDP per capita disaggregated by sex is 6,496 EUR for women and 8,571 EUR for men"...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“Indeed, Bulgarian women still bear most of responsibility of care for family and dependents, limiting their time for labour market activities. Coincidentally, they are more likely to start a home-based business and to work part-time. Women often have more limited access to critical resources, support, and information needed to successfully start and manage a new business than men. Generally, they have more limited personal financial assets than men leading to a higher need for external funding to exploit a business opportunity all else equal. While access to financing at all stages of business development for women entrepreneurs is essential, women moving from micro businesses to small and medium-sized businesses face...more
Feb. 18, 2023, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: South Korea

"Women in South Korea are highly educated, yet far from equal in the workplace. The country has the highest gender pay gap of any rich country. Most of the housework and childcare in South Korea still falls to women and it is common for women to stop work after having children or for their careers to stagnate" (Para.14).
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women]…remains concerned about…[t]he concentration of women in the informal economy (64 per cent), often in exploitative conditions and without access to labour and social protection, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic" (10). "The Committee notes with concern…[t]he disproportionate share of unpaid domestic and care work carried by women" (13).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The state party welcomes the recommendation and is consulting with relevant stakeholders to assess whether the Convention is in harmony with our domestic Laws. In an effort to protect and promote the rights of domestic workers the Government in October 2018, introduced the wage order for setting minimum wages and supplementary minimum conditions for domestic workers. Furthermore, in terms of the new regulations of 2017, employers of domestic workers are now required to register them for Social security benefits." (17) (NF - CODER COMMENT - Since domestic workers are predominantly women, it goes to show that prior to this change, society expected them to do this work for free).more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned at the persistence of discriminatory stereotypes concerning the responsibility of women for childcare, which ultimately reduces their career prospects in the labour market" (5). "The Committee notes that non-citizens applying for Austrian citizenship must have proof of a 'sufficiently secured livelihood' far above the indicative national rates of guaranteed minimum income, among other requirements. It is concerned that the threshold requirement has a structurally discriminatory effect on women, given that only their own income and legal claims to maintenance, child allowance and insurance benefits can be taken into consideration for that purpose, thereby not taking into consideration unpaid work performed by them, such as childcare, housework...more
Jan. 13, 2023, 7:19 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[F]emale public-sector workers were barred from government work and told to stay at home" (para 1).
Jan. 12, 2023, 10:12 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"As the population grows older, typically the duty of care falls on family members, as the nation doesn’t necessarily have the resources to provide aged care services to such a large demographic. However, many people either don’t have regular contact with their family, or have no family at all (which will probably become more common as fewer and fewer Japanese people are choosing to get married and have children)" (para 4).
Dec. 26, 2022, 5:58 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom

"Mandu Reid, the leader of the Women’s Equality party, said the fall in women’s representation showed Sunak had a 'massive and deeply concerning blind spot' when it came to the fact that 'it is women who hold up our NHS, women who deliver social care and women who are overwhelmingly employed in the childcare sector which enable parents to actually go to work' " (para 7).
Dec. 26, 2022, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Sadly, some of the money wives end up becoming extremely frustrated because they consider it to be a life of hardship. A lot of them do not even enjoy any comfort during the marriage, but constantly work in the farms of their husbands" (para 12).
Dec. 17, 2022, 10:07 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela

"The selection of women as the object of persecution is not a coincidence but is based on the role that the authorities expect them to have as mothers, wives, and sisters and acquires a particular nature. These stereotypes prioritize the idea of women as a mother figure and makes them an ideal target to punish and threaten any individual perceived as opposing the authorities. At the same time, the stereotypes sexualize young women outside this role of motherhood" (para 13).
Sept. 1, 2022, 5:46 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia

"The COVID-19 crisis has demonstrated that, unfortunately, women are still more vulnerable than man when it comes to their professional and economic well-being. Two-thirds of those who lost their jobs during the crisis were women. The reasons for this can be traced down to two main factors – the still unequal role of women on the labour market (in terms of participation, likeliness of full-time employment, positions, pay, etc.) and a traditionalist culture that sees women as primary caregivers in the household" (para 20).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[I]t cannot be denied that limits for women in fulfilling its [sic] maximum economic potential still exist.This is due to discriminatory practices rooted from traditional stereotypes such as many women work in the 'feminine' and informal sector with low pay, or various responsibilities borne by women in unpaid care work which often prohibits women from working full time" (30).
June 10, 2022, 1:22 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"During the global COVID-19 pandemic, women have carried much of the unpaid emotional and domestic burden of caring for their families and communities, often simultaneously holding down paid jobs, many on reduced hours or salaries" (Para. 1). "Mirroring these trends, women in Aotearoa New Zealand faced greater economic, social and health challenges than men..." (Para. 3). "In Aotearoa New Zealand, the 2021 Wellbeing Budget sought to “support into employment those most affected by COVID-19, including women”. But the focus on male-dominated industries (such as construction and roading), and lack of initiatives aimed at women as primary carers, meant this was largely a missed opportunity" (Para. 8). "While this general lack...more
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname

"Women fulfil many crucial roles as farmers, wage labourers and small scale entrepreneurs, as well as caretakers of children and the elderly and are therefore capable to lift their households and communities out of poverty. However, women still face persistent gender inequities that limit their access to land, credit, decent incomes, technologies, information, advisory services and training" (39).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, inequalities remain and may widen, if considering...the persistence of gender stereotypes and an unequal share of family responsibilities" (6). "It has been estimated that in Italy there are six million women being inactive, namely those having renounced to look for a job due to their role in the family – since the family care remains a 'private affairs' to be often demanded to women. The low burdensharing between men and women in the family care entails that, in terms of weekly working hours, women work 7 hours and 26 minutes, per day, including Sundays, to be shared between home and office. If comparing this figure to other EU countries,...more