The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CL-PRACTICE-1

March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the amount of unpaid work of women increased, women were more vulnerable in the labour market and with lower earnings than men" (21). "In terms of unpaid work (domestic work, child care, care of the elderly and the sick), the total female population was incomparably more burdened than men – research shows that women worked 92 per cent more than men in the field of unpaid care and domestic work. At the end of 2018, women’s contribution to the GDP of Montenegro stood at 43.71 per cent, while the GDP per capita disaggregated by sex is 6,496 EUR for women and 8,571 EUR for men"...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“Indeed, Bulgarian women still bear most of responsibility of care for family and dependents, limiting their time for labour market activities. Coincidentally, they are more likely to start a home-based business and to work part-time. Women often have more limited access to critical resources, support, and information needed to successfully start and manage a new business than men. Generally, they have more limited personal financial assets than men leading to a higher need for external funding to exploit a business opportunity all else equal. While access to financing at all stages of business development for women entrepreneurs is essential, women moving from micro businesses to small and medium-sized businesses face...more
Feb. 18, 2023, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: South Korea

"Women in South Korea are highly educated, yet far from equal in the workplace. The country has the highest gender pay gap of any rich country. Most of the housework and childcare in South Korea still falls to women and it is common for women to stop work after having children or for their careers to stagnate" (Para.14).
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women]…remains concerned about…[t]he concentration of women in the informal economy (64 per cent), often in exploitative conditions and without access to labour and social protection, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic" (10). "The Committee notes with concern…[t]he disproportionate share of unpaid domestic and care work carried by women" (13).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The state party welcomes the recommendation and is consulting with relevant stakeholders to assess whether the Convention is in harmony with our domestic Laws. In an effort to protect and promote the rights of domestic workers the Government in October 2018, introduced the wage order for setting minimum wages and supplementary minimum conditions for domestic workers. Furthermore, in terms of the new regulations of 2017, employers of domestic workers are now required to register them for Social security benefits." (17) (NF - CODER COMMENT - Since domestic workers are predominantly women, it goes to show that prior to this change, society expected them to do this work for free).more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned at the persistence of discriminatory stereotypes concerning the responsibility of women for childcare, which ultimately reduces their career prospects in the labour market" (5). "The Committee notes that non-citizens applying for Austrian citizenship must have proof of a 'sufficiently secured livelihood' far above the indicative national rates of guaranteed minimum income, among other requirements. It is concerned that the threshold requirement has a structurally discriminatory effect on women, given that only their own income and legal claims to maintenance, child allowance and insurance benefits can be taken into consideration for that purpose, thereby not taking into consideration unpaid work performed by them, such as childcare, housework...more
Jan. 13, 2023, 7:19 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[F]emale public-sector workers were barred from government work and told to stay at home" (para 1).
Jan. 12, 2023, 10:12 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"As the population grows older, typically the duty of care falls on family members, as the nation doesn’t necessarily have the resources to provide aged care services to such a large demographic. However, many people either don’t have regular contact with their family, or have no family at all (which will probably become more common as fewer and fewer Japanese people are choosing to get married and have children)" (para 4).
Dec. 26, 2022, 5:58 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom

"Mandu Reid, the leader of the Women’s Equality party, said the fall in women’s representation showed Sunak had a 'massive and deeply concerning blind spot' when it came to the fact that 'it is women who hold up our NHS, women who deliver social care and women who are overwhelmingly employed in the childcare sector which enable parents to actually go to work' " (para 7).
Dec. 26, 2022, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Sadly, some of the money wives end up becoming extremely frustrated because they consider it to be a life of hardship. A lot of them do not even enjoy any comfort during the marriage, but constantly work in the farms of their husbands" (para 12).
Dec. 17, 2022, 10:07 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela

"The selection of women as the object of persecution is not a coincidence but is based on the role that the authorities expect them to have as mothers, wives, and sisters and acquires a particular nature. These stereotypes prioritize the idea of women as a mother figure and makes them an ideal target to punish and threaten any individual perceived as opposing the authorities. At the same time, the stereotypes sexualize young women outside this role of motherhood" (para 13).
Sept. 1, 2022, 5:46 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia

"The COVID-19 crisis has demonstrated that, unfortunately, women are still more vulnerable than man when it comes to their professional and economic well-being. Two-thirds of those who lost their jobs during the crisis were women. The reasons for this can be traced down to two main factors – the still unequal role of women on the labour market (in terms of participation, likeliness of full-time employment, positions, pay, etc.) and a traditionalist culture that sees women as primary caregivers in the household" (para 20).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[I]t cannot be denied that limits for women in fulfilling its [sic] maximum economic potential still exist.This is due to discriminatory practices rooted from traditional stereotypes such as many women work in the 'feminine' and informal sector with low pay, or various responsibilities borne by women in unpaid care work which often prohibits women from working full time" (30).
June 10, 2022, 1:22 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"During the global COVID-19 pandemic, women have carried much of the unpaid emotional and domestic burden of caring for their families and communities, often simultaneously holding down paid jobs, many on reduced hours or salaries" (Para. 1). "Mirroring these trends, women in Aotearoa New Zealand faced greater economic, social and health challenges than men..." (Para. 3). "In Aotearoa New Zealand, the 2021 Wellbeing Budget sought to “support into employment those most affected by COVID-19, including women”. But the focus on male-dominated industries (such as construction and roading), and lack of initiatives aimed at women as primary carers, meant this was largely a missed opportunity" (Para. 8). "While this general lack...more
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname

"Women fulfil many crucial roles as farmers, wage labourers and small scale entrepreneurs, as well as caretakers of children and the elderly and are therefore capable to lift their households and communities out of poverty. However, women still face persistent gender inequities that limit their access to land, credit, decent incomes, technologies, information, advisory services and training" (39).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, inequalities remain and may widen, if considering...the persistence of gender stereotypes and an unequal share of family responsibilities" (6). "It has been estimated that in Italy there are six million women being inactive, namely those having renounced to look for a job due to their role in the family – since the family care remains a 'private affairs' to be often demanded to women. The low burdensharing between men and women in the family care entails that, in terms of weekly working hours, women work 7 hours and 26 minutes, per day, including Sundays, to be shared between home and office. If comparing this figure to other EU countries,...more
Jan. 14, 2022, 6:24 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"In November the Latin American Public Opinion Project published findings that 66 percent of Dominicans believed a woman’s children suffer when she works outside of the home" (18).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Yes, the society does expect specifically women to perform unpaid volunteer work or caring labor in order for the society to function well. It is a given for a mother to stay home and care for the children while the man works outside of the home" (1).
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee recommends that the State party...Quantify and include the unremunerated domestic activities of women in gross national product" (16).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"KINU reported that discrimination against women emerged in the form of differentiated pay scales, promotions, and types of work assigned to women, in addition to responsibility for the double burden of labor and housework, especially considering the time and effort required to secure food" (20). This indicates that, in practice, women are expected and relied upon to secure food and perform other caring labors (SFR-CODER COMMENT).
July 9, 2021, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"South Korea has a shiny side that it wants to proudly show the world: K-pop, K-quarantine during COVID-19, hi-tech industries. But what it is less keen to show are the areas where it catastrophically fails. South Korean society does not know how to protect or treat women as equals to men and as valuable and indispensable entities of society. Rather, South Korean women, myself included, live in a country that views women as objects —beautiful things whose sole function is bearing children. This is not just a societal construct, this is unabashed discrimination against women that is encouraged by my government. For example, in January 2021, the Seoul city government...more
June 29, 2021, 4 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Palestinian society generally assigns women to household work and bringing up children. There are some groups, including women, who believe that the proper place for women is in the house, cleaning, taking care of children and preparing food" (para 5).
May 31, 2021, 5:31 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Swiss Trade Union Federation, which helped to organize the protests, said the coronavirus pandemic had shone a light on the lack of progress in improving equality, working conditions and recognition of unpaid domestic work. '(The pandemic) has in fact drawn attention to the kind of work that is very often carried out by women',' the federation wrote on its website" (para 4-5). "'This has finally been recognized as 'being systemically important,' but apart from rounds of applause on balconies nothing has been done'" (para 6).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, inequalities remain and may widen, if considering...the persistence of gender stereotypes and an unequal share of family responsibilities" (6). "It has been estimated that in Italy there are six million women being inactive, namely those having renounced to look for a job due to their role in the family – since the family care remains a 'private affairs' to be often demanded to women. The low burdensharing between men and women in the family care entails that, in terms of weekly working hours, women work 7 hours and 26 minutes, per day, including Sundays, to be shared between home and office. If comparing this figure to other EU countries,...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"And Ms. Hojo, like many women in Japan, cannot accept a full-time job even after Mr. Abe pushed through a law intended to ease Japan’s brutal work culture. Because she shoulders the bulk of housework and child care, the hours at work would be too demanding" (para 4). "But many women still struggle to find adequate child care, even after Mr. Abe promised to eliminate waiting lists for public day-care centers by 2020. As of earlier this year, there were still nearly 12,500 children on waiting lists, even as the number of babies born in Japan fell to the lowest level in close to a century and a half" (para...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Not only are punishingly long hours common in Japan, but so are long stretches working out of town, which often leaves women alone at home" (para 31).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:26 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Clean water is also a major issue—many citizens, usually women and children, must walk five or more miles in search of drinking water. The task often keeps children, particularly girls, out of school" (para 11).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"'The new amendment will push millions of innocent children into forced labour and deprive them of education and a normal childhood,' Rakesh Slenger of Bachpan Bachao Andolan told IPS. 'The girl child will be particularly disadvantaged as she will be denied education while being stuck with all the household work' (para 9).
Jan. 1, 2021, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

“Community colleges present an attractive option for mothers of young children, in part because they offer flexible schedules and low tuition. Unfortunately, limited access to child care disrupts the educational path of many mothers. Although more mothers enroll in community colleges than in four-year institutions, fewer than half of all community college offer on-campus child care, and available slots do not typically meet student demand. Student parent consistently cite child care responsibilities as a chief reason for dropping out of community college before completing a degree or certificate. Supporting the educational and professional success of mothers must include increasing the availability of affordable child care. Fortunately, some community college are...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Spain

"The overrepresentation of women in low-paying industries, the imbalanced care burden placed on women, discrimination, and lack of female representation in executive positions all contribute to the pay gap" (para 11).