The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CL-PRACTICE-2

March 14, 2022, 6:52 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Although daughters represent the largest share of caregivers, the difference in share between daughters and sons with respect to the provision of money is smaller than the difference with respect to services and things. In general, for services and things daughters play a larger role than sons do" (126).
March 14, 2022, 6:52 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"When one looks at the distribution of caregivers...daughters are principle contributors of money, services and things in [Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico]" (126).
March 14, 2022, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"...caregivers in Argentina who live within the household and provide money are more likely to be married males around 52 years of age, with more education and higher employment status than individuals who are not providing money. Providers of services within the household are more likely to be unemployed females and older than those who do not provide services" (124).
March 14, 2022, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"...female relatives benefit from the largest share of elderly contributions...in Argentina, they receive the largest share of money and services…Overall, females are the main beneficiaries of elderly provision of money, services, things and childcare" (126-127).
March 14, 2022, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Among providers of money within the household, females are younger, better educated and less likely to be married than males who provide money. Female providers of services and things within the household are more likely to be outside the labour force than males who provide the same services" (124).
March 14, 2022, 6:45 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Regarding siblings who provide services or things to the elderly, caregivers are more likely to be females who live in the same neighborhood or city as their brother or sister. Among sibling providers of money, services and things, males are more likely to be married than females" (124).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The phenomenon of postponing the age of marriage, and of having children increases the number of families where children are present simultaneously with the elderly so that the couple has to work harder...When the elderly are no longer able to care for themselves, the family’s income is put to the test. Nursing homes are quantitatively inadequate and expensive, and even homebased care, particularly the integrated one as delivered by local institutions is insufficient. In this area, there is thus a strong commitment of volunteers" (98).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"There are gender differences in expectations concerning who cares for the elderly or disabled parents. In almost every cases, the daughter cares for the elderly or disabled parent. A daughter is expected to take care of her of her elderly parents. In the case of marriage, if a mother has a daughter and son. The elderly mother will live with the daughter instead of the son" (1).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:17 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"The Miranda et. al. study linked its findings to the continued progress of gender revolution in Scandinavia, where women are given greater opportunities to develop their potential as actors in the public sphere. It underscored that daughters are deemed more valuable to parents in terms of socially desirable traits, including wage-earning and dutiful caring" (para 5).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The phenomenon of postponing the age of marriage, and of having children increases the number of families where children are present simultaneously with the elderly so that the couple has to work harder...When the elderly are no longer able to care for themselves, the family’s income is put to the test. Nursing homes are quantitatively inadequate and expensive, and even homebased care, particularly the integrated one as delivered by local institutions is insufficient. In this area, there is thus a strong commitment of volunteers" (98).
Dec. 23, 2020, 3:19 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The study identified that model constructed by the society determines the traits, responsibilities and parameters for a woman...The responsibilities include accomplishment of all household chores including stitching, bearing and rearing of children, care of ill and old, and participation in social and religious activities in the extended family" (para 45).
July 26, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"In Japan, women have long been deemed responsible for care-giver roles, with the male-breadwinner model assigning primary responsibility for the care of young and elderly family dependants to women" (9).
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The percentage of women who work in Japan is higher than ever, yet cultural norms have not caught up: Japanese wives and mothers are still typically expected to…help for their aging relatives, a factor that stymies many of their careers" (para 7).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2, WR-PRACTICE-2

"China has set up and improved systems of services for the elderly to ensure that elderly women’ s living conditions and quality of life are improved, and that impoverished, widowed and elderly women living alone are given special care" (para. 39).
Nov. 26, 2018, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"Women mostly served as unpaid family workers with no social protection apart from that afforded by other family members . . . According to the EU progress report, women’s access to employment was limited by general promotion of the traditional role of women and inadequate child-care services or services for older persons" (page 72).
Sept. 21, 2018, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"There has been an increase in the number and geographical spread of Omani women’s associations throughout the Sultanate’s governorates. These associations are social institutions that have a deep rooted, lively history in Omani society. Their memberships attract many women who participate effectively in promoting women’s volunteer work by participating and benefiting from the activities which the associations organize to develop the local community. As of October 2015, there are 60 such associations with 8,531 members. Women also participate in civil society organizations and other specialized associations and organizations at varying rates (see annex 6 — Women’s associations established during 2011-2015)" (Pg 10-11).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"State priority in the current PIEG is the promotion of co-responsibility in the care of children, those with disabilities and older adults. This has been seen as a need to achieve real equality within families and promote the development of all capacities of women in the public domain" (31). The fact that the state is gettting involved indicates that previously there has been problems with care being considered the main responsbility of women. Government involvement is seeking to correct this bias and make the care of children, elder, and disabled a more equtiable situation (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Quality child care is also out of reach for many families because it is not affordable. Women are the large majority of family caregivers, and in the absence of reliable family supports, too many women are forced to make difficult decisions between keeping their jobs and caring for their family members” (83)
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The Carers’ Strategy Action Plan 2014-2018 formally recognizes that both the family carer and the person they support have rights and needs, and that at times these may not be the same. The Carers’ Strategy Action Plan 2014-2018 aims to balance the interests and rights of the family carer with the interests and rights of the person they support. Women make up a significant proportion of carers" (page 7). "The aged care sector . . . has a particularly high proportion of migrant women workers" (page 8). "9 per cent of women looked after someone in their own household who was ill or had a disability, compared with 6 per...more
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Women undertake a disproportionate level of caring responsibility for children, the elderly, and people with disability. They comprise 92 per cent of primary carers for children with disability, 70 per cent of primary carers for parents, and around half (52 per cent) of the primary carers of partners" (Pg 38).
April 4, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"That the very low investment in social welfare programmes for the poorest households and for the care work for persons with disabilities within the family has a disproportionate impact on women" (12).
March 30, 2018, 11:25 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Son is seen as the rightful heir of ancestral property; he is the one to continue the family lineage and provides support to the elderly in old age" (114). "Moreover, claim to share in ancestral property brings along the obligation to care for the aged parents. In wake of their own marriage commitments and adhering to the traditional values of society taking care of parents is considered the liability of a son, hence the share belongs exclusively to him" (115). "the patriarchal social structure attribute son's as rightful heirs to parents property as well as care takers of them during their old age" (117).
March 14, 2018, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The Committee is concerned at the persistence of adverse cultural practices and traditions and patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, especially those portraying women as caregivers. The Committee notes that such stereotypes contribute to an increase in the practices of child and/or forced marriage, abduction of girls and polygamy and hence to the disadvantaged and unequal status of women in society. The Committee urges the State party: (a) To intensify media and other efforts to educate the public and raise awareness about existing sex-based stereotypes that persist at all levels of society, with a view to...more
Feb. 28, 2018, 5:36 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"Women constitute majority of the labour force in family and commercial farms in Kenya. For example, women continue to mitigate and respond to disease challenges at the community level by providing community and home-based care. However these contributions have continued to go unrecognized due to the manner in which GDP is calculated" (30).
Feb. 23, 2018, 8:47 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"The social assistance system, both in its classical form, and in its current structure is based on a patriarchal society model, where women are paid neither for taking care of old persons, children and ill persons, nor for involvement in civic and community activities. This model, based on the idea that family income consists of both paid work and unpaid care, clearly limits the social, economic and political participation of women, who are mainly providers of unpaid care" (Pg 38-39).
Feb. 14, 2018, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"[women] stay inside longer and shoulder the responsibility for caring for children and the elderly" (61).
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"An equal distribution of unpaid care and household work. Women and men are to take the same responsibility for household work and have the same opportunities to give and receive care on equal terms" (page 4). "The Dignity Reform, which was introduced in 2010, has strengthened the position of the individual by demanding that the interventions offered shall give older people the opportunity of living a dignified life. The requirement in Chapter 5, Section 10 of the Social Services Act that municipalities shall support relatives and close friends, gives women in particular a stronger position and less risk of being left alone with an extensive care commitment. The right introduced...more
Dec. 7, 2017, 7:40 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"The labor that keeps the women in the Niger Delta busy tends to be care work—looking after children, the elderly, the ill—as well as cooking and cleaning"(para 3)."Female farmers, fishers and herbalists of riverine villages relied on fresh water not only for their businesses and livelihoods, but also to perform daily tasks. Take something as simple as doing laundry. Women who previously washed clothes by the river now have to collect rainwater in buckets to do their washing, stretching this task several hours. In other words, instead of spending time doing work that could earn them money or going to school, or participating in a job training program, women now...more
Nov. 30, 2017, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2

"Tens of thousands of women over 50 are being left on the jobless scrapheap years before retirement because they are forced to care for elderly, sick or disabled people in their family" (para 1). "Almost one in four women aged between 50-64 care for elderly, sick or disabled people – with some 153,000 women approaching retirement claiming Carers Allowance – compared to just 87,000 men" (para 5).
Aug. 9, 2017, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2, IAD-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-3

"Son you should focus on your studies instead of wasting your time playing on your phone at all times. You need to study hard! After all, you will be the one who shall take care of us when we are old and eventually inherit our property". The father tells his son this at 0:01. He also has a daughter (ENB-Coder Comment)