The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CLCC-LAW-1

Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"[C]hildren born in the country to non-Bahamian parents, to an unwed Bahamian father and a non-Bahamian mother, or outside the country to a Bahamian mother and a non-Bahamian father do not acquire citizenship at birth… Under the constitution, Bahamian-born persons of foreign heritage must apply for citizenship during a 12-month window following their 18th birthday" (9). "Women with foreign-born spouses do not have the same right as men to transmit citizenship to their spouses or children (see section 2.g., Stateless Persons)" (12).
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-1

"The Committee notes the adoption of Law No. 2013-654 of 13 September 2013 amending articles 12, 13, 14 and 16 of Law No. 61-415 of 14 December 1961 on the Nationality Code, which guarantees equal treatment of women and men in the acquisition of nationality. It is concerned, however, that certain provisions of the Nationality Code discriminate against women, for example, on the transfer of nationality to spouses or children in certain cases" (10). "The Committee recommends that the State party amend or repeal all remaining provisions of the Nationality Code that discriminate against women" (10).
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"[C]hildren born to foreign parents who live legally in the State party have the possibility of obtaining birth certificates, which enables them to gain access to education and health care" (10).
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Regarding the Committee’s CO around the nationality laws in order to remove discrimination against foreign women who have children with Maldivian men out of wedlock with regard to the transmission of nationality, the Government wishes to correct this CO. Maldivian women and men have full and equal rights to pass along their nationality to their children, regardless of the nationality of the other parent." (18). "Children born in the Maldives where both parents are both expatriates are not eligible for citizenship. Unless an application to acquire, the citizenship is made as per the law and regulations governing the matter." (18).
June 27, 2023, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"By law, children born to a Muslim father are Muslim, regardless of the mother’s religion" (30).
June 20, 2023, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Article 16 of the Constitution provides that that any son or daughter of a Nicaraguan father or mother, whether or not they were born on national soil, is a national of Nicaragua. It also sets forth the right to retain one’s nationality, establishing that no one may be deprived of it, even if they decide to acquire another nationality, since the holding of multiple nationalities is permitted. Foreign individuals can become naturalized citizens if they meet the legal requirements. Nicaragua protects the right to form a family either by marriage or by stable de facto union; once a bond is established, no acquired rights, including nationality, may be renounced." (18)....more
April 1, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Pursuant to the Act, neither the marriage of a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan to a person of foreign nationality or to a stateless person, nor the dissolution of such a marriage entails any change in the citizenship of the spouses. A change in the citizenship of one spouse does not entail any change in the citizenship of the other spouse. The residence of a citizen abroad does not entail termination of Uzbek citizenship." (22). "The acquisition of citizenship is conditional upon: (a) the renunciation of foreign citizenship; (b) continuous residence in the Republic of Uzbekistan over the previous five years (this rule does not apply to persons wishing...more
March 31, 2023, 2:31 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"[C]itizenship is a right held by anyone born to an Egyptian father or mother in accordance with article 6 of the Constitution and Act No. 154 of 2004" (9).
March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-1

"Article 33 of the Constitution and the Ethiopian Nationality Proclamation No. 378/2003 gives any Ethiopian the right to maintain and/or changes his/her nationality. The Ethiopian law guarantees to a child born from Ethiopian parents to acquire Ethiopian nationality. In addition, women have the right to maintain their Ethiopian nationality as well as pass on their nationality to their foreigner spouses" (13).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Article 10 of the Constitution guarantees the right of all Nepali citizens to obtain citizenship. The Constitutional provisions on acquisition of citizenship are based on the principle of equality and non-discrimination. As per the Article 11(2)(b), a Nepali child whose father or mother is a citizen of Nepal at his/her birth, may acquire Nepali citizenship certificate. Therefore, the Constitution empowers Nepali women to transfer citizenship to their children. Likewise, Article 11(7) mentions that in the case of a person born from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and married to a foreign citizen, the person may acquire the naturalized citizenship of Nepal in accordance with the Federal law...more
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] recommends that the State party...[e]nsure that girls and boys born on the territory of the State party are registered at birth and have access to Kyrgyz nationality and identity documents, regardless of their parents' consent or nationality, residence or marital status, and that loss or renunciation of nationality is contingent on the possession or acquistion of another nationality" (9).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"The right to nationality is a constitutional right. The state party through the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration has an e-birth system in place which allows for timely birth registrations. The system is accessible in all district Hospitals." (13). "The right to nationality is a constitutionally guaranteed right. The Constitution and relevant legislation provides for procedures to apply for citizenship. The acquisition and loss of citizenship under the Namibian laws is gender neutral. Article 4 provides that: (1) The following persons shall be citizens of Namibia by birth: (a) those born in Namibia before the date of Independence whose fathers or mothers would have been Namibian citizens at the...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 8:40 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"[W]hile Iraqi men can transmit their nationality to their children born outside the State party on the basis of descent, article 4 establishes that Iraqi women may transmit their nationality to their children born outside the State party only if the father is unknown or stateless" (9). "[T]he transfer of nationality by the mother is possible only if the marriage has been duly registered, which discriminates against children born out of wedlock, children of Iraqi women who are married to a foreign national and children born of forced marriages to combatants or informal marriages, and renders them stateless" (9). "[C]hildren whose fathers are ISIL members or who are born following...more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that, under the special provision for bestowal of nationality to children born stateless in Austria (article 14 of the Austrian Nationality Law), stateless children can apply for citizenship only after reaching 18 years of age and not later than two years after having reached the age of majority. The Committee recommends that the State party:... (b) Remove barriers to the acquisition of Austrian nationality by children born out of wedlock, including the restrictive age requirement, and accord Austrian citizenship to otherwise stateless children born in the State party, unless a child can acquire citizenship of one of his or her parents immediately after birth through...more
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"No distinction is made between men and women as far as the acquisition and transmission of nationality is concerned. The laws of the Republic of Djibouti are therefore in full compliance with the Convention. Article 9 of the Nationality Code stipulates that “a child born of unknown parents in the Republic of Djibouti is a Djiboutian. A child born of a Djiboutian mother in the Republic of Djibouti but whose father is unknown is also Djiboutian.” Pursuant to this article, a mother therefore transfers her nationality or citizenship to her child, even if the child’s father is unknown" (18-19).
June 29, 2022, 11:33 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"The Committee, however, remains concerned that article 41 of Law No. 12/2006 on citizenship of the Republic of Indonesia excludes children who were born to an Indonesian and a non-Indonesian parent before 2006 from obtaining Indonesian nationality... The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that Indonesian nationality is conferred to children born to an Indonesian and a non-Indonesian parent before 2006, with a view to preventing statelessness" (10).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-1

"The Danish rules of nationality contain no provisions relating to the automatic loss of nationality upon marriage or in the situation where the spouse changes nationality. Furthermore, it makes no distinction between women and men with regard to loss of Danish nationality. A child will acquire Danish nationality if born to a Danish father, a Danish mother or a Danish co-mother" (17).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"The 2014 amendment of the Law on Regulation of the Surinamese Nationality and Residency also changed the situation with regard to the nationality of children. According to the 1975 law (as last amended in 2002), the child of a Surinamese woman born out of wedlock and not recognized by the father only acquired Surinamese nationality if that child was born in Suriname (Article 3(c)), and would otherwise be stateless (Article 4(b)), whilst the child of a Surinamese man acquired Surinamese nationality regardless of its place of birth (Article 3(a)). These provisions were in violation of CEDAW, Article 9 (2)" (22). "According to the July 2014 law, a child is now...more
May 12, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"The law provides citizenship for all persons born in the country, but parents of children born in remote areas sometimes had difficulty obtaining birth registration certificates" (13).
March 28, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship derives from one’s parents. Only one parent must be a citizen to transmit nationality to a child" (13).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Children derive citizenship from one or both parents" (31). The ability to derive citizenship from either parent implies that in dual citizenship relationships, the child will have Armenian citizenship (SFR-CODER COMMENT).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Informal estimates suggested 20,000 to 100,000 Bidoon, or persons without citizenship, resided in the country. Government statistics estimated the population at 10,000. Most Bidoon lacked citizenship because they did not have the preferred tribal affiliation used to determine citizenship when the country was established. Others entered the country legally or illegally in search of employment. Because children derive citizenship generally from the father, Bidoon children born within the country’s territory remained stateles. Without passports or other forms of identification, the movement of Bidoon was restricted, both within the country and internationally. In recent years the government purchased a number of passports from Comoros and issued them to Bidoon. The documents...more
March 15, 2022, 11:02 a.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship can be acquired either by birth in the country or through one’s parents. The government registered all births promptly" (12).
March 10, 2022, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived exclusively from the father. A citizen mother married to a noncitizen father cannot transmit Lebanese citizenship to her children" (18). "Citizenship is derived exclusively from the father, resulting in statelessness for children of a citizen mother and a noncitizen father when registration under the father’s nationality is not possible. This discrimination in the nationality law particularly affected Palestinians and increasingly Syrians from female-headed households" (25). "UNRWA registered refugees or Lebanese citizen women... could not transmit refugee status or citizenship to their husbands or children" (27). "Nationality law also discriminates against women, who may not confer citizenship to their spouses and children, although widows may confer citizenship to...more
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived either by birth within the country’s territory or from one’s parents. The state grants a national identification number upon birth, which is essential to access most public and many private services. Government representatives and NGOs assessed that undocumented citizens were particularly vulnerable to labor exploitation, human trafficking, and crime" (15).
March 4, 2022, 6:57 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived both from birth within the country and through one’s parents. Parents generally registered births promptly" (16).
Feb. 28, 2022, 3:29 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"A child born in the UK receives the country’s citizenship at birth if one of the parents is a UK citizen or a legally settled resident. Children born in Northern Ireland may opt for UK, Irish, or dual citizenship. A child born in an overseas territory is a UK overseas territories citizen if at least one of the child’s parents has citizenship"(15).
Feb. 24, 2022, 10:11 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived by birth within the country’s territory in most cases. Most births were registered immediately. If a birth is not registered within one month, parents may be fined and denied public services" (25).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Nationality derives from birth within the country’s territory, from birth to government employees in service abroad, or from birth to a citizen residing temporarily outside the country. Hospitals immediately register births, but registration was difficult for many parents of children born in rural areas and in indigenous communities with limited access to health-care facilities. Birth certificates and national identity documents are a prerequisite to access government services, including obtaining a passport" (15).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Children derive citizenship by birth from at least one citizen parent" (24).